25 Orissa Review * January – 2006 The 42nd amendment came into force on December 18,1976. The preamble as amended runs as follows : “We, the people of India having solemnly resolved to Constitute India into a Soverign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic and to secure all its citizens” Justice-social, economic and political, equality of states and opportunity and to promote among them all, Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation. In our constituent Assembly the twenty sixth day of November, 1949 also hereby adopt, enact and give ourselves this constitution fundamental uties. Fundamental duties were added for the first time in the constitution as : (a) To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institution the National Flag and the National anthem. (b) To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom. (c) To up-hold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India. (d) To defend the country and render National service when called upon to do so.
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(e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional iversities. To renounce practice derogatory to the dignity of women. Anti-National activities defined and antinational associations are to be banned. In the amendment anti-national activity in relations to individual or association was defined as follows : (i) Which is intended or which supports any claim to bring about, or any ground whats the cession of a part of the territory of India or which invites any individual or association to bring about such cession or secession, (ii) Which disclaims and threatens, disputes or intends to threaten or disrupt the sovereignity and integrity of India on the ecurity of the State or the unity of the nation. (iii) Which is intended or intending to create internal disturbance or the disruption of public services. (iv) Which is intended to threaten or disrupt harmony between different religious, racial, language or rational grounds of castes and communities National Integration and Communal Harmony T. K. Mohanty 26 Orissa Review * January – 2006 In order to strengthen the National Integration, Guru Nanak (1464-1534), Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1947) & Santha Vinoba (1885- 1982) and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad’s contribution is rich and memorable. Five hundred ears ago, Guru Nanak was using the word, “Hindustan” in all his writtings. He propagated emotional integration. Like today’s peace march and Sadbhabana Yatra, Nanak had toured in the east Burma, presently Miyanmar, Srilanka and Southeren India and Himalayas and Manasarovar. Later he travelled to Mecca and Baghdad. Santha Kabir (1440-1518) and Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramahansa (1836- 1881) were saying God is one-Allah is Ram, Rahim, Krishna and Karim. God is the goldsmith who is preparing ornaments of different qualities and sizes are upto his choice who receives volition n the form of pooja, namaj and Prayer. Rama Krishna Paramhansa said, all religions are the paths that leads to God. Swami Vivekananda’s message “Why so much commotion, war, controversy and blood shed is going on in the name of God ? Those who have not felt the true spirit of religions should not talk in vain about God. It is better to be an atheist than becoming a hipocrat who does not owe or into any idea about God. The American born, sister Nivedita (1867- 1911) the ardent disciple of Swami Vivekananda had aptly said, “Each Indian for ten minutes in the evening should think that we Indians are one and e will not renonunce the spirit of unity. ” Orissa’s harmonious culture : The culture, religion, centuries of myths, legend and history have all blended into a grand composite culture around Lord Jagannath, the Lord of the Universe. One of the most revered and ancient of the deities of Hindus. Some scholars think that, the three main images of Jagannath, Balabhadra and (f) Anti National association means an association (i) Which has for its object any anti-national activity. (ii) Which encourages or aids person to undertake any anti-national activity. (iii) The members whereof under take or ngage in any anti-national activity. If we want to preserve or keep intact the national integration of the country, we should curb the ugly head of anti integration for us. It is Urdu poet Iqbal who has aptly said “Sare Jahanse Achha Ea Hindustan Hamara, Hum Bulbul hain iski ye gulsitaan Hamara. ” There is no better land than Hindustan. Mahatma Gandhi said, “Let us forget all thoughts of, I am a Hindu, you a Muslim or I am a Gujurati, you a Madrasi, let us think, I and mine in a common Indian nationality, we shall be free only when a large number of our people are determined to swim or sink together. Adi Sankaracharya had brought emotional integration to India by establishing mathas monasteries in four corners of India. The first pitha was Gobardhan pitha in the eastern region (Jagannath Dham Puri, Orissa); second is “Saradha Pitha” Dwarika (Gujurat) western corner; the third is Jyotirmayi (Badrika Ashram) northern zone and Srungeri pitha, southern zone is the fourth Pitha. The communal harmony between Hindus and Muslims is of 1200 years old. the eminent court poet of Sultan Balban ‘Amir Khusro’ had defended the cause of building monument in India in order to bring communal harmony between
Hindus and Muslims. During the reign of all Mughal rulers, Rakhya Bandhan (Rakhi), Dussera, Diwali, Shivaratri and Basant Panchami were celebrated with geity. 27 Orissa Review * January – 2006 Subhadra represents the jains. Trinity of Samyaka Jnana, samyaka charitra and samyaka acharana. Many others said that three images represents the Buddhist unit of Sangha and dharma. Jagannath cult is the synthesis of all religions and philosophy of Lord Jagannath thus defies all definition and is yet comprehensive enough to perceive unity among beliefs of all sects and castes. His three ardent devotees were Jabana (Muslim) y caste Bhakta Salabega, the untouchable Dasia Bauri and Hadi Das. Information & Public Relations Department’s role in promoting communal harmony. I & P. R. Department, Orissa organizes, meeting, seminars, symposia on National Integration and promotes communal harmony. Special programmes, every year is organized at State, District and Sub-division level. January 30, observed as Martyr’s Day (Mahatma Gandhi’s Death Anniversary); August 20, as Sadbhabana Divas (Rajiv Gandhi’s Birth day); October 31, as National Oath taking Day (Late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s death anniversary).
Mass oath-taking functions are organized in all State Departments, district level and Subdivisional offices of the State to abjure violence. On 2nd October Gandhi Jayanti Day “Ramdhun” is played by I & P. R. Department starting from State Capital, across its length and breadth. In evening the favourite song of Mahatma Gandhi Baishnaba Jana To Ten Kahiye Je Pida Paparyae Janere .. along with devotional rites are performed. Sarbadharma Prarthana Sabhas are also organized in the State Capital, District Head quarters and Sub-divisional Headquarter. The Maulabis (Muslim priests), Bishops (Christian riests) and Sikh Priests, Buddhist Vikhyus and Pandits (Hindu scholars) recite same important portion of Koran, Bible, Guru Grantha Sahib, Dhammapada and Vedas. This creates emotional integration. The 19th November is celebrated as National Integration Day (Indira Gandhi’s Birth Day known as “Quami Ekata Divas” where the mass take oath to maintain the integration of the Nation and to safeguard sovereignty of India. It is also known as National Solidarity Day. A week long programme is organized at State Capital, District and Sub-divisional Headquarters. Besides this, regular articles are contributed y eminent scholars to the State journal known as Utkal Prasanga and Orissa Review on how to promote national harmony and on secular cult, which is the mouth piece of the State Government. Regular features on communal harmony are sent both in English and Oriya newspapers, so as to reach the message of peaceful co-existence among Hindus and minorities. Documentary films are produced regularly to spread the message of communal harmony. Government has constituted a Minority Commission under Home Department which looks in to the problems of the minorities in the State Government has also established an
Urdu Academy to promote Urdu studies in the State. Recognisation is also given to Madrasas, which are opened to cater to the Urdu language. The I & P. R. Department through its traditional method, promotes Pala and Daskathia which spread the message of communal harmony. Satyapira Upasana is also recited through this media. Besides other traditional media like Ghoda nachha and Chadheya, Chadheyani dance also spread the message of communal harmony during their performance. Tarakanta Mohanty is the Deputy Director-cum-Deputy Secretary in the Information & Public Relations Department, Govt. of Orissa, Bhubaneswar.