Nationalism in Early Modern China
From the paper:
“Nationalism has been a defining ideology in the creation of Modern China, promoted at first by a series of secret societies, and later by both the Guomingdang and the Chinese Communist Party to achieve different ends. It was central to the early student movements, and the May Fourth Movement, and nationalism was the first of Sun Yatsen’s Three Principles of the People. In its early stages, Chinese nationalism was based on ethnic and racial identity, and centered on Han identity, however over time the significance of ethnic identity has decreased.
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Foreign influence in the conceptualization of Chinese nationalism has been problematic to developing a clear understanding of the movement; despite this, nationalism developed in a particularly Chinese manner.”