Neural & Synaptic Transmission The nervous system is made up of neurons and Gila cells. Neurons are the basic communication links in the nervous system. Gila cell provide support for neurons and contribute to communication. Neurons normally transmit a neural impulse (an electric current) along an axon to a synapse with another neuron. The neural impulse is a brief change in neuron’s electrical charge that moves along an axon, It Is an all-or-none event. Action potential triggers the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters that diffuse across the synapse to communicate with other reruns.

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Transmitters bind with receptors in the posthypnotic cell membrane, causing excitatory or Inhibitory Asps. Most neurons are linked In neural pathway, circuits, and networks. In the nervous system, the neural impulse functions as a signal. For that signal to have any meaning for the system as a whole, it must be transmitted from the neuron to other cell. As noted above, this transmission takes place at special junction called Synapses, which depend on chemical messengers. To explain in another way neural impulses are electro chemical events.

When Neurons stimulated beyond threshold level, there Is a rapid shift in Its polarity from negative to positive charge. This reversal of charge, called an action potential or neural impulse, is generated along the length of the axon to the terminal buttons. When neural Impulse reaches the terminal button, It triggers the release of neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers that carry the message across the synapse to neighboring neurons. Neurotransmitters can have either excitatory or Inhibitory effect to the neurons at which they dock.

Example: The educational ND childcare reformers who have used brain science as the base for their campaigns have primarily cited to key findings: the discovery of critical period in neural development and the demonstration that rats raised In “enriched environments” have more synapses than rates raised in “impoverished environments. ” A critical period is a limited time span in the development of an organism when It Is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism Is especially responsive to certain experiences.

Classical conditioning Classical conditioning explains how

Page 2 Neural and synaptic transmission Essay

neutral stimulus can acquire the capacity to licit response originally evoked by another stimulus. This kind of conditioning was originally described by Ivan Pavlov. Many kind of everyday responses are regulated through classical conditioning, including phobias, fears, and pleasant emotional responses. Even psychological responses such as immune and sexual functioning and drug tolerance can be Influenced by classical conditioning. Conditioned response may be weakened and extinguished entirely when the CSS is no longer paired with the US.

In some case, spontaneous recovery occurs, and an extinguished response reappears after a period of non-exposure to CSS. Conditioning may generalized to additional stimuli that are similar to the original CSS. The opposite of generalization is discrimination, which involve not responding to function as if it were US, to establish new conditioning. Example: The art of manipulating people’s association has been perfected by the advertising industry. Advertisers consistently endeavor to pair the product they are pending with stimuli that seem likely to elicit positive emotional response.

Like advertisers, candidates running for election need to influence the attitude of many people quickly, subtly, ND effectively- and they depend on evaluation conditioning to help them do so. For example , politician show-up at an endless variety of pleasant public events( such as opening of a new mall) that often have nothing to do with their public service. Stress Stress is common every day event, even seemingly minor stresses or hassles can be problematic. To a large degree, stress lies in the eye of the beholder, as appraisals of stress are highly subjective.

Major type of stress includes frustration, conflict, change, and pressure. Frustration occurs when an obstacle prevent one from attaining some goal. The three principal type of conflict are approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance. A large number of studies with the SIRS suggest that change is stressful. Although this may be true, it is now clear that the SIRS is a measure of general stress rather than Just change related stress. Two kind of pressure ( to perform and conform) also appears to be stressful.

Emotional reaction to stress typically include anger, fear, and sadness, although positive emotions may also occur may promote resilience. Emotional arousal may interfere with coping. The optimal level of arousal on a task depends on the implicitly of the task. The psychological arousal in response to stress was originally called the fight-or-flight response by Cannon. The fight-or-flight response may be less applicable to women than men. Seller’s general adaptation syndrome describes three stages in physiological reaction to stress: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.

There are two major pathways along which the brain send signal to the endocrine system in response to stress. Action along these pathless two set of honeymoons, catecholamine and corticosteroids, into the bloodstream. Stress may support the process of neurosurgeons. Some coping responses are less than optimal. They include giving up, blaming oneself, and striking out at others with act of aggression. Indulging oneself is another coping pattern that tends to be of limited value. Defense mechanism protect against emotional distress through self-deception.

Small positive illusion about oneself may sometimes be adaptive. Pigged According to Piglet’s theory of cognitive development, the key advance during seniority period is the child’s gradual recognition of the permanence of objects. The operational period is marked by certain deficiencies in thinking- notably, interdisciplinary scholar whose own cognitive development was exceptionally rapid. In his early ass, after he had earned a doctorate in natural science and published a novel, Pigged turned his focus on psychology.

He soon found himself administering intelligent test to children to develop better test norms. In doing this testing, Pigged became intrigued the reasoning underlying the children’s wrong answers. He decided that measuring children intelligent was less interesting than studying how children use their intelligence. He spent the rest of his life studying cognitive development. Many of his ideas were based on insights gleaned from jarful observation of his own three children during their infancy. Like Erosion’s theory, Pigged model is a stage theory of development.

Pigged proposed that the youngsters progress through four major stages of cognitive development, which are characterized by fundamentally different thought process: (1) Seniority period (birth to age 2), (2) the operational period (age 2 to 7), (3) the concrete operational period (age 7 to 10), and (4) the formal operational period (age 11 onwards). Example; fathers are essential for healthy development. Over the last 40 years proportion of children growing up without a father in home has more than doubled.

During the same time, we have seen dramatic increase in teenager pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, violent crime, drug abuse, eating disorder, teen suicide and family dysfunction. Erikson Erikson theory of personality development propose that individual evolve through eight stages over the life span. In each stage the person wrestles with changes (crises) in social relationship. According to Erikson Personality is shaped by how individual deal with these psychological crises. Each crisis involves a trudge between two opposing tendencies, such as trust versus mistrust or initiative vests guilt, both of which are experienced by the person.

Erikson describes the stages interns of these antagonistic tendencies, which represent personality theaters people display in varying degrees over the reminder of their lives. Although the names for Erosion’s stage suggest either-or-outcomes, he viewed each stage as a tug of war that determine the subsequent balance between opposing polarities in personalities. The eight stages In Erikson theory are: stage 1- Trust versus mistrust ( is my word predictable and supportive? First year of life), stage 2- Autonomy versus sham and doubt (Can I do thing myself or must I always rely on others? Second and third years), stage 3-eliminative versus guilt (Am I good or am I bad? , fourth through six years), stage 4- Industry versus inferiority ( Am I competent or am worthless? Age six through puberty), stage 5-Latinity versus confusion (Who am I and where am I going? , adolescent), stage 6- Intimacy versus isolation (Shall I share my life with another or live alone? , early adulthood), stage 7-Generatively versus self-absorption (will I produce something of real value? , middle adulthood), stage 8- integrity versus despair (have I lived a full life? Late adulthood) Fraud’s psychoanalytic theory emphasis the importance of the unconscious. Freud described personality structure in terms of three components- the ‘d, ego-and superego- which are routinely involved in ongoing series of internal conflict. Freud theorized that conflict centering on sex and aggression are specially likely to lead to anxiety. According to Freud, anxiety and other unpleasant emotions such as guilt are often warded off with defense mechanisms. Freud described a series of five stages of development: Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.

Certain experiences during these stages can have lasting effect on adult personality. Lungs most innovative and controversial concept was the collective unconscious. Idler’s individual psychology emphasis how people strive for superiority to compensate for their feeling of inferiority. Overall, Psychodrama theories have produced many ground breaking insights about the unconscious, the role of internal conflict and the importance of early childhood experiences in personality development. However, psychodrama theories have been criticized for their poor testability, inadequate base of empirical evidence, and their male centered view.

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