D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs. E) a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes. 2. Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs? A) The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases. B) The residual volume of the lungs decreases. C) The diaphragm contracts. D) The epiglottis closes. E) The rib cage expands. 3. A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of A) 1,450 mL. D) 5,000 mL. B) 4,000 mL.
E) 5,450 mL. C) 4,450 mL. 300-Organisms in water use countercurrent exchange for gas diffusion. A. How does this work? Blood flows in the opposite direction to water passing over the gills, blood is always less saturated with O2 than the water it meets (remember higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure! ). Gills have several outfoldings to increase surface area and exchange B. Why do organisms living in water need to do this? The water medium has inherently lower concentrations of oxygen and higher viscosity of air so countercurrent exchange helps to facilitate diffusion 400-1.
The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate? A) nitric acid D) carbon dioxide B) nitrogen E) carbon monoxide C) oxygen 2. Blood carbon dioxide levels determine the pH of other body fluids as well as blood, including the pH of cerebrospinal fluid. How does this enable the organism to control breathing? A) The brain directly measures and monitors carbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly. B) The medulla, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.
C) The brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide. D) Stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla to speed up or slow breathing. E) The medulla is able to control the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood. 1 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th 3. The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in A) the partial pressure of oxygen. D) temperature. B) the partial pressure of carbon monoxide. E) pH. C) hemoglobin concentration. 500-How are gas exchange and circulation coordinated in the human lungs?
Blood arrives in the lungs has low partial pressure of O2 and a high partial pressure of CO2 relative to air in the alveoli -In alveoli-O2 diffuses into the blood and CO2 diffuses into the air -In tissue capillaries, O2 diffuses into interstitial fluids and CO2 diffuses into the blood Birds do it, bees do it, … 100-Evidence that parthenogenic whiptail lizards are derived from sexually reproducing ancestors includes A) the requirement for male-like behaviors in some females before their partners will ovulate. B) the development and then regression of testes prior to sexual maturation.
C) the observation that all of the offspring are haploid. D) dependence on favorable weather conditions for ovulation to occur. E) the persistence of a vestigial penis among some of the females. 200-Name two reasons for and two reasons against asexual reproduction. For: -do not waste energy finding a mate -rapid reproduction & colonization in favorable habitats -ensures gene pool is passed to next generation Against: -pathogens can decimate clonal populations -loss of genetic diversity -cannot easily rid population of harmful mutation 300-Internal vs external fertilization.
Make one comparison and one contrast Comparison -both produce zygotes -both are sexual reproduction Contrasts -External-many gametes for both sexes (not just male) -Greater parental investment (internal) -invest reproductive energy differently b. Where and when does fertilization occur in humans? Oviduct/fallopian tube, ovulation 400-1. In vertebrate animals, spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ, in that A) oogenesis begins at the onset of sexual maturity, whereas spermatogenesis happens in embryonic development. B) oogenesis produces four haploid cells, whereas spermatogenesis produces only one functional spermatozoon.
C) cytokinesis is unequal in oogenesis, whereas it is equal in spermatogenesis. D) oogenesis ends at menopause, whereas spermatogenesis is finished before birth. E) spermatogenesis is not completed until after fertilization occurs, but oogenesis is completed by the time a girl is born. 2. Mature human sperm and ova are similar in that A) they both have the same number of chromosomes. 2 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th B) they are approximately the same size. C) they each have a flagellum that provides motility. D) they are produced from puberty until death. E) they are formed before birth. 00- For both men and women, the hypothalmus is releasing __________ which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete _____________ and ______________. GnRH, FSH, LH In turn, these hormones are in part controlled by what two main hormonal products in women and one main hormonal product in men. estradiol and progesterone, testosterone When does meiosis II occur for sperm and for an oocyte? sperm- before ejaculated oocyte-after fertilization If It’s Yellow… 100-1. The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that A) urea can be exchanged for Na+.
B) urea is less toxic than ammonia. C) urea requires more water for excretion than ammonia. D) urea does not affect the osmolar gradient. E) less nitrogen is removed from the body. 200-Match the following with their excretory system 1. Earthworms (D) 2. Crickets (E) 3. Flatworms (A) 4. Humans (B) 5. Jellyfish (C) 300-1. Put the following in the correct order A. Ascending Loop of Henle B. Descending Loop of Henle C. Collecting Duct D. Distal Tubule E. Proximal Tubule F. Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus F-E-B-A-D-C 2. Where are these tubes, etc… found and are there many of them in the human body?
Nephron of the kidney, Yes, ~80 million 3. After the last step listed here where does the filtrate go on its final journey out of the body? Renal pelvis to ureter to urinary bladder to urethra 400-1. Which one of the following is extremely important for water conservation in mammals? A) juxtamedullary nephrons B) Bowman’s capsule C) urethra D) podocytes E) ureter 3 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th 2. What makes these components so special? Longer loop of Henle that goes deep into medulla 500-Picking 2 components, explain how they work to concentrate urine.
Proximal Tubule Loop of Henle Distal Tubule Collecting Duct In the Nephron Cortex: • Blood flows from the renal artery into the afferent arteriole • Blood enters the capillaries of the glomerulus where blood pressure forces filtrate into the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule (filtrate consists of salts, glucose, and other small molecules – no blood cells or plasma proteins as they are too large to filter through the capillaries) • In the proximal tubule: From the Bowman’s capsule, filtrate passes through the Proximal tubule where Na+ (which results in passive transport of Cl- ions in the form of NaCl), K+, glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate buffer and other nutrients are absorbed into the interstitial fluid and transported through the peritubular capillaries (water follows via osmosis as the interstitial fluid becomes hyperosmotic to the filtrate) Also the site of waste filtration (like processed drugs from the liver) via nonselective filtration from the interstitial fluid and surrounding tissues This is also the site of pH regulation of body fluids as transport epithelium secrete H+ and buffering NH3 to form ammonium ions (NH4+) In the Medulla: • Loop of Henle 1) Filtrate enters the Loop of Henle from the Proximal Tubule 2) Descending Limb carries it down into the Medulla. . – Descending Limb is semi-permeable. Water may pass through but ions may not. . – Medulla has high osmolarity, causing water to pass from the Loop of Henle into the Medulla. 3) Ascending Limb carries filtrate back up from the Medulla . – Ascending Limb is not permeable to water . Dissolved ions are actively transported from the filtrate into the Medulla, increasing its osmolarity. 1) Blood travels through the Vasa Recta in the opposite direction of filtrate in the Loop of Henle. 2) As blood travels down into the medulla, it absorbs some of the ions transported from the Ascending Limb, increasing osmolarity. 3) When blood flows back out of the medulla alongside the Descending Limb, water is reabsorbed from the Medulla, maintaining its high osmolarity. III. Summary 1) Both the Loop of Henle and the Vasa Recta are countercurrent multipliers that act to conserve water. 2) About 90% of the water in the filtrate is reabsorbed into the bloodstream by the time it reaches the Distal Tubule.
Back to the Nephron Cortex: • In the Distal tubule: Much like the proximal tubule but primarily focused on NaCl reabsorption and K+ secretion into the filtrate pH regulation via reabsorption of bicarbonate and secretion of H+ ions into the filtrate Collecting Duct: • The collecting duct then carries filtrate into the renal pelvis • Site of urine concentration / dilution When kidneys are conserving water, surrounding interstitial fluid is hyperosmotic to the filtrate, thus aquaporin allow water to pass through the walls of the duct into the interstitial fluid 4 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th When kidneys are expelling water, surrounding interstitial fluid is hypoosmotic to the filtrate, thus kidney reabsorbs salts into the interstitial fluid without letting water follow MisMash 100-1.
How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans? A) bicarbonate ions in the plasma B) CO2 attached to hemoglobin C) carbonic acid in the erythrocytes D) CO2 dissolved in the plasma E) bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin 2, Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by combining with A) hemoglobin. B) plasma proteins. C) carbon dioxide. D) carbonic acid. E) plasma buffers. 200-1. Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, so this means that compared to the seawater around them, they are Hypoosmotic, Hyperosmotic or Isoosmotic. Isoosmotic 2. What happens when you put one in a freshwater environment?
They will be hyperosmotic to their environment and will not be able osmoregulate and will take on water from environment 300-organisms have evolved several different methods to maximize the efficiencies of different processes. Explain how the organisms have evolved. 1. Deep sea diving mammals such as the Weddell seal and gas exchangecarry 5x amount of oxygen as humans, slow heart rate and limit blood circulation to vital organs 2. Albatrosses can drink salty water -have salt glands consisting of arteries, veins, capillaries and secretory tubules designed to remove remove salt from the blood 400-Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the following processes?
A) filtration B) ultrafiltration C) selective reabsorption D) secretion E) active transport 500- 1. How does ADH function at the cellular level? A) ADH stimulates the reabsorption of glucose through channel proteins. B) It triggers the synthesis of an enzyme that makes the phospholipid bilayer more permeable to water. C) It causes membranes to include more phospholipids that have unsaturated fatty acids. D) It causes an increase in the number of aquaporin molecules of collecting duct cells. E) It decreases the speed at which filtrate flow through the nephron leading to increased reabsorption of water. 2. How do ADH and RAAS work together in maintaining osmoregulatory homeostasis?
A) ADH monitors osmolarity of the blood and RAAS regulates blood volume. 5 BIO 102-BioJeopardy II Exam is February 27th B) ADH monitors appropriate osmolarity by reabsorption of water, and RAAS maintains osmolarity by stimulating Na+ reabsorption. C) ADH an RAAS work antagonistically; ADH stimulates water reabsorption during dehydration and RAAS removal of water when it is in excess in body fluids. D) Both stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone which increases both blood volume and pressure. E) Only when they are together in the receptor sites of proximal tubule cells, will reabsorption of essential nutrients back into the blood take place. 6