MODULE 1 MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP THEORIES 1. Compare Theory X, Y, and Z. Which one would you prefer in your organization? Why? Theory X managers are often stereotyped as a stern, unyielding type of person. They view their employees as people who generally dislike work and need strict direction and threats of punishment in order to get a job done. If an employee is not performing well, it is seen as strictly the employee’s problem. There are some people who need a very strict manager like this, but not every employee will respond to this kind of management. You may also want to consider whether this approach will be best for you and your business. Theory Y managers view their employees much differently. In this theory, employees generally like work and gain satisfaction from doing a job well. Employees are given the opportunity to use imagination and creativity in their occupation. If an employee does not perform as expected, a Theory Y manager will place the problem with management techniques, not the employee.
Nursing Administration Essay Example
This theory does not mean that everything is a free for all; there is still some level of control and guidance, just not as much as there is with Theory X. Theory Z is much different from the other two theories. This theory focuses on the culture of an organization, creating an environment in which all employees work together very well (Tomey, 2009). Theory Z managers give workers more freedom, allowing them to perform a variety of tasks rather than one mundane task day in and day out. This theory places direct focus on the employees, creating concern for an employee’s problem or personality, not just their work performance. The one that I would likely to prefer in my organization was the Theory Y because in this theory, management assumes employees be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control.
I do believe that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. Also Theory Y possesses the ability for creative problem solving. Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. And I believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. I think that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development that why I have chosen Theory Y as my prefer organization.
2. Describe at least 3 factors that affect human behavior. Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental and social activity during the phases of human life. Human beings, like other animal species, have typical life course that consists of successive phases of growth, each of which is characterized by a distinct set of physical, physiological, and behavior features. I think that three factors affecting human behavior are attitude, social norms and core faith. Attitude – the degree to which the person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior in question. Social norms – the influence of social pressure that is perceived by the individual (normative beliefs) to perform or not perform a certain behavior. Core faith – The person’s set of beliefs, like religion, philosophy, etc. Provided, sometimes subconsciously, by their family, peers, social media, and the society where they live.
3. Describe a transformational leader. Do you know of anybody in the nursing profession who is transactional leader? Transformational leaders are those leaders who “transform” groups or organizations, enhance the motivation, morale and performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms. These include connecting the follower’s sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, so the leader can align followers with tasks that optimize their performance (Tomey, 2009). Transformational leaders focus on followers, motivating them to high levels of performance, and in the process, help followers develop their own leadership potential. In Nursing Profession the one that I know that is a transactional leader is Dr. Leah Primitiva Samaco-Paquiz, a former National President of the Philippine Nurses Association and now a founding president of ANG NARS she is a transactional leader because she is responsive, Works within the organizational culture, motivates followers by appealing to their own self interest and maintain the status quo; stress correct actions to improve performance. By the means of ANG NARS she is a transactional leader by ensuring and promoting the socio- economic- political- professional rights of Nurses with the responsibility and accountability to provide safe quality nursing care to the Filipino people.
4. Discuss the differences of the ff leadership style: a. Democratic, Authoritarian, and Laissez-faire Autocratic or authoritarian style, Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictators. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group (Tomey, 2009). Participative or democratic style, The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality. Laissez-faire or free rein style, a person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods.
b. Transformational and Transactional Transactional Leadership sets up a series of rewards and punishments to motivate members of the organization. If these individuals adequately meet the leader’s goals and expectations, they will be rewarded for their hard work (i.e., salary, bonus, or other incentive). On the other hand, if they fail or violate these goals and expectations, they may face punishment (i.e., demotion, termination of employment, etc.) (Straker, 2007). Transactional leadership can be quite effective in many situations, such as managers offering a bonus to the first salesperson who reaches a number of sales.
Examples of famous leaders that effectively employed transactional techniques include McCarthy and de Gaulle. In the end, though, the leader and employees must continue to share a common understanding of the importance of the leader’s goals and expectations for transactional leadership to work. And because transactional leadership has a highly structured environment and a strong emphasis on managerial authority, this form of leadership has its limitations, particularly when it pertains to the creative expansion of the organization (Boje, 2000; Homrig, 2001) while the Transformational Leadership use charisma and a shared vision to “inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization” (Allen, 1998; Transformational Leadership section). The entire organization, as well as the employees and leader, can be transformed and improved through this form of leadership because the leader creates a powerful bond with his or her followers that supports confidence, dedication, and creative problem solving (Allen, 1998). Transformational leadership has proven to be highly effective in times of great difficulty or challenges (i.e., combat or extremely tight budgets). Transformational leaders constantly use their vision and passion to energize their followers enough to stay focused and determined during even the most trying circumstances and to guide them into a more promising future. Ultimately, this form of leadership also has its share of shortcomings. For instance, the constant energetic and passionate motivation of transformational leaders can prematurely drain employees if used improperly. Furthermore, not all situations call for such drastic changes within an organization (Homrig, 2001; Straker, 2007). Consequently, the best leaders in history, such as Roosevelt and Lenin, recognized that strong leadership does not come in a single form. Instead, each form complements the other and each situation might call for a different approach (Boje, 2000).
5. Which of the above leadership styles do you think your immediate manager adhere to? Support your assumption. In my own point of view, our immediate manager in my current workplace adhere a leadership style of being democratic because she always take a more participative role in the decision-making process, She always encouraged her staff nurses to share our ideas and opinions, even though the leader retains the final say over decisions and We are more free to feel more engaged in the process. In almost all circumstances our immediate manager consult her subordinate to explore problems and find solutions, so our role will be to explore the possibilities in depth, and that means there has to be a great deal of exploration and open discussion with other nurses. In my current workplace our manager always asked the group members to work with their strengths and provide inputs on how to divide the work, like for the division of task and patient our immediate manager always find a solution on how each members collaborate and engage in the decision making which enabling us members to work at our own place and set their own deadlines.
MODULE 2 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT 1. Differentiate a leader from a manager; management from leadership. Leader is a person who enables to work together to achieve the objectives set for certain purpose and leaders always base their vision, their appeal to others, and their integrity on reality, on the facts, on a careful estimate of the forces at play, and on the trends and contradictions. They develop the means for changing the original balance of forces so that their vision can be realized. A leader is someone who has the capacity to create a compelling vision that takes people to a new place, and to translate that vision into action. Leaders draw other people to them by enrolling them in their vision (Tomey, 2009). What leaders do is inspire people, empower them. Leader doesn’t require any managerial position to act as a leader. On the other hand, a manager can be a true manager only if he has got the traits of leader in him. By virtue of his position, manager has to provide leadership to his group. Manager is a person appointed officially to the position whose perform all five functions to achieve goals, i.e., Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, and Controlling. A person can be a leader by virtue of qualities in him. For example: leader of a club, class, welfare association, social organization, etc. Therefore, it is true to say that, “All managers are leaders, but all leaders are not managers.”A leader is one who influences the behavior and work of others in group efforts towards achievement of specified goals in a given situation.
On the other hand, manager can be a true manager only if he has got traits of leader in him. Manager at all levels are expected to be the leaders of work groups so that subordinates willingly carry instructions and accept their guidance. A person can be a leader by virtue of all qualities in him. Leadership is the process of empowering people through persuasion. It is one of the functions of the management. Leadership has been described as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task”. Management is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal (Tomey, 2009). Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources.
2. Discuss how effective management could be achieved. Effective management could be achieved by the following reasons first, know your limits. Great managers know their limits. Respect the various department heads. Product mangers lose their credibility very quickly by trying to speak to everything. Have command of your expertise, but defer to those who know more than you do about other things. This conveys good judgment. Second, listen first before speaking. Good product managers are master communicators. They listen even better than they speak. They gather information that is important to their audience, from their audience, before they begin speaking at their audience. Third, ask ‘Why?’ not ‘What?’ Why do you want this product feature over that one?
So if I ask you, ‘do you want it red, or do you want it blue?’ You say ‘blue!’ OK, so I make it blue. But at the end of the day, I might have to change it to green because I didn’t ever ask you why you wanted it to be blue. The important information isn’t what someone wants, but their motive for wanting it– the reason why. If you know why someone wants something you are more empowered to come up with a solution that will meet their real need, and in a way that works for you as well. The question ‘what do you want,’ will tell you exactly one fact. But asking ‘why do you want that’ actually gives you understanding. Fourth, be decisive. Good product managers make the decision. Sometimes ‘the decision’ can mean saying: ‘I’m not ready to make a decision today, but I will make a decision by this date.’ Being decisive because it is a key ingredient of good product management. You will NEVER have all the information in hand that you would like. That is a fact of life. But you are always able to make the best decision you can with the info set you have at the time. Fifth, be responsive.
You don’t have to answer every email or every phone call. But you should try. Ignoring people is NOT good. We know this intuitively. When someone is trying to get your attention, it is because something is important to them. Good product managers are attentive, and that means being responsive. Sixth, communicate frequently. This is the proactive side of ‘be responsive.’ You must also communicate of your own volition, and frequently. Send out status reports. Keeps information flowing so that people aren’t harassing you with questions like ‘what’s going on?’ If it helps, Refer people to earlier emails or reports you’ve issued to keep the information flow going. But also communicate concretely, and concisely. People need status reports to make them feel ‘in the loop.’ This is easily accomplished if you communicate often. Just keep it short and sweet. Lastly, manage with passion. Passion is great, and great managers are very passionate people. You need other people’s perspectives, and criticisms. Be enthusiastic but not so overzealous that you lose track of what the mission is: To succeed. Passion motivates you to execute, but passion is not execution. And without execution there is no success.
3. Discuss fully the 5 major functions of nursing service. The five major function of nursing service are patient care, administrative practices, nursing personnel management, physical environment and interdepartmental/ Institutional Relationship. Patient care involves determining the amount and kind of nursing care needed for individualized nursing care, provide for day to day fluctuation of nursing care needs, provide for special nursing care of critically ill patients, provide for continuity in nursing care on ward and in the community, simplify and standardize nursing procedures and techniques and instruct patient in their own care. Administrative practices develop organizational structure. Plan, organize, direct, and coordinate administrative activities which enable to develop a set of standards for patient care and other nursing functions, assign responsibility and delegate authority, provide for directed group participation, establish nursing programs of conferences for direction of supervisory personnel, establish systems for reporting and recording functions, interpret nursing needs and problem to administrative officers and other hospital functions, interpret nursing programs or administrative problem, provide channels for methods of communication within nursing services, identify areas needing study and plan for research and prepare and administer the nursing budget.
Nursing personnel management determines categories, number of positions needed, qualifications and job descriptions. Make and maintain a staffing pattern, maintain a recruitment program and appoint personnel, provide opportunities for growth and development of personnel through programs of education provide working conditions and recommend economic consideration which provide for job satisfaction and establish and maintain complete personnel record. Physical environment plan for allocation and utilization of space for all nursing functions and motivations, determine needs and provide for necessary equipment and supplies and evaluate effectiveness of existing physical environmental and recommend changes, improvements and adjustments. Interdepartmental/ Institutional relationship develop plans to interpret nursing and coordinate activities with hospital groups within administrative officers, professional personnel, hospital departments and nursing service. Provide for association with community groups such as educational institutions, professional organization and service organizations.
4. Discuss the personal factors that affect nursing administration. Human Relation affects performance in the workplace by people’s expression of liking for each other with feelings of altruism and ambiguity of the relationship between cohesiveness and productivity. If employees who like each other take actions who benefit fellow employees, (i.e., act altruistically), the effects on firm output and firm profitability depend on the setting. Altruism towards fellow employees may lead an employee to work little or to work hard. It has the former effect if a cutback in an individual’s effort allows fellow employees to reduce their own effort in that way nursing administration affect our personal life in terms of human relationship. Knowledge, affect nursing administration by nurturing the creation and growth of administration – groups of individuals who create, acquire, and share new knowledge, and use this knowledge to effect positive changes in personal and organizational behavior.
Nursing Administration facilitate this process by continuously seeking to engage individuals of diverse backgrounds and experience in dialogue on today’s critical professional issues. Skills, is a gradual developmental process that requires our cognitive (thinking) processes to work with our physical abilities to learn how to perform movements that we were previously unfamiliar with. For us nurses to produce peak performance, it is essential that we understand how the level of skill acquisition can affect performance. This includes an understanding of the learning process, analysis of how well it is performed and identification of how the performance of this skill can be improved. Attitudes, is a “self‐management” that enables the nurses to increase their awareness of themselves ‐ their attitudes, behaviors and characteristic ways of responding to situations and or events and interacting with others. By introducing and underscoring the importance of “accountability”, Breakthroughs in Attitudes challenges participants to adopt empowering attitudes to enhance their effectiveness and reach their potential. It also shows how to develop an attitude of being proactive and interpreting events in ways that are positive and equips nurses with the desire and capacity to continually evolve and improve their performance, however being pessimistic and self-centered affect nursing administration in some way. Values drive your decisions, your commitments, and your initiative. Values are the core beliefs that guide us to take action – or not to take action.
We take action when the direction in front of us fits our values – when it doesn’t we procrastinate, delay, and defer. If we act outside of our values, we fall out of integrity and we fall behind that’s the personal reason that affect nursing administration in terms of values. Motivation is the key of a successful organization to maintain the continuity of the work in a powerful manner and help organizations to survive. Motivation is finding a need inside the employees and help to achieve it in a smooth process. Motivating the staff leads to broaden their skill to meet the organizational demands. Each manager should have the responsibility to work with the staff to find out their individual needs and put them side by side to the organization needs. Dissatisfaction affect nursing administration but it might work as guidance for the manager to explore the need of the staff and start with it to motivate them and attract them to do better performance.
5. Submit 1 reading (journals) related to this module. Include your comments/ reaction and source.
LEADERSHIP: HOW TO BE AN EFFECTIVE MANAGER ABDELNASER OMRAN School of Housing, Building and Planning, 11800, Minden, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Email: [email protected] ABDULLAH MAHMOOD School of Housing, Building and Planning, 11800, Minden, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Email: [email protected]
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to examine effective manager’s Malaysian leadership. The objective was investigated on how mangers can have better understanding of leadership and to use it to their advantage. In addition, this paper also examined to what extant Malaysian leadership ‘managers reflect the level of their social interaction, preference for gathering data, preference for decision-making, and style of making decisions. Finally, it identified several ways on how effective managers could reduce the gap between the difference in their leader to capitalize the strength of their counterparts in order to enhance organization performance and at the same time grasp new ideas so that it could benefit both sides.
This study attempted to find out the effect of functional and behavioral competences on the leadership effectiveness in relation to managers in the construction industry in the Penang and Butterworth states in Malaysia. The finding has shown that all managers surveyed basically agreed that IT knowledge and the business knowledge are the most crucial competences that should be acquired to become an effective manager in the construction industry. On the other hand intraprofessional knowledge of behavioral competences was found to be the most important for an effective manager.
1. INTRODUCTION The quality of leadership is one of the most important factors in determining the success and survival of groups and organizations. Although technologies play an overriding part under some conditions, effective leadership has often compensated for lack of equipment and resources. It would be difficult to imagine a world without leader (Fiedler, F.E., 1987). There can be little doubt that the well being and success of any nation or organization is heavily dependent on good and effective leadership. History has shown that great nations and organizations are often the result of great leadership. Nations or civilizations have been known to fall or disappear completely due to leadership failure or the lack of a strong leader. The way in which people co-operate with each other, with the leadership and with the community, and the extent of their commitment to their organization, depend very much on the style of management. As such, one must be aware of interacting with others: in the workplace, with friends, at home; any interaction between two or more different project mangers contains opportunities for growth and improved communication. It also may contain opportunities to understand differences in style of expression and action which may lead to destructive relationships. Evaluation of the ability of mangers to understand others especially their counterparts who have different culture and tradition is very important so that it will help them build good interaction with their counterparts.
Realizing the importance of understanding leadership of others, this study is carried out in order to investigate the differences between effective manger and ineffective mangers. Since the early pioneering study by (Carlson, J. G., 1989), researchers have used descriptive methods such as direct observation, diaries, and interviews to discover what managers do and how they spend their time. These researches on managerial activities only attempted to find answers to question such as how much time should managers spend alone or interacting with different people to accomplish group objectives. In the 80’s, management researches became very interested in the emotional and symbolic aspects of management leadership influence. These processes help us to understand how leaders influence followers to make self-sacrifices and put the need of the mission or organization above their materialistic self-interests. Nearer to the future, (Stewart, R., 1982), observation indicates that managers also have unique role requirements that are specific to a particular type of managerial position in a particular type of organization. He later formulated a model based on extensive research using observation, interviews, and diaries to describe different types of managerial jobs and understanding how managers do them. This model has three components: demands, constraints and choices. These three components shape the nature of the job and influence a manager’s behavior when the following aspect of situation changes:_ Level of Management_ Size of Organization_ Lateral Interdependence_ Crisis Situation 2. RESEARCH PROBLEM
Effective manager must be able to lead as he is regarded as the leader of the project team. Without firm leadership, he would not be able to gain respect from the other consultants. Furthermore, without good leadership qualities, he would not be able to motivate his team to work towards the common goals of the project. Strong leadership is therefore a very important criterion for the manager. 3. EFFECTIVE MANAGER
There are managers in every organization. A good and perfect one is the manager who possesses good qualities. (Barry, T. R., 2000) proposes ten qualities that make a manager effective; these qualities include, inspiring a shared vision, good communicating skills, enthusiasm, team building skills, problem solving skills, empathy, and competence cool under pressure. Ability to delegate tasks among subordinates. It was further explained that these qualities ought to be practiced altogether before significant results can be seen. (Gates, B., 2004) also provided 10 top qualities that managers need to consider. Amongst these qualities are choosing a field thoughtfully, hiring carefully and having the will to fire lazy workers ,creating a productive environment, defining success, linking people and being a good communicator ,developing workers to do their jobs better ,building moral , taking projects yourself , not making the same decision twice and letting people know whom to please. Gates explanations though differ from Barry’s are all qualities that are expected to be carried out by managers in order to be effective. 4. LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT
There has been a lot of discussion whether project managers must focus on leadership or management in their companies. Leadership in itself provides a picture of authoritative characteristics. This is because, project managers will see themselves as power holders who will not like to participate in other works. However a project manager who is as a management based will like to be participative, this is one of the reasons why identify some tools that will help differentiate between project managers who are leaders and those who are managers. One of the tools included intense site reconnaissance. By this project managers who wish to be effective must be more conscious on the current developments on the site. This is because any inconvenience, problem or unexpected circumstances can be responded to accordingly. Another tool is to plan/execute. They explain that project managers must not only focus on planning issues in an organization but also they must focus on effective execution of the planning activities. This will differentiate them from being leaders or managers. The third tool, which is managing sub consultants, is one of the difficult ones amongst them. This is because, sub consultants can sometimes be stubborn and might delay some processes in project execution.
Therefore effective project managers must know how to deal with them. The last tool proposed by (Brugger, W.E. & Gerrits, R. J., 2000) is quality control. Controlling the quality of projects is one of the characteristics that a project manager should exhibit if he/she wants to be truly effective. (Rimualdo, R., 2003) proposes that knowledge ability to stimulate interest and delivery of quality results are factors used to distinguish between leadership and management. He explains further that a project manager must have the knowledge to show enthusiasm and convey to the staff important information and also be able to organize the methods that follow systematically. This will make him/her an effective leader. Furthermore, an effective leader is differentiated from management if he/she has the ability to bring out the interest of people and to deliver quality results. Unearthing the potential in worker would also make the project manager achieve his/her results. The delivery of quality results is also another area explained by Rimualdo. This takes into consideration the ability to plan and carry out a good job; they would trust him and give him credibility. 5. BEHAVIORAL COMPETENCE
Behavioral characteristics are some major ways of looking at the qualities of effective leadership (Dawooud, A., Mahmood, A., & Abdelnaser, O. , 2005). A client Guide for ACP project (2002) identifies understanding and emphasizing of the point, experience and acknowledgement, experience and development, planning and thinking strategically. Working with trusted people are coordinating and managing identifying and understanding as well as knowing when to seek specialist’s advice. It was explained that. Even though the variables mentored above were more of characteristics of leadership, they related to the behavioral aspects in one way or the other. (Melymuka, K., 2000) also explains in her computer world article “Born to lead projects “ that persuasion , generosity, vision , flexibility’s and humour are variables that are necessary in shaping the behavior of leaders . She further explained that managers must be able to persuade their subordinates, superiors and customers in an effort to achieve objectives. Being generous was another variable highlighted by Melymuka. Hence, effective manager must always strive to have a good and better vision for his company. This will shape his where behaviour as expected. Being flexible is a kind of behavior effective managers cannot do away with; therefore Melymuka proposes that managers must practice such behaviour with some sense of humour to provided desired results.
Social scientists have provided insightful literature in the area of effective leadership that needs to be taken into consideration. (Hofstede, G., 1980) determines that culture varies along a number of dimensions that posse’s important implication for organizational structure and leadership practices. (Wright, H.R.N. and Aditya, R., 1997) refine and extended the research. They found that compressive surveys f cross cultural research was needed to look into leadership issues. However, despite the south in their research, it was concluded that practical knowledge and advice to assist leader in adapting to cultural constraints were very important. Looking into Malaysia, there is a colonial heritage, together with more recent foreign investment by Japanese and Western countries. This has led to modify traditional patterns of leadership and business management (Sin, T. T., 1999). 6. THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK
Figure 1: Conceptual Model of the relationships between functional and behavioral competences, and the effective leadership. 7. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Based on the research problem and research objectives, the following hypotheses were developed: H1: There is a significant relationship between functional competences and effective leadership. H1A: There is a significant relationship between Technical knowledge and effective leadership. H1B: There is a significant relationship between Management knowledge and effective leadership. H1C: There is a significant relationship between Communications, knowledge and effective leadership. H1D: There is a significant relationship between IT knowledge and effective leadership. H1E: There is a significant relationship between Legal knowledge and effective leadership. H1F: There is a significant relationship between Business knowledge and effective leadership. H2: There is a significant relationship between Behavioral competences and effective leadership. H2A: There is a significant relationship between social/ vocational knowledge and effective leadership. H2B: There is a significant relationship between intra-professional knowledge and effective leadership.
8. METHODOLOGY Data for this study was obtained through structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to a total of 50 of construction firms in Penang Island and Butterworth. Of these 30 were returned and analyzed. 9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
9.1. SURVEY RESULTS The response from the 30 respondents are analyzed and discussed in the next few sub-topics. These cover the response on the functional competences i.e. technical knowledge, managerial knowledge, communication knowledge, IT knowledge, financial knowledge, business knowledge; and the behavioral competences i.e. social/vocational knowledge and intraprofessional knowledge. 9.2. FUNCTIONAL COMPETENCE
9.2.1. Technical Knowledge On the technical knowledge, respondents rated planning and scheduling skills as ranked 1, followed by basic knowledge in own field and quality control. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank
Table 1: The Mean and std. deviation of technical knowledge Plant hire and management and technical writing were rated as the least important. These indicate that in order to be an effective manager in the construction industry, one must acquire planning and scheduling skills and then followed by learning basic knowledge in own field and quality control. 9.2.2. Managerial Knowledge
Respondents rated decision-making and time management as the most important managerial knowledge for an effective manager, followed by strategic planning. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank Decision – Making 1.4000 .8137 1 Time Management 1.5333 .6288 2 Strategic Planning 1.5667 .5040 3 Negotiation 2.1000 1.1552 4 Motivation and Promotion 2.1667 1.1167 5 Table 2: The Mean and std. Deviation of managerial knowledge However motivation and promotion, and negotiation skills of managerial knowledge are rated as least important for an effective manager in the construction industry. 9.2.3. Communication Knowledge
Presentation skills were rated as the most important communication knowledge for an effective manager, followed by report writing. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank Presentation 1.7333 .7849 1 Report writing 1.7667 .7739 2 Public speaking 2.1000 1.0289 3 General and Business Correspondence 2.333 .9223 4 Table 3: The Mean and std. Deviation of communication knowledge However, a general and business correspondence skill was rated as the least important communication knowledge for an effective manager in the construction industry. 9.2.4. IT Knowledge
On the IT knowledge, project management software was rated as the most important IT knowledge, followed by the operating systems knowledge for an effective manager. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank Project management software 2.2333 .8584 1 Operating systems 2.3667 .6149 2 Information systems and IT tools 2.4000 .8137 3 Database 2.8667 .8193 4 CAD 3.1667 .7466 5 Table 4: The Mean and std. Deviation of IT knowledge However, CAD was rated as the least important skills, and followed by the database skills in IT knowledge to be an effective manager. 9.2.5. Financial Knowledge On the financial knowledge Project Finance Arrangement was rated as the most important skills, and followed by establishing cash flows in financial knowledge (Table 5). Reporting systems was rated as the least important financial knowledge and followed by establishing budgets for an effective manager in the construction manager. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank
Project Finance Arrangement 1.4667 .6814 1 Establishing cash flows 1.5667 .5040 2 Establishing budgets 1.7333 .6397 3 Reporting systems 1.7333 .6397 4 Table 5: The Mean and std. Deviation of financial knowledge 9.2.6. Legal Knowledge In term of the Legal knowledge, general legal background was rated as the most important legal knowledge, followed by the health and safety issues while, drafting contactors and industrial issues were rated as the least important. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank
General legal background 2.2000 1.0306 1 Health and safety issues 2.2333 .8976 2 Trade unions and public authorities 2.5000 .9002 3 Preparation of claims and litigation 2.5000 .7311 3 Drafting contracts 2.7333 .9444 4 Industrial relations 2.7333 .7397 4 Table 6: The Mean and std. Deviation of legal knowledge 9.2.7. Business Knowledge Chairing meetings was rated as the most important business knowledge, followed by public relations skills for an effective manager (Table 7). Marketing and sales was rated as the least important business knowledge, followed by the understanding of organization for an effective manager in the construction industry. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank
Chairing Meetings 1.4667 .5074 1 Public Relations 1.8333 .7915 2 Understanding of organisation 1.9667 .6149 3 Marketing and sales 2.9000 1.0619 4 Table 7: The Mean and std. Deviation of business knowledge 9.3. BEHAVIORAL COMPETENCE 9.3.1. Social/Vocational Self-confidence and decisiveness were rated as most important social/vocation skills, followed by commitment and interpersonal skills for an effective manager. However, flexible was rated as the least important social/vocational knowledge, followed logical and presentation skills (Table 8). Items Mean Std. deviation Rank
Self-Confidence 1.4333 .5040 1 Decisive 1.4333 .5040 2 Committed 1.6333 .5561 3 Interpersonal 1.7000 .5350 4 Proactive 1.7667 .5683 5 Puntuality 1.7667 .8172 6 Comprehensive 2.0333 .6149 7 Calmness 2.0667 1.0148 8 Analytical/Investigative 2.0667 .7397 9 Presentation skills 2.2000 .9965 10 Logical 2.2000 .8867 11 Flexible 2.7000 .9523 12 Table 8: The Mean and std. Deviation of social/vocational knowledge 9.3.2. Intraprofessional Teamwork was rated as the most important intraprofessional skills, followed by conformity to professional norms for an effective manager. However, sensitivity to peers was rated as the least important intraprofessional skills, followed by collegiality for an effective manager in the construction industry. Items Mean Std. deviation Rank
Teamwork 1.3667 .5561 1 Conformity to professional norms 2.1000 .7120 2 Public Relations 2.1333 .9371 3 Collegiality 2.6333 .8087 4 Sensitivity to peers 2.6333 .9643 4 Table 9: The Mean and std. Deviation of intraprofessional knowledge 9.4. EFFECT OF BEHAVIORAL AND FUNCTIONAL COMPETENCE ON LE Regarding Leadership effectiveness (LE), regression analysis was used to find out functional and behavioral competences have any significant effect on leadership effectiveness. Table 10 presents the result of regression analysis. Variable Beta T-ratio Sig.T
Technical Knowledge .296 1.704 .104 Managerial Knowledge -.301 -1.062 .301 Communication Knowledge .438 1.721 .101 IT Knowledge .513 2.834 .010 Financial Knowledge -.177 -.810 .428 Legal Knowledge -.008 -.041 .968 Business Knowledge .556 3.437 .003 Social/Vocational -.127 -.500 .623 Intraprofessional .899 3.656 .002 R2 = .89.4% F = 18.783 Sig.F = .000 Table 10: Results of Regression Analysis Based on the SPSS output, technical knowledge was found to have no significant effect on the leadership effectiveness at 5% significance level (sig t = .104). Therefore hypothesis 1A was not substantiated. Managerial knowledge was found to have no significant effect on the leadership effectiveness at 5% significance level (sig t = .301). Therefore hypothesis 1B was not substantiated. Communication knowledge was found to have no significant effect on the leadership effectiveness at 5% significance level (sig t = .101). Therefore hypothesis 1C was not substantiated. IT knowledge was found to be significant at 5% significance level (sig = .010) with a positive beta. This means that IT knowledge has significant positive effect on the leadership. Therefore hypothesis 1D was substantiated.
Financial knowledge was found to have no significant effect on the leadership effectiveness at 5% significance level (sig. t = .428). Therefore hypothesis 1E was not substantiated. Legal knowledge was found to have no significant effect on the leadership effectiveness at 5% significance level (sig. t = .968). Therefore hypothesis 1F was not substantiated. Business knowledge was found to be significant at 1% significance level (sig. = .003) with a positive beta. This means that business knowledge has significant positive effect on the leadership. Therefore hypothesis 1G was substantiated. Social/vocational knowledge was found to have no significant effect on the leadership effectiveness at 5% significance level (sig. t = .623). Therefore hypothesis 2A was not substantiated. 10. SUMMARY
Hypothesis Accept/Reject H1: There is a significant relationship between functional competences and effective leadership. Partially Accepted H1A: There is a significant relationship between Technical knowledge and effective leadership. Reject H1B: There is a significant relationship between Managementknowledge and effective leadership. Reject H1C: There is a significant relationship between Communication knowledge and effective leadership. Reject H1D: There is a significant relationship between IT knowledge and effective leadership. Accept H1E: There is a significant relationship between Legal knowledge and effective leadership. Reject H1F: There is a significant relationship between Business knowledge and effective leadership. Accept H2: There is a significant relationship between Behavioral competences and effective leadership. Partially accepted H2A: There is a significant relationship between social/ vocational knowledge and effective leadership. Reject H2B: There is a significant relationship between intraprofessional knowledge and effective leadership. Accept
Comment/ Reaction: My personal point of view regarding this journal, that an individual’s manager is both inherited and shaped from the environment however, these genetic personality characteristics are altered somewhat by life experiences. Individual managers will not have the same behavior even though they are in the same culture. This difference in manger had lead to the conflict in decision due to their manager influenced them how to be effective manager. Leadership is one of the key interpersonal roles managers play in their organizations. Leadership is considered as an influence process. Followers let themselves are influenced by a person so long as that person is able to satisfy their job related needs. The effectiveness of a leader depends on the style of leadership. An effective leader should choose the style depends on the situation and demand. (Freitas, A. L., 1992) suggested that people wield power from one status – in this case the position in organization; concrete resources – the technology and tools; expertise – the knowledge; self-confidence. This study confirmed that managers’ with IT and business knowledge, and intraprofessional skills will lead to effective management; as such managers should put effort to acquire these competences to discharge their responsibilities and tasks effectively. The research finding has shown that all managers surveyed basically agreed that IT knowledge and the business knowledge are the most crucial competences that should be acquired to become an effective manager in the construction industry. On the other hand intraprofessional knowledge of behavioral competences was found to be the most important for an effective manager. These indicate that managers need to perform under a structural boundary as against to the unstructured, self-actualization kind of environment. Thus it is important that managers in the construction industry tries to acquire the relevant IT and business knowledge, and intraprofessional knowledge to face the challenges in the industry. The challenge is then for managers to take a serious approach and some in-depth study on their organizational strength and weakness in the area of human resource and processes in order for their employees to flourish.
Because often than not, as managers, we prefer to operate in our “comfort zone” and glide along rather than spend time looking for improvement. A participative leadership style need total commitment from managers as risk is involved when managers are being asked to trust their subordinate to have enough common-sense to do the right things and to keep the managers inform if things goes wrong. Therefore constant communications and continuous training is the key to employees’ development. On the other hand, managers may also attract and select staffs that are already inclined to see things their way. Nevertheless, none of the approaches can be forced on all the people all the time. The most effective approach is goal–setting, as it is based on the premise that intentions shape actions. If work goals are specific, and even though it is difficult, if they are accompanied by feedback on how well one is doing, manager’s performance is usually enhanced.
MODULE 3 FOUR MAJOR MANAGEMENT PROCESSES 1. Discuss the guidelines in planning. Guideline in Planning involves the Right People in the Planning Process; it’s critical that all parts of the system continue to exchange feedback in order to function effectively. This is true no matter what type of system. When planning, get input from everyone who will responsible to carry out parts of the plan, along with representative from groups who will be affected by the plan. Of course, people also should be involved in they will be responsible to review and authorize the plan. Write down the Planning Information and Communicate it widely, new managers, in particular, often forget that others don’t know what these managers know. Even if managers do communicate their intentions and plans verbally, chances are great that others won’t completely hear or understand what the manager wants done. Also, as plans change, it’s extremely difficult to remember who is supposed to be doing what and according to which version of the plan.
Goals and Objectives Should Be SMARTER, that is, a word composed by joining letters from different words in a phrase or set of words. In this case, a SMARTER goal or objective is: Specific: For example, it’s difficult to know what someone should be doing if they are to pursue the goal to “work harder”. It’s easier to recognize “Write a paper”. Measurable: It’s difficult to know what the scope of “Writing a paper” really is. It’s easier to appreciate that effort if the goal is “Write a 30-page paper”. Acceptable: If I’m to take responsibility for pursuit of a goal, the goal should be acceptable to me. For example, I’m not likely to follow the directions of someone telling me to write a 30-page paper when I also have to five other papers to write. However, if you involve me in setting the goal so I can change my other commitments or modify the goal, I’m much more likely to accept pursuit of the goal as well. Realistic: Even if I do accept responsibility to pursue a goal that is specific and measurable, the goal won’t be useful to me or others if, for example, the goal is to “Write a 30-page paper in the next 10 seconds”. Time frame: It may mean more to others if I commit to a realistic goal to “Write a 30-page paper in one week”. However, it’ll mean more to others (particularly if they are planning to help me or guide me to reach the goal) if I specify that I will write one page a day for 30 days, rather than including the possibility that I will write all 30 pages in last day of the 30-day period. Extending: The goal should stretch the performer’s capabilities. For example, I might be more interested in writing a 30-page paper if the topic of the paper or the way that I write it will extend my capabilities. Rewarding: I’m more inclined to write the paper if the paper will contribute to an effort in such a way that I might be rewarded for my effort. Build in Accountability (Regularly Review Who’s Doing What and By When?) Plans should specify who is responsible for achieving each result, including goals and objectives. Dates should be set for completion of each result, as well. Responsible parties should regularly review status of the plan. Be sure to have someone of authority “sign off” on the plan, including putting their signature on the plan to indicate they agree with and support its contents. Note Deviations from the Plan and Re-plan Accordingly, It’s OK to deviate from the plan. The plan is not a set of rules. It’s an overall guideline. As important as following the plan is noticing deviations and adjusting the plan accordingly. Evaluate Planning Process and the Plan, during the planning process, regularly collect feedback from participants.
Do they agree with the planning process? If not, what don’t they like and how could it be done better? In large, ongoing planning processes (such as strategic planning, business planning, project planning, etc.), it’s critical to collect this kind of feedback regularly. During regular reviews of implementation of the plan, assess if goals are being achieved or not. If not, were goals realistic? Do responsible parties have the resources necessary to achieve the goals and objectives? Should goals be changed? Should more priority be placed on achieving the goals? What needs to be done? Finally, take 10 minutes to write down how the planning process could have been done better. File it away and read it the next time you conduct the planning process. Recurring Planning Process is at Least as Important as Plan Document, Far too often, primary emphasis is placed on the plan document. This is extremely unfortunate because the real treasure of planning is the planning process itself. During planning, planners learn a great deal from ongoing analysis, reflection, discussion, debates and dialogue around issues and goals in the system. Perhaps there is no better example of misplaced priorities in planning than in business ethics. Far too often, people put emphasis on written codes of ethics and codes of conduct. While these documents certainly are important, at least as important is conducting ongoing communications around these documents. The ongoing communications are what sensitize people to understanding and following the values and behaviors suggested in the codes. Nature of the Process Should Be Compatible to Nature of Planners, A prominent example of this type of potential problem is when planners don’t prefer the “top down” or “bottom up”, “linear” type of planning (for example, going from general to specific along the process of an environmental scan, SWOT analysis, mission/vision/values, issues and goals, strategies, objectives, timelines, etc.) There are other ways to conduct planning. For an overview of various methods, see (in the following, the models are applied to the strategic planning process, but generally are eligible for use elsewhere):
2. Analyze the different phases of planning. According to Tappen, Planning is divided into three phases. These are developing the plan, presenting the plan, implementing and monitoring the plan. Phase 1: Developing the plan, first step is to establish its purpose. It is important to be clear about the purpose of planning to avoid confusion. However, the purpose may be stated in broad terms until a broad thorough assessment of the problem done. When assessing the problem, information to confirm or revise the identified problem is needed. Situational variables that affect the problem, as well as anticipated response to change are also identified. When the problem and environmental situations are already assessed, objectives are formulated. The objectives should be written as measurable outcomes so that they can later serve as guidelines for evaluation. Phase Two: Presenting the Plan, the second phase of planning is presenting the plan itself. Occasionally, one may be able to proceed directly from developing the plan to its implementation.
But usually, plans for projects are presented to administration/management for approval. When this becomes necessary, the planner needs to be persuasive in convincing others to accept the plan and to obtain approval by administrators. To be acceptable, the plan must be presented in an organized manner. The problem, the background or the situation that brought about the problem, and of course, the well-prepared plan to resolve the problem must be presented clearly. The delivery of e presentation must be done convincingly and professionally. Aside from being persuasive, the planner must be concise and direct to the point. The plan itself must be presented in a professional manner. Finally the Phase Three: Implementation and monitoring it include the schedules and the techniques that have been developed to organize and monitor implementation of proposed plans. Schedules organize work on the basis of the time and assigned staff members, leaving out the details of the staff to be done.
3. Differentiate strategic planning from operational planning.Strategic planning and operational planning involve two different types of thinking. Strategic decisions are fundamental and directional, and over-arching. Operational decisions, on the other hand, primarily affect the day-to-day implementation of strategic decisions. While strategic decisions usually have longer-term implications, operational decisions usually have immediate (less than one year) implications. Strategic Planning views future as unpredictable, views planning as a continuous process, expects new trends, surprises and changes, considers a range of possible futures & emphasizes strategy development based on assessment of the organization’s internal (strength and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) environment. Operational Planning views future as something that needs to be implemented now. Focuses on setting short-term (less than one year) objectives. Assumes much more detailed planning regarding who and how activities will be accomplished.
4. If given a chance & plan for a nursing service, what are the forecasting aspects tests you have to discuss? The forecasting aspects that I want to discuss in nursing service are the environment/ working condition, social responsibilities and services needed. Environment/ Working condition, Nursing has its hazards, especially in hospitals, nursing care facilities, and clinics, where nurses may care for individuals with infectious diseases. RNs must observe rigid, standardized guidelines to guard against disease and other dangers, such as those posed by radiation, accidental needle sticks, chemicals used to sterilize instruments, and anesthetics. In addition, they are vulnerable to back injury when moving patients, shocks from electrical equipment, and hazards posed by compressed gases. RNs who work with critically ill patients also may suffer emotional strain from ob serving patient suffering and from close personal con tact with patients’ families. Social responsibilities/ Services needed, Registered nurses (RNs), regardless of specialty or work setting, perform basic duties that include treating patients, educating patients and the public about various medical conditions, and providing advice and emotional support to patients’ family members. RNs record patients’ medical histories and symptoms help to perform diagnostic tests and analyze results, operate medical machinery, administer treatment and medications, and help with patient follow-up and rehabilitation. RNs teach patients and their families how to manage their illness or injury, including post-treatment home care needs, diet and exercise programs, and self administration of medication and physical therapy.
Some RNs also are trained to provide grief counseling to family members of critically ill patients. RNs work to promote general health by educating the public on various warning signs and symptoms of disease and where to go for help. RNs also might run general health screening or immunization clinics, blood drives, and public seminars on various conditions. Given me a chance to forecast this aspect, is my entire plan in nursing service to maximize the knowledge of my co-workers in their respective working condition and social responsibilities.
5. Get a sample copy of different types of planning and give your analysis as to their contents. Sample Operational Plan Terra Engineering The following section will identify the proposed operational plan for Terra Engineering. Included are the general operating procedures, human resources, insurance, and working capital requirements of the business. Also included is a table outlining the office space requirements, asset acquisition and an outline of Terra Engineering’s operational workflow. General Operating Hours: Terra Engineering intends to operate Monday thru Friday from 9 am to 5 pm. Terra Engineering will be operational year round. Human Resources: Mr. Johnson and Mr. Smith will be the sole employees of Terra Engineering for the first two years of operation. When additional human resources are needed, Terra Engineering has identified the persons qualified and able to assist on a contract basis for the same rate as the owner. They include: Mr. Wes Aaron, and environmental engineering technician will be sub-contracted to complete work as needed. It is estimated that Mr. Aaron will eventually be hired full time by Terra Engineering once demand warrants growth. Mrs. Leanne White holds a Masters in Environmental Engineering and will also be sub-contracted to perform work for the company. Eventually, Terra Engineering intends to hire Mrs. White full time. Mr. Charles Pearson holds a Bachelors of Science Degree in Environmental Engineering and has a vast technical experience base in the environmental assessment area and will be retained when needed. Once the business reaches 60% of its operational capacity this will represent 1300 hours, Terra Engineering will offer the above environmental professionals full time positions. Also at this time, an administrative assistant will be sought. A professional user of Auto Cad will be sought to perform various jobs for the company. It is unknown at this time that will fill this position; however, job advertisements will be put in the local papers and organizations to attract a good pool of respondents. Once hired, all employees will be covered by the Workers Safety and Insurance Board and covered for Employment Benefits. Insurance Requirements: Terra Engineering will have to incur costs for business liability insurance. The estimated cost for this requirement is $4,000 per year. Operating Capital Requirements:
Due to the demands imposed at start up, Terra Engineering will require that the business have sufficient working capital to meet all operational responsibilities of the business for the first three months. It is estimated that the business will need approximately $20,000 in working capital to sustain and ensure the business meets all opening and on-going financial obligations. Also, throughout the year there tends to be periods of low activities. Consequently, the company will experience financial pressures during these months. While much of this time will be spent developing proposals and marketing strategies, there will be a need to maintain sufficient working capital to cover these periods. A long term strategy to maintain a positive cash flow during these periods will be to diversify the company and develop environmental training programs for certain communities. These training programs will be given during these months. Office Requirements and Asset Acquisitions: Terra Engineering will lease office space on located at: 459 Duncan Avenue, Suite 1003 Detroit, Michigan. The office space is leased and will accommodate the necessary office equipment such as computers, fax machine, photo copier, and other engineering equipment. This facility will require an estimated $5,000 to renovate in a style that is aesthetically pleasing to the clients as well as the owners. These facilities will be leased at $500 per month. In addition, Terra Engineering will require specialized environmental equipment. These are the estimated costs associated with those investments: Office Renovations $5,000
Office Equipment and Furniture $6,000 Specialized Field Equipment $27,000 Specialized Software $10,000 Total Capital Costs $48,000 The above noted capitals purchases will increase work effectiveness, enhance professionalism and will prepare the business for the forecasted demand for services. Further, the equipment may be leased out to partner associates during times of low activity. Operational Workflow: As with any consulting firm, the operational workflow for the business is quite uniform and simple to follow. The following is a step by step outline of how contracts are completed on a regular basis: Step 1 Terra Engineering will respond to a request for proposal (RFP) with a professionally prepared proposal for service; Step 2 At this point, the potential contract is awarded to either Terra Engineering or other companies which submitted proposals for services. Therefore, communication is made by the contract to the successful consulting firm. If Terra Engineering is successfully selected to perform the work, the contract is then triggered to begin; Step 3 Terra Engineering will collect a deposit from the client and will begin the project. Deposit values vary depending upon the size and location of the project; Step 4 Terra Engineering will go ahead and start the project while keeping communication with the client. Once the project reaches 60% – 70% completion, funds will be given to the business by the client to complete the rest of the work;
Step 5 Once the work is completed to the satisfaction of both, Terra Engineering and the client, the final payment for the contract will be made. The above operational workflow is very standard, easy to understand and within industry’s norm. Terra Engineering will accept cash, cheque and visa payments. These payments are well within industry standards. The business will provide credit to larger account holders. It is estimated that the length and terms of payments are net 30 for all clients. This will allow the business to avoid cash flow problems. Late payment charges are 2% of the projects outstanding balance. References: Business Plan Guide. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from Terra Engineering Company Web Site: http://www.business-plans-guide.com/operational-plan-sample.html
Sample Strategic Plan The Strategic Plan is a framework for decisions and forward movement toward improvement of the institution. It directs the work of both the school administration and trustees as yearly goals are formed for their work, budgets are designed to support the plan, and benchmarks provide the ability to monitor progress and assess accountability of those in charge of implementation. History of the School: This statement provides a common understanding of the history of the school where its governing board rotates trustees on and off the board every few years. The historical legacy of the instruction can be lost with changes in the board, the administration of the school, and even the leadership of the church in the case of a parish day school. Understanding the history of the school lends perspective to its successes, challenges, and changes in the community which it serves. Mission Statement: A Strategic Plan is driven the by purpose the school serves as reflected in its Mission Statement. The statement should be succinct and clear and a continuous point of reference in the development of a Strategic Plan. Vision for the Future: An inspired statement about the primary focuses for the school as it designs specific implementation of the Strategic Plan. This statement could start, “In the next five years, then school will…” Authors of the Strategic Plan: Participation in the development of the Plan increases ownership in its probable success and community involvement. Categories under Review: Include Goals, Who is Responsible, Start Date, Mid-Point Review, and Completion Date.
A school that has had a recent On-Site Visit for Accreditation will want to include recommendations from that report. • Mission Statement • Administration • Episcopal Character of the School • Finance • Students and Parents • Facility and Safety • Professional Staff • the Culture and Climate of the School • Program • Accreditation Accountability • Governance Sample Strategic Plan 2
Follow-up The Strategic Plan has value when referenced during the year with mid-point reviews and evaluated overall at least yearly. It provides direction for the work of the board and administration, keeping leadership focused on school improvement. The discussion format should include information about successes, acknowledging those who should be commended for their work, and evaluating goals which have not been achieved and why. Circumstances beyond anyone’s control and unanticipated events which affect the plan may justify new completion dates for goals. References: Business Plan Guide. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from Online Strategic Planner Web Site: http://www.swaes.org/Documents/strategic_plan.pdf
6. Get a sample copy of a simple budget plan and give your analysis as to its contents. Simple Budget Plan (Annual Summary) Financial statement as of January 1, 2011 Mother and Child Hospital
Facilities: P 5,500,000 P 4,920,000 P 580,000 Building depreciation 2,500,000 2,300,000
Equipment depreciation 1,500,000 1,380,000
Insurance 1,500,000 1,240,000
Utilities: P 670,000 P 631,200 P 38,800 Electricity 520,000 493,000
Waste disposal 42,000 37,500
Water and sewer 85,000 78,800
Cable TV and phone 23,000 21,900
General administration: P 5,030,000 P 4,571,360 P 458,640 Administrative staff 730,000 698,000
Medical staff 880,000 813,000
Nursing department 2,670,000 2,417,360
Medical supplies 500,000 379,000
Office supplies 250,000 264,000
Property and Plan: P 109,620,000 P 96,960,000 P 12,660,000 Land 86,000,000 76,000,000
Land improvements 6,000,000 4,870,000
Buildings 13,000,000 11, 940,000
Equipments 4,620,000 4,150,000
TOTAL P 120,000,000 P 107,082,560 P 12, 917,440
Supplies P 2,500,000 (2.1%) Wages payable P 7,500,000 (6.3%) Medical supplies 1,500,000 (1.3%) Taxes payable 5,000,000 (4.2%) Total current assets 4,000,000 Warranty liability 3,500,000 (3%) Property, Plant & Equipment
Unearned revenues 2,000,000 (1.6%) Land 24,000,000 (20%) Electric and water expenses 1,000,000 (.8%) Land improvements 2,500,000 (2%) Total current liabilities 19,000 Buildings 76,000,000 (63.3%)
Equipments 12,500,000 (10%) STOCKHOLDER’S EQUITY
Furniture 1,500,000 (1.3%) Common stock 33,000,000 (27.5%) Less: Accumulated depreciation 500,000 Retained earnings 68,000,000 (56.6%) Property, Plant & Equipment – net 116,000,000 Total stockholder’s equity 101,000,000
Total assets P 120,000,000 (100%) Total liabilities and Stockholder’s equity P 120,000,000 (100%)
ANALYSIS: Budgeting at Mother and Child hospital is a continuous process that takes place throughout the year and occurs at nearly every level within the hospital. The cycle starts with planning that considers programmatic needs and initiatives, continues with the establishment of cost such as the approved salary program and fringe benefits rates, and is tempered by available funding sources. Mother and Child’s “budget” is an amalgamation of thousands of smaller budgets, including everything from individual staff members, equipments and utilities to the budget of every department, to the total of the Consolidated Budget for Operations. These budgets are created and managed by the areas that are governed by them, with oversight by the provost, the chief directress of the hospital. There are general principles and guidelines to which the budgets must adhere, but hospitals and other units are allowed tremendous freedom in the development and execution of their budgets.
MODULE 4 ORGANIZING 1. Differentiate the principles of chain of command from the principles of unity of command; formal organization from informal organization. The difference between two principles of command, Principle of chain of command is a chain of command or authority which flows from top to bottom. With a chain of authority available, wastages of resources are minimized, communication is affected, overlapping of work is avoided and easy organization takes place. A scalar chain of command facilitates work flow in an organization which helps in achievement of effective results. As the authority flows from top to bottom, it clarifies the authority positions to managers at all level and that facilitates effective organization. However the Principle of unity of command implies one subordinate-one superior relationship.
Every subordinate is answerable and accountable to one boss at one time. This helps in avoiding communication gaps and feedback and response is prompt. Unity of command also helps in effective combination of resources, that is, physical, financial resources which helps in easy co- ordination and, therefore, effective organization. While the difference between formal and informal organization are formal organization consists of the formally recognized and established statuses of the members. The relationship between the members is more a status relationship than a personal relationship. The informal organization consists of role rather than statuses. The relationship between the members is more a personal relationship or role relationship than the status relationship. There is authority in formal organizations hence there is super ordination and subordination. Individuals are valuable because of their status and prestige. There is leadership in informal organization; hence we find dominance and submission. Individuals are valuable because of their roles and esteem. The norms of formal organization differ. They are found in the form of written rules, regulations, laws contracts or constitutions. The norms are more subtle. They are also informal. They may be found in the form of customs, morals, folkways, belief and they are not written. Formal organizations may have long history of their own. The state or clubs etc are relatively permanent and stable. Informal organizations are not very permanent. Informal organizations may develop into formal organization. Formal organizations are comparatively more inflexible. It is not easy to bring change in them for example it is not easy to bring change or amendment in the constitution. Informal organizations are more flexible. There is no rigidity here. Changes can be brought forth easily. It requires only the change in attitudes of the members.
2. How can stress be avoided in the workplace? Stress can be manage or avoided in workplace by Take time away. When stress is mounting at work, try to take a quick break and move away from the stressful situation. Take a stroll outside the workplace if possible, or spend a few minutes meditating in the break room. Physical movement or finding a quiet place to regain your balance can quickly reduce stress. Talk it over with someone. In some situations, simply sharing your thoughts and feelings with someone you trust can help reduce stress. Talking over a problem with someone who is both supportive and empathetic can be a great way to let off steam and relieve stress. Connect with others at work.
Developing friendships with some of your co-workers can help buffer you from the negative effects of stress. Remember to listen to them and offer support when they are in need as well. Look for humor in the situation. When used appropriately, humor is a great way to diffuse stress in the workplace. When you or those around you start taking things too seriously, find a way to lighten the mood by sharing a joke or funny story.
3. How can you make up the work environment be conducive to promoting positive climate in fee organization.Support the provision of environment and how my work environment is organized to promote the development of my patient. The physical and emotional environment we create for my patient at Lady of Lourdes Hospital has a huge impact on their development. The environment is stimulating and attractive as my patient learns to adapt on it, to be interesting and visually attractive. There are also different types of activities and opportunities; the layout of the hospital is well planned and organized and there is a variety of equipment which meets individual needs.
4. Get a copy of your workplace’s organizational structure. Analyze it as to its type, advantages and disadvantages. Describe the climate of your organization/institution. Our organization is considered a flat structure because the line of communication is shorter, direct, simple and fast. It lends itself to a democratic approach and general management. However this type of structure places tremendous pressure on each manager because of the large amount of authority and responsibility and high penalties for failures. Overburdened managers may not have the time to select, evaluate, and teach subordinates or the energy to think and plan. But above it all, I still prefer the flat structure for it is a type of organization wherein a can participate.
In our institution, we are a democratic organization whereas we can suggest to the management. Even though there is a line of authority, we have built a camaraderie which motivates us to work professionally. It lightens the work when you know that you have a good relationship with the people around you.
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