Nutrients, energy and requirements

8 August 2016

Knowledge of the sources and functions of different nutrients is essential to understanding the relationship between food and health. ?Create a handout for your peers, that describes the characteristics of nutrients and their benefits to the body (P2). ?Create a second handout that discusses the similarities and differences in the nutritional and energy requirements of two groups of individuals (M1). Protein Proteins are key components in a diet because all the cells and all the tissues in the body contain protein. Protein is there to help people’s growth and repairs the body from damage.

Proteins are made up of amino acids. Meat, poultry, milk and fish contain protein and all the essential amino acids. Proteins can be from plant sources such as rice, wheat, corn and beans these proteins do not contain all the amino acids needed. If you do not get enough protein in your diet then you might not grow properly and your body will not be able to repair itself when you are ill or if you get injured.

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Reference:http://www. bbc. co. uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/foodtech/compositionpropertiesrev1. shtml and health and social care level 3 student book 1 Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are key components in a diet because they provide the body with energy. Carbohydrates are in comprising sugars, starchy food and dietary fibre. Starchy carbohydrates provide an important source of energy. Simple carbohydrates or sugars this is found in food such as fruit, vegetables, honey, milk and malt products. Simple carbohydrates are digested by the body quicker because they have got a simple chemical structure. Complex carbohydrates are found in cereals, corn flour, potatoes, pasta and flour. Complex carbohydrates absorb certain minerals and fatty acids.

If you do not have enough carbohydrates then you would be tired and not have enough energy to do what you need to do in the day. This could also cause low blood sugar and ketosis which is when you do not eat enough carbohydrates and your body then starts to break down the fats in the blood. Reference: http://healthyeating. sfgate. com/can-happen-lack-carbohydrates-5999. html and Health and Social care Level 3 student book 1 Fibre Fibre is important in a diet because it can prevent heart disease, diabetes, weight gain and some cancers.

Soluble fibre can help to control the blood sugar levels; it also helps to reduce the cholesterol in the body. Soluble fibre contains foods such as oats, barley and rye fruit, such as bananas and apples root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes, golden linseeds. Insoluble fibre cannot be digested but it helps to prevent digestive problems. If you do not have enough fibre then you might get constipated, heart disease, bowel cancer or diabetes. Reference: http://www. nhs. uk/chq/pages/1141. aspx? categoryid=51 Fats There are three types of fats these are called Trans fats, saturated fats and unsaturated fats.

Saturated fats can cause high cholesterol in the blood which can cause heart disease this is only if you eat too many of the saturated fats. Trans fats are found in foods from animals. You should not eat too many Trans fats because this can also cause high cholesterol in the blood. Unsaturated fats lower the cholesterol in the blood, they are found in fruit and vegetables. If you do not have enough fats in your diet then you could have poor memory, low body weight, dry skin Reference: http://allnutriments. blogspot. co. uk/2013/03/essential-fatty-acid-deficiency-diseases.

html, http://www. nhs. uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/Fat. aspx Vitamins A, Helps with night vision, keeps the skin of nose, mouth, lungs and gut healthy. What happens if you do not get enough of this vitamin could be night blindness; itching and you might get dry and thickened skin. This vitamin is in foods such as fish oil, liver, butter, cheese, eggs, milk, fruit and vegetables. B, The vitamin releases energy from carbohydrates. If you do not have enough of this vitamin then it could cause beriberi, anaemia, neural tube defects. This vitamin is in foods such as liver, yeast,

leafy green vegetables, nuts, milk and whole grains. C, This vitamin is in foods such as blackcurrants, citrus fruits, green vegetables, peppers and tomatoes. This vitamin helps to form the bones, teeth and blood. If you do not get enough of this vitamin then it can cause scurvy, poor healing and you could get easy bruising. D, This vitamin absorbs calcium in the intestine. If you do not eat enough of this vitamin then it can cause rickets, osteomalacia and fractures. This vitamin is in foods such as fish liver, oily fish, eggs, milk, margarine, sunlight. Reference: Health and Social care Level 3 student book 1

Minerals There are six major minerals these are iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. All these minerals are needed but they are needed in tiny amounts. Calcium We all need to have foods like yoghurts and milk for calcium this is because the calcium helps to make your bones and teeth stronger. Calcium also is helpful to ensuring that the blood clots normally. Adults such only have 700mg of calcium a Iron Iron is needed in the diet this is because iron helps to produce red blood cells. If there is a lack of iron in the diet then it can lead to anaemia.

Iron is in foods such as liver, meat, beans, nuts dried fruit, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals. Men should have 8. 7mg a day and women should have 14. 8mg a day of iron. Reference: http://www. nhs. uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Iron. aspx Magnesium Magnesium is needed for storing, burning and using energy; magnesium also keeps all the other minerals in balance and helps the muscles to work. The food groups that magnesium is in are green leafy vegetables, nuts and grains. If you do not get enough magnesium in the diet then it causes muscle cramps, cold hands, soft or brittle nails and depression.

Sodium Sodium helps to maintain fluid balance, works with potassium, to regulate blood pressure. The foods that sodium is in are eggs, meat, vegetables, milk and it is added to some processed foods. If you do not have enough sodium in the diet then it causes dizziness, confusion, tiredness, muscle cramps. Potassium Potassium also is there to maintain the fluid balance in the body; it is needed for cells and nerve function. The foods that potassium is in are potatoes, fruit, vegetables and juices. If you do not have enough potassium in the diet then it causes irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness.

Reference: Health and Social Care Level 3 student Book 1 Lipids Lipids mean fats and oils, they are insoluble in water. The foods that you can find lipids in are meats, fish, poultry and dairy products. If you do not have enough lipids in the diet then it causes irregular bowel movements, constipation, gas and bloating. You may also have high blood pressure. Reference: Health and Social Care Level 3 student book 1, http://uk. ask. com/question/what-happens-if-you-don-t-get-enough-fat Adults Adults need to maintain their weight by eating healthly they should only eat foods with6g per day of salt.

If you become overweight then you have got more chance of getting heart diease, cancer, arthritis and diabetes. Adults if they drink alcohol then men can drink up to 2 units a day and women can drink up to 1 unit a day. Pregnant and breast feeding mothers Extra folic acid in the first three months this is to stop the baby getting spina bifida. However in the last three months of pregnancy the woman should have an extra 200 calories a day. If the women is breast feeding then she will need to have 500 calories extra. She will also need extra calcium so both baby and mother have enough calcium.

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