A healthy diet is something that covers all of your body’s needs, and ensures that your body gets all the nutrients that it requires to stay healthy in day to day life. The things that you require will vary depending on a number of different factors including age, gender and activity levels. 2. Describe why the healthy diets of adults and children may be different. Provide at least three examples of these differences. A healthy adult diet provides everything that the body needs to stay fit and healthy

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A healthy children’s diet is a diet that provides everything that they need to stay fit and healthy as well as grow properly. Healthy diets of children is to encourage healthy eating behaviour and to improve their eating habits so that they can have a healthy diet throughout their life Examples of children diets: children need few calories than adults as their bodies are not as big Salt should not be added to children’s meal Processed sugar never be added to children’s food Examples adult’s diets; adults need more calories than children Adults can eat some fried food

Adults can eat plenty of fibre rich foods 3. Give an outline of at least three lifestyle diseases associated with unhealthy diets. a) Unhealthy diet is associated with diabetes: there are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin. As no insulin is produced, your glucose levels increase, which can seriously damage the body’s organs. •Type 2 diabetes is where the body does not produce enough insulin, or the body’s cells do not react to insulin. This is known as insulin resistance.

•If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you may be able to control your symptoms simply by eating a healthy diet and monitoring your blood glucose level. •Type 2 diabetes is usually associated with obesity. b) High blood pressure, •when there is high levels of cholesterol in the blood stream •the risk of developing high blood pressure increases asyou get older •a family history of high blood pressure •being of African or Caribbean origin •a high amount of salt in your food •a lack of exercise •being overweight •smoking •drinking too much alcohol

Page 2 Nutrition and health Essay

•when you are stressed c) Heart disease and stroke. When we eat too muchsalt it increases the likelihood of these diseases. •It’s advisable to either eliminate it from our diet or minimise the intake of it. •A change of diet and life style can also help to avoid heart disease. •Eating healthy •A lack of exercise 4. Name three sources of energy in food. Then, identify the amount of energy that 1g of each source provides. The three sources of energy in food are carbohydrate, protein and fat 1g of Carbohydrates provides 4 calories 1g of protein provides 4 calories

1g of fat provides 9 calories 5. Based on your own diet and lifestyle… •Estimate your own Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) •Estimate your own Physical Activity Level (PAL) •Based on these BMR and PAL values, estimate your total energy requirement. Based on my own diet and lifestyle my Basal Metabolic Rate is 1,691. 9 Physical Activity Level is 1. 375 My energy requirement is 2326. 36 I got these figures by calculating my age which is 50yrs, my height=5ft 7inc, weight =220kg 6. Identify at least two factors that can affect a person’s energy requirements.

Two factors that can affect a person’s energy requirements are body size and climate. Health conditions such as blood pressure or diabetes and gender 7. For a person you know who wishes to manage their weight, outline the relationship between their energy intake and energy expenditure and the impact this can have on their weight. For a person who wishes to manage their weight, they would need to decrease their energy intake and increase their energy expenditure, by doing so they will be able to bring down their weight. 8.

Why is it important to control your salt intake? It is important to control your salt intake in order to reduce the risk of health problems, ie. Blood pressure, heart disease or stroke Once you have completed this Part of your Assessment, save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking when you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment. Part 2: Understand the components of a healthy diet 1. Complete the table below with information on the five food groups. •In the left-hand column, list the five food groups.

•In the right-hand column, provide at least two examples of foods belonging to each of the five food groups. Food groupsExamples 1. Fruit and vegetables Apple, spinach 2. Protein and meat Fish, poultry 3. milk and dairy foods Cheese, yogurt 4. carbohydrate Pasta, cereals 5. fats and sugars Biscuit, chocolate 2. Describe at least two examples of current healthy eating advice. One of the Healthy eating habits is that we should eat lots of fruit and vegetables As science has proven that people who do this are at lower risk of heart disease, strokes and even cancers.

We should cut down on sugar as this can lead to weight gain. Excess weight gain can lead to obesity and increased risks of diseases including Type 2 diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. As sugar is found naturally in lots of foods, but it is also often added to foods like fizzy drinks, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, pastries etc. 3. Why do you think it is important to eat a wide variety of foods as part of a healthy diet? It is important to eat a wide variety of foods as part as part of a healthy diet as all the food groups deliver different, but vital, nutritional benefits to our bodies.

Fruit and vegetables are one of our main sources of vitamins and minerals, which the body needs to perform a variety of functions well. For instance, vitamin A helps to strengthen our immune system, B vitamins help us process energy from food, vitamin D helps us maintain healthy teeth and bones, and vitamin C helps to keep cells and tissues healthy. Fruit and vegetables also contain high amounts of fibre which help to maintain a healthy gut and digestive system. Starchy foods, also known as carbohydrates, are where we get most of our energy from.

As our bodies convert these foods into sugar which is used as energy either immediately or stored for later use. Carbohydrates also contain fibre and iron which we need to make red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body. Meat fish, eggs and pulses provide us with protein which is essential for our body. Everything from our hair, muscles, nerves, skin and nails needs protein to build and repair itself. Also high in protein are dairy products, and they are also great providers of calcium. The most common mineral in the body, calcium is needed for functions including helping blood to clot, and to build bones and teeth.

Once you have completed this Part of your Assessment, save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking when you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment. Part 3: Know the nutrients in food and their role in maintaining health 1. Define what is meant by the term ‘nutrients’. A nutrient is a chemical substance that provides nourishment to the body. Nutrients are essential for growth, development and maintenance of health. 2. Use the table below to describe the six key nutrients. •In the first column, list the six key nutrients needed by the body.

•In the second column, identify at least two foods that are a good source of each nutrient. •In the final column, describe the impact that each nutrient can have on your health (either positive or negative). Key nutrientsFood sourcesHealth impacts 1. carbohydratePasta, breadWe get energy from carbohydrate but when our body stores too much of it, then it can lead to diabetes or high blood pressure 2. fat Biscuits, burgersEating too much of the wrong type of fat leads to overweight and poor health People should aim to eat a diet that is low in fat. However the body does need some fatty acids to function. 3. protein Fish, white meat Proteins help with growth and the maintenance of healthy bones, muscles, blood and skin. When people want to develop physically they need protein to make this happen. 4. vitamins Green vegetables, orangesVitamins keeps people healthy and they help our immune system as well as regulate the release of things such as calcium. However, as our bodies cannot make vitamins we must obtain what we need from food. 5. minerals Meat. dairyMinerals help the our body work as it should by building strong bones and teeth, controlling body fluids and turning the food you eat into energy. 6. water Fruits and vegetablesNot drinking enough water increases the risk of kidney stones and, in women, urinary tract infections. It can also lower your physical and mental performance, and salivary gland function, and lead to dehydration. 3. Describe how potential changes in your lifestyle / activity levels may influence your need for various nutrients. Different activity levels require different proportions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Children, teenagers and adults should all follow a diet that is low in fat.

Different levels of activity and the variations in this through the day will affect how much of each nutrient a person needs. If someone is ill, recovering from an injury or pregnant, then they may need different nutrients than someone who is not. People of different ages will require different levels of each nutrient. If a person is trying to lose or gain weight, they may require different nutrients to someone who is trying to build muscle. The types and quantities of food that you need to eat will be influenced by several factors. 4. Explain the importance of adequate fluid intake as part of a healthy diet.

Water is one of the most essential nutrients required in the diet and must not be ignored. Water is essential for removing toxins from the body such as; lactic acid which occurs during physical activity and is necessary to assist in transporting nutrients around the body. If insufficient water is consumed it can be detrimental to performance and can affect you both physically and psychologically. It is therefore vital to drink water regularly to improve the hydration status in the body, particularly when exercising to ensure that the body is functioning efficiently and reduce the risk of dehydration.

Once you have completed this Part of your Assessment, save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking when you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment. Part 4: Understand the principles of healthy food preparation 1. Plan a healthy menu for three days. In your plan, you should explain: •Why you selected the foods that are used in the plan (what factors did you consider when creating your plan? ). •A variety of cooking methods you will use to prepare the food and why your chosen preparation methods are healthy options.

•Other cooking methods that you have avoided in your plan and how these methods can affect the nutritional values of foods. My healthy menu for three days Day one breakfast: porridge oats with semi skimmed milk Banana Drink tea Lunch: boiled rice with roast chicken and tomato sauce vegetable Drink: hot water Supper: tuna salad Drink hot water Day two breakfast Oranges and banana Shreddies with semi skimmed milk Drink: tea Lunch spaghetti bolognaise Mixed vegetables Herbal tea Supper: fruits Day three breakfast: fruits Porridge oats with semi skimmed milk Tea Lunch: grilled fish, boiled potatoes and vegetables and tomato sauce Drink: hot water

Roast beef salad Drink herbal tea Why I selected the food in my plan, is because I wanted a nutritionally balanced meal, low in fat and also to eat healthily. The cooking method I chose to prepare my food is boiling, grilling and roasting, because the cooking method uses less fat in cooking and also allows me to drain some of the fat from the food. I avoided using frying in my cooking preparations because of the added fat to the food and the health implications that sort of cooking method carries. Though it can add flavour to the food, the negative outweighs the positive.

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