Nutrition Notes

9 September 2016

Project Introduction Do you enjoy helping people find solutions to their individual needs? Do you enjoy planning nutritious meals? For this topic, you are a dietitian. You work with clients of all ages, physical activity levels, and backgrounds to assess the individual nutritional needs and goals. You design nutritional plans and weekly menus to help clients meet their individual needs and goals. The lessons in this topic will introduce you to nutritional guidelines and resources that must guide your analysis and recommendations. Based on your interests and strengths, you will choose one of the following project options.

Read over each project option description and begin to think about which one interests you the most. Option One: The “Gamer” Do you dislike most “healthy” foods? Do you enjoy inactive activities over activities that are more physical? Your client is a child who prefers potato chips over apple slices and video games over playing outside. He is a nine year-old male, who is 4’ 8″ tall and weighs 100 pounds. On most days of the week, your client does less than 30 minutes of physical activity. If you enjoy learning about the nutritional needs of children or people who are less physically active, then this is the project option for you!

Nutrition Notes Essay Example

Option Two: The Busy Salesperson Do you struggle to make healthy choices when eating in restaurants? Do you do an average amount of physical activity each week? Your client has recently graduated from college and is enthusiastic about her newly launched career as a sales representative. She is a 23 year-old female who is 5’ 4” tall and weighs 125 pounds On most days of the week, your client walks vigorously on the treadmill for 45 minutes while listening to her favorite music. If you enjoy learning about the nutritional needs of busy, active people, then this is the project option for you!

Option Three: The Marathon Runner Are you curious about the unique nutritional needs of athletes and vegetariansVegetarians: People who choose not to include certain forms of animal products in their diet.? Do you perform a high level of physical activities? Your client loves to run in marathon races raising money and generating awareness for various issues. He is a 55 year-old male who is 5’ 11” tall and weighs 130 pounds. Your ovo-lacto vegetarian client includes dairy and eggs in his diet, but chooses not to consume red meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish.

His rigorous marathon training requires him to be active for more than 60 minutes on most days of the week. If you enjoy learning about the nutritional needs of older adults and people who are more physically active than average, then this is the project option for you! Project Grading Rubric Option One: The “Gamer” Requirements:| Possible Points:| Nutritional plan includes an analysis of your client’s body composition, including calculated body mass index (BMI) and BMI goals. | 20| Nutritional plan identifies at least: * Two specific nutrients identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as a priority for your client’s population. Three points per nutrient) * Three food sources that supply each of these nutrients. (Two points per food source)             | 10| Nutritional plan includes a copy of the MyPlate or other reliable resource plan most appropriate for your client‘s individual needs. | 10| Nutritional plan includes a seven-day menu detailing all foods and beverages your client should consume to fulfill the MyPlate plan recommendations. | 50| Proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. | 10| Project Grading Rubric Option Two: The Busy Salesperson Requirements:| Possible Points:|

Nutritional plan includes an analysis of your client’s body composition, including calculated body mass index (BMI) and BMI goals. | 20| Nutritional plan identifies at least: * Two specific nutrients identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as a priority for your client’s population. (Three points per nutrient) * Three food sources that supply each of these nutrients. (Two points per food source)             | 10| Nutritional plan includes a copy of the MyPlate or other reliable source plan most appropriate for your client‘s individual needs. | 10|

Nutritional plan includes a seven-day menu detailing all foods and beverages your client should consume to fulfill the MyPlate plan recommendations. | 50| Proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. | 10| Project Grading Rubric Option Three: The Marathon RunnerRequirements:| Possible Points:| Nutritional plan includes an analysis of your client’s body composition, including calculated body mass index (BMI) and BMI goals. | 20| Nutritional plan identifies at least: * Two specific nutrients identified by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as a priority for your client’s population. Three points per nutrient) * Three food sources that supply each of these nutrients. (Two points per food source)             | 10| Nutritional plan includes a copy of the MyPlate or other reliable source plan most appropriate for your client‘s individual needs. | 10| Nutritional plan includes a seven-day menu detailing all foods and beverages your client should consume to fulfill the MyPlate plan recommendations. | 50| Proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. | 10| Nutrition Fact or Fiction Self-Check Determine if each of the following statements are fact or fiction. 1.

All carbohydrates are bad because my body stores them as fat. Fiction Carbohydrates often have a bad rap. The truth is, excess calories from carbohydrates, proteins, and fat can ultimately be stored as fat. 2. Foods that are high in calories are unhealthy. Fiction Some foods such as peanut butter may be high in calories, but may also be nutrient-rich 3. Both of my parents are overweight so I will probably be overweight too. Fiction Heredity plays a small role in determining one’s body composition. Often, being overweight is the result of excessive calorie intake and inadequate physical activity. 4.

Vegetarian diets are low in protein. Fiction Vegetarians are able to meet most of their essential protein needs by consuming complimentary foods. Beans, seeds, cheese, tofu, eggs, yogurt, milk and nuts are a few sources vegetarians use for protein. 5. Vitamins and minerals provide energy in my body. Fiction While vitamins and minerals are critical to supporting many functions of the body, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the nutrients that provide energy. 6. Snacking can be good for you. Fact As part of a well-balanced diet, healthy snacks or mini-meals can help maintain one’s energy levels throughout the day. . You should avoid foods with sugar in them. Fiction Sugars are found in fruits, honey, milk, and sugar cane and provide an important energy source. It is recommended to consume limited amounts of foods high in sugar and fat. These foods often contain a high number of calories and very little nutrition value. 8. BMI is a good indicator of health for everyone. Fiction BMI interpretations may be misleading for the elderly and those who are more muscular than average. When analyzing health status, BMI is just one indicator to consider. 9. Healthy diets are a life-long commitment. Fact

While many popular diets promise quick results, many do not support long-term healthy habits. Your dedication to maintaining a healthy, balanced diet will yield many benefits over your lifetime. 10. Many chronic illnesses are preventable with good nutrition. Fact A balanced approach to diet and physical activity can help prevent diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and some types of cancer. Benefits and Consequences of Nutrition Benefits of Proper Nutrition: * Increased energy and sense of well being. * Increased ability to maintain a healthy body composition. Increased ability to resist illness and injury. Consequences of Poor Nutrition: * Increased risk of being overweight or obese. * Lack of mental alertness and focus. * Increased risk of cavities. * Increased risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer, osteoporosis, and high cholesterol. Digestive System Interactive Eyes, Nose, and Brain: Imagine eating your favorite food. Is your mouth watering yet? As soon as we see, smell, and think about a food, the body starts producing digestive substances in anticipation of eating. Mouth

The teeth and tongue break food down into pieces small enough to be swallowed. As we chew, various enzymes in our saliva start the chemical process of breaking down food. Esophagus Food travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach. Stomach Additional enzymes and hormones are released in the stomach to continue the process of breaking food down into smaller components. Pancreas, Gallbladder, and Liver While food does not actually enter the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver, these organs send important messages via hormones and enzymes to the other digestive organ to assist in digestion. Small Intestine

The walls of the small intestine are responsible for absorbing the nutrients that are necessary for the body to function. Large Intestine The large intestine (or lower portion of the small intestine) absorbs water to keep the body hydrated. Anus Any remaining waste exits the body through the anus. Carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water are the nutrients that work together to fuel the body and promote good health. Carbohydrates, protein, and fats are the calorie and energy contributing nutrients. These three, along with water, are considered macronutrientsMacronutrients: Nutrients required in larger quantities..

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrientsMicronutrients: Nutrients required in smaller quantities. essential for good health, but do not provide an energy source. * Carbohydrates * Proteins * Fats * Vitamins * Minerals * Water Carbohydrates Carbohydrates provide the body’s main source of energy for the brain, body, and nervous system. Major sources include grains, cereal, and bread products. A single serving is one slice of bread, one cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or a half cup of cooked rice, pasta, or hot cereal. Energy is converted from food in the form of calories and is supplied by three main sources. Carbohydrates for energy. * Protein for cellular growth and repair. * Fats for insulation, padding of organs, and an alternative source of energy. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fat Interactive Let’s see what you know about the energy-rich foods. Try to identify which of the foods in the kitchen provide carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Carbohydrates: * Bread * Muffins * Fruit * Orange Juice * Rice * Cereal Protein: * Eggs * Cheese * Ham * Milk * Peanut Butter Fat: * Butter * Cream Cheese * Creamer * Olives * Ice Cream Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats each provide an important source of calories, or energy, for the body.

While each of these nutrients provides calories, the amount of calories that each one provides varies: * Carbohydrates provide four calories per gram. * Protein provides four calories per gram. * Fats provide nine calories per gram. The different types of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats support different functions of the body and come from a variety of sources. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates may be one of the most misunderstood of the energy nutrients. Many “low-carb” fad diets incorrectly warn people that “carbs” turn to fat. The fact is that excess calories from carbohydrates, proteins, or fats will be stored as body fat.

Carbohydrates provide an important source of energy for the body. There are three main types of carbohydrates. * Starch * Sugar * Fiber Starch (Complex Carbohydrate) © 2009 Jupiterimages, inc. Function: Complex carbohydrates are whole grainWhole Grain: Foods containing all the nutrients that the whole grain has to. sources of carbohydrates and provide a nutritious source of lasting energy to fuel the body. Sources: Complex carbohydrates are found in corn, peas, potatoes, beans, oats, barley, rice, bread, cereal, and pasta. Sugar (Simple Carbohydrate) 2009 Jupiterimages, inc. Function: Simple carbohydrates provide a quick source of energy, but usually lack the vitamins, minerals, and fiber that are provided by more nutritious sources of carbohydrates. Sources: Sugars naturally occur in milk and fruit or as added sugars like sugar, honey, corn syrup, or fructose. Fiber © 2009 Jupiterimages, inc. Function: Fiber is the indigestible part of food that assists in moving waste through the body. Fiber helps us feel full and satisfied after eating and may help reduce cholesterol levels and risk of colon cancer.

Sources: Fiber is found in most fruits and vegetables and whole grains such as pasta, cereal, beans, peas, and nuts. Protein Do you think the following statement is true or false? Eating more protein will help your muscles grow larger and stronger. The answer is false. While proteins do provide the amino acids necessary to build and repair muscle tissue, just eating protein will not enhance the size or function of your muscles. Physical activity that provides resistance to the muscles is the only way to enhance muscle tissue. You may not think about this every day, but your body is constantly rebuilding and repairing itself.

Your hair, skin, and nails are constantly growing. If trauma or injury occurs, the body starts immediately working to rebuild tissues. Protein is a component of just about every part of the body including muscles, organs, bones, blood vessels, blood, skin, hair, and nails. Protein provides the amino acids or building blocks necessary for the body to rebuild and repair. There are two main types of proteins. * Complete Proteins * Incomplete Proteins Complete Proteins Sources: Foods containing a good proportion of the essential amino acids such as buckwheat, eggs, cheese, milk, yogurt, and meats.

Typically, animal-based proteins fall into this category. Incomplete Proteins © 2009 Jupiterimages, inc. Sources: Foods containing some of the essential amino acids such as beans, lentils, nuts, and grains. Incomplete proteins must be eaten with another protein source such as legumes and seeds, legumes and nuts, or legumes and grains to obtain a complete protein. Typically, plant-based proteins fall into this category. Fats Fats are a concentrated source of energy that improve the taste and texture of many foods. Fats help carry the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

While all fats should be consumed in moderation, some kinds of fats are better for your health than others. There are two main types of fats. * Saturated Fats * Unsaturated Fats Saturated Fats Saturated fats (or unhealthy fats) are fats from foods of animal origin and are usually solid at room temperature. Function: While saturated fats may contribute to hormone balance in the body, saturated fats in excess have mostly negative effects in the body. Sources:  Saturated fats are typically found in animal fats, which are commonly found in meat, poultry, milk, lard, butter, cheese, ice cream, and egg yolks. Transfats raise your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and lower your HDL (“good”) cholesterol. * Consuming too many unhealthy fats may result in unhealthy blood cholesterol levels and a buildup of cholesterol on artery walls. Eergy Nutrients Self-Check Check your understanding on energy nutrients with the following self-check by matching the term with the corresponding definition or characteristic. Term| Definition or Characteristic| LDL| Bad Cholesterol| Proteins| Builds Muscles| Unsaturated Fats| Vegetable Fats| Carbohydrates| Major Source of Energy| Fiber| The Indigestible Part of Food| HDL| Good Cholesterol|

Amino Acids| The Body’s Building Blocks for Repair| Saturated Fats| Animal Fats| Sugary Carbohydrates| Empty Calories, Few Nutrients| Transfats| Raises LDL Cholesterol| Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Self-Check Let’s see what you know about the energy-rich foods. Try to identify which of the foods in the kitchen provide carbohydrates, protein, and fat. The main ingredient of most sports and energy drinks is water. Water is the main ingredient in most sports and energy drinks. The ________ in most sports and energy drinks provide energy nutrients. carbohydrates Carbohydrates provide the calories used for energy.

A recent study by the American College of Sports Medicine determined that ______ is an excellent post-workout beverage. chocolate milk A study of athletes found that chocolate milk enhanced muscle recovery after intense workouts better than a high-carbohydrate energy drink. I am going for a 30 minute jog. Consuming a sports drink fortified with electrolytes will not be necessary. Replacing electrolytes is really only necessary for physical activity lasting longer than one hour. One can prevent dehydration by consuming adequate fluids. Consuming water and other beverages and foods containing water will help prevent dehydration.

For most people supplementation of vitamins and minerals is unnecessary. The majority of people get adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals from food intake. Vitamins, minerals, and water are ______ nutrients. essential Vitamins, minerals, and water are essential nutrients because the body must obtain them from food sources. Supplementation is suggested for individuals who are pregnant. People with increased nutritional needs or known deficiencies may need supplementation. Supplementation will not help a person feel more energetic or affect one’s body weight. Vitamins

There are three basic characteristics that you need to know about vitamins. * Vitamins are chemical substances found in very small amounts in food. * You need only small amounts for normal growth and maintenance of the body. * Vitamins do not supply energy but help in the absorption of nutrients. There are two main groups of vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed directly into the blood, travel freely throughout the body, and are flushed out easily. Fat-soluble vitamins are first absorbed into the lymph system and are stored in the liver and fat deposits in the body.

You need only small amounts for normal growth and maintenance of the body. It is important you do not eat a large amount of fat-soluble vitamins because too much can cause toxicity in the body. Select each of the vitamins below to learning their functions, source, and signs of deficiency. Vitamins Presentation Water-Soluble Vitamins B Complex Function: B Complex vitamins are a group of vitamins essential for growth, development, carbohydrate metabolism, and a variety of other bodily functions. Source: Liver, Yeast, Whole-Grain Cereals, Rice, Nuts, Milk, Eggs, Fish, Fruits, and Leafy, Green Vegetables

Signs of Deficiency: Muscular Weakness, Leg Cramps, Skin Lesions, Sensitivity to light, Skin Disorders, and Anemia Vitamin C Function: Vitamin C plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of collagen, the protein that supports many body structures, and bones and teeth and enhances the absorption of iron from foods of vegetable origin. Source: Citrus Fruits, Fresh Strawberries, Cantaloupe, Pineapple, Guava, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Tomatoes, Spinach, Kale, Green Peppers, Cabbage, and Turnips Signs of Deficiency: Skin Disorders, Depression, and Loss of Teeth Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A Function: Vitamin A affects the formation and maintenance of skin, mucous membranes, bones, teeth, vision, and reproduction. Sources: Carrots, Broccoli, Squash, Spinach, Kale, Sweet Potatoes, Milk, Butter, Cheese, Egg Yolk, Liver, and Fish-Liver Oil Signs of Deficiency: Night Blindness, Skin Dryness, and Dry Eyes Vitamin D Function: Vitamin D is necessary for normal bone formation and retention of calcium and phosphorus in the body and protects the teeth and bones against the effects of low calcium.

Sources: Exposure to Sunlight, Egg Yolk, Liver, Tuna, and Vitamin D-Fortified Milk Signs of Deficiency: Rickets, which causes deformities of the rib cage and skull and bowlegs. Vitamin E Function: Vitamin E plays a role in forming red blood cells, muscle, and other tissues and preventing the oxidation of vitamin A and fats. Sources: Vegetable Oils, Margarine, Whole Grains, Cereal, Bread, Wheat Germ, Liver, and Leafy Green Vegetables Signs of Deficiency: Deficiency of Vitamin E is rare. Vitamin K Function: Vitamin K is necessary mainly for the coagulation or clotting of blood.

Sources: Alfalfa, Fish Liver, Leafy Green Vegetables, Egg Yolks, and Soybean Oil Signs of Deficiency: Mild blood clotting disorders Minerals There are five basic characteristics that you need to know about minerals. * Minerals are found in edible plants for animals that have eaten plants. * Help build body tissue and regulate body processes such as hormones, enzymes, nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions. * Minerals have no caloric value and thus do not contribute as an energy resource, but they are important in regulating various bodily functions. * Disease and eficiencies can occur if you are lacking too many minerals. * Over 20 different minerals have been identified. There are two main groups of minerals. Macrominerals occur in large amounts in foods and in the body. We need 100mg per day or more of macrominerals. Microminerals (or trace minerals) are needed in very small amounts. Select each of the minerals below to learning their functions, source, and signs of deficiency. Minerals Presentation Macrominerals Calcium Function: Calcium assists in the building and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth and function of nervous system.

Source: Milk Products, Fortified Orange Juice, Tofu, and Spinach Signs of Deficiency: Weakened bones and teeth, leading to osteoporosis. Magnesium Function: Magnesium assists in functions of muscles and nerves, regulation of body temperature, and bone strength. Source: Fortified Cereals, Leafy Green Vegetables, Nuts, and Beans Signs of Deficiency: Muscle spasms, Cramps, and Improper Nervous System Responses Phosphorus Function: Phosphorus helps cells to produce energy, which is vital in bone growth.

Source: Meats, Dairy Products, Poultry, and Whole-Grain Products Signs of Deficiency: Poor Mineralization of Bones, Reduced Growth Potential, and General Weakness Potassium Function: Potassium assists in functions of muscles and nerves and helps maintain a healthy balance of body fluids. Source: Leafy, Green Vegetables, Meats, Milk Products, Bananas, and Citrus Fruits Signs of Deficiency: Cramping, Weakness, Heart Palpitations, Thirst, and Abnormal Psychological Behavior Sodium Function: Sodium assists in function of muscles and nerves and helps maintain healthy balance of body fluids.

Source: Table Salt, Processed Deli Meats and Cheeses, Canned Foods, Cola Drinks, and Pre-packaged Dry and Frozen Meals Signs of Deficiency: Low Blood Pressure, Fatigue, Poor Concentration, Memory Loss, and Digestive Distress. Microminerals Chromium Function: Chromium helps the body maintain optimal blood sugar levels. Source: Meats, Vegetable Oils, Egg Yolks, and Whole-Grain Products Signs of Deficiency: Glucose Intolerance and Mood Swings Copper Function: Copper helps the body process iron and produce red blood cells. Source: Liver, Nuts, Whole-Grain Products, and Cocoa

Rare Signs of Deficiency: Slowed Growth, Hair Loss, Fatigue, and Skin Sores. Fluoride Function: Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay and assist in bone growth. Source: Many public sources of water and dental products are fortified with fluoride. Signs of Deficiency: Tooth Decay and Weakening of Tooth Enamel Iodine Function: Iodine is used by the thyroid to create important hormones. Source: Iodized Salt and Fish Signs of Deficiency: Negative effects on growth and brain development, related to thyroid malfunction. Iron Function: Iron helps the red blood cells transport oxygen to the body.

Source: Fortified Cereals, Beans, Leafy, Green Vegetables, and Red Meats Signs of Deficiency: Iron-Deficiency Anemia (Shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue, headache, coldness in your hands or feet, pale skin, gums, and nail beds, and chest pain. ) Manganese Function: Manganese assists in bone growth. Source: Nuts, Beans, Teas, and Whole-Grain Products Signs of Deficiency: Weak Tendons and Ligaments, Decreased Growth Potential, Digestive Disorders, and Abnormal Bone Development Molybdenum Function: Molybdenum helps the body process proteins. Source: Beans, Whole-Grain Products, and Nuts

Signs of Deficiency: Rare in healthy people Selenium Function: Selenium helps protect cells and regulate hormones in the body. Source: Liver, Shellfish, and Eggs Signs of Deficiency: Muscle Weakness and Premature Aging. Zinc Function: Zinc assists in the growth and repair of body tissues and function of immune, reproduction, and nervous systems. Source: Shellfish, Liver, Red Meat, Poultry, Fortified Cereal, Nuts, and Dairy Products Signs of Deficiency: Delay in Wound Healing, Hair Loss, Loss of Appetite, Skin Dryness and Rashes, and Reduced Sense of Taste. Supplements

While most people get all of the nutrients they need to stay healthy from the foods they eat, taking additional vitamins or minerals in the form of a supplement may be beneficial for people who have increased nutritional needs or lack nutrients in their diets. While there are many scenarios that warrant supplementation, one example the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends is that people over 50 may need to supplement their diet with certain B vitamins. Additionally, women of childbearing age who may become pregnant, pregnant women, or those suffering from anemia may need to supplement their iron intake.

There are benefits and risks to taking supplements. Being aware of these benefits and risks help us make healthy choices. * Supplement Benefits * Supplement Risks Supplement Benefits * Supplements can provide nutrition for people who may lack nutrients in their diet. * Supplements can provide nutrition for individuals with increased nutritional needs such as pregnancy or illness. Water Did you know that a person can live about a month without food, but can only live about a week without water depending on various conditions? Water is the most abundant substance in the human body.

Without it, the body, from the smallest cell, to the largest organ, does not function properly. It is necessary for healthy living. A person needs about two and a half quarts of water from the foods and fluid intake in his or her diet each day. DehydrationDehydration: When a person loses more fluids than he or she takes in. is a serious condition that occurs when our bodies are deprived of water. It is important to be aware of the signs and know how to prevent dehydration and heat-related illnesses. * Signs of Dehydration * Preventing Dehydration Signs of Dehydration

A common misconception is that being thirsty is a sign of dehydration. Thirst is not an early warning sign of dehydration. By the time you are thirsty you may already be dehydrated. Signs of dehydration include: * Feeling dizzy or lightheaded. * Having a dry or sticky mouth. * Producing less urine and darker urine. When dehydration is prolonged and a person is exposed to excessive or prolonged heat and humidity, heat-related illnesses may occur. In addition to the symptoms of dehydration, a person experiencing a heat-related illness may experience these symptoms: Heat Cramps:

Muscle cramps, flushed, moist skin, and/or a mild fever of less than 102 degrees Fahrenheit. Heat Exhaustion: Muscle cramps, pale, moist skin, fatigue, feeling of faintness or weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and a fever over 102 degrees Fahrenheit. Heat Stroke: Warm, dry skin, rapid heart rate, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, confusion, agitation, seizures, coma, a high fever of over 104 degrees Fahrenheit, and death. Water Self-Check Identify the correct answer for each of the questions below. 1. Water is necessary to survive. . Water is important in helping things flow and move through the body. How does water help your body to function? Proper hydration helps the body regulate body temperature. 3. Water helps things move in the digestive system. Describe how it is involved there. Water is needed for digestive juices, urine, and bowel movements. 4. Water also functions in our body’s cooling system. Which way does water not cool the body? When you have a fever drinking water can help cool your body. 5. What are some ways we lose water? Sweating, vomiting, and using the bathroom 6.

What can you do to replace the water that is lost from the body? Drink water Eat foods that have lots of water in them such as fruits and vegetables 7. How can you prepare for the water loss that occurs during exercise? Drink water before, during, and after your exercise. Don’t forget to take your water bottle! 8. What are some ways to prevent dehydration? Drink lots of fluids, stay in the shade, and wear lose clothing and a hat 9. What types of drinks should you avoid when playing sports? Caffeinated soda 10. How many glasses of water do you need a day? Eight (but you need to drink enough to satisfy your thirst)

Micronutrients and Water Flash Cards Vitamins, Minerals, and Water: These three nutrients provide no calories, but are essential to good health. Water-soluble Vitamins: Vitamins absorbed directly into the blood, travel freely throughout the body, and are flushed out easily. Fat-soluble Vitamins: When large amounts of this type of vitamin are stored in the liver and fat deposits in the body, it may cause toxic effects. Sources of Vitamin A: Carrots, sweet potatoes, milk, butter, egg yolks, and liver. Sources of Vitamin C: Citrus fruits, strawberries, spinach, and broccoli.

Sources of Calcium: Yogurt, milk, cheese, fortified orange juice, and spinach. Sources of Iron: Red meat, fortified cereals, and leafy green vegetables. Calcium and Magnesium: Minerals vital for bone growth. Potassium and Sodium: Minerals that help maintain a healthy balance of body fluids. Sources of Potassium: Bananas, leafy green vegetables, meats, milk products, and citrus fruits. Fluoride: Many public water sources are fortified with this mineral necessary for healthy teeth and bones. Supplements: May be recommended for people lacking nutrients in their diet. Water: The most abundant substance in the human body.

Dehydration: Symptoms include thirst, dizziness, dry mouth, and less urine production. Heat Cramps: Symptoms include muscle cramps, flushed moist skin, and mild fever. Heat Exhaustion: Symptoms include muscle cramps, pale moist skin, fever over 102 degrees fahrenheit, and fatigue. Heat Stroke: Symptoms include warm, dry skin, fever over 104 degrees fahrenheit, rapid heart rate, and confusion. Project Milestone Two For Nutrition: Project Milestone One you kept a food and physical activity log for 24 hours and analyzed your caloric balance to determine if your caloric balance aligned with your BMI goals.

For Nutrition: Project Milestone Two you will analyze your nutrient intake to determine if you are obtaining the recommended amounts from the foods you eat. 1. Use a reliable resource or tool such as the USDA Super Tracker to assess your nutrient intake for at least five different nutrients including calcium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, and sodium. Note: If you choose to use the USDA Super Tracker tool, follow the steps below to conduct your Nutrient Analysis. 2. * Select the Food-A-Pedia link to begin your search. * Enter each of the food items on your food log. Locate and select the food item in the search results. * Choose the amount of each food item or beverage you consumed in the drop down menu next to the search results. * Select Add to Food Tracker for each food item. * After all foods are added to the Food Tracker, go to the menu bar, roll over My Reports, roll down to and select Nutrients Reports * Insert the date range when you entered the foods to view your nutrient report. 1. Identify at least two micronutrients which your analysis indicated your intake was less than the “Recommendation or Acceptable Range.   Suggest at least two food sources of each nutrient that you could consume more of to reach the recommended intake. Example: Nutrient One:  I consumed less __________ than is recommended or within an acceptable range. I could eat more _________ and _________ to obtain more of this nutrient in my diet. Nutrient Two:  I consumed less __________ than is recommended or within an acceptable range. I could eat more _________ and _________ to obtain more of this nutrient in my diet. 2.

Identify at least two micronutrients which your analysis indicated your intake was more than the “Recommendation or Acceptable Range. ”  Suggest at least two food sources of each nutrient that you could consume less of to reach the recommended intake. Example: Nutrient One:  I consumed more __________ than is recommended or within an acceptable range. I could eat less _________ and _________ to consume less of this nutrient in my diet. Nutrient Two:  I consumed more __________ than is recommended or within an acceptable range. I could eat less _________ and _________ to consume less of this nutrient in my diet.

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