Nvqundertake Physiological Measurements

10 October 2016

You would think the pressure would drop to zero when the heart wasn’t beating however this isn’t the case. Due to the elasticity of the arteries which recoil during relaxation of the heart and expands during the beat, this keeps the pressure within the limits required to perfuse the tissues of the body. High blood pressure or hypertension is known as the “silent killer”. This is because it rarely has obvious symptoms, around 30% of people in England have high blood pressure but many don’t know it.

As we said above blood pressure is the force on our vascular system. If this pressure is too high it can put strain on our arteries and heart, which can lead to MI, CVA or kidney disease. You are said to have high blood pressure (hypertension) if readings on separate occasions consistently show your blood pressure to be 140/90mmHg or higher. Low blood pressure or hypotension is a condition where the blood pressure is abnormally low. From above you would think this was only a good thing.

Nvqundertake Physiological Measurements Essay Example

But unfortunately a systolic blood pressure of below 90mmHg can cause real problems. The lower you blood pressure becomes the less blood reaches our vital organs like the brain. This can cause simple symptoms such as dizziness or faints. However prolonged hypotension below 80-90mmHg can cause toxins to build up in the blood, this is because the kidneys need a certain amount of blood pressure to filter the blood properly. This can be fatal if left untreated. 2. 2 Body temperature is a measurement of the body’s ability to generate or get rid of excess heat.

When the body gets to hot the blood vessels near the skin dilate to carry the excess heat to your skins surface. You will also begin to sweat as the sweat evaporates this helps cool you body. When the body becomes too cold our blood vessels contract, this reduces the blood flow to the skins surface to conserve body heat. As we become colder the body can start an involuntary response called shivering. This is where the muscles of the body rapidly contract this extra muscle activity helps generate more heat.

Normal body temperature is around 37°C this is an average of normal body temperatures. Your temperature may actually be 0. 6°C above or below 37°C depending on the outside temperature or you level of activity. Pyrexia is an elevated body temperature usually above 37. 5°C. This is one of the ways are immune system attempt to fight an infection. Usually the rise in body temperature helps fight the infection however sometimes the body’s temperature can rise too much. This condition is known as Hyperpyrexia. Hyperpyrexia is when the body’s temperature rises above 41°C.

This condition is normal more common in children and young adults, it is extremely dangerous and requires immediate medical intervention. Hypothermia is the opposite of pyrexia. Hypothermia is when the body temperature drops below 35°C. Hypothermia is usually caused by being in a cold environment. This can be outside in cold conditions but many elderly patients are in there own home without heating on. Hypothermia can quickly become life-threatening so should be treated quickly. 2. 3 Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes over 60 seconds.

This is usually taken at rest by counting the amount of times a person chest rises over 30secs, then times that figure by two. It is important you do this without the patient knowing as this can dramatically affect the rate. A normal respiratory rate is anywhere between 10-20 breaths per minute. This number can vary greatly depending on the person individual fitness level, or the patient’s level of activity immediately before the assessment (at rest or exercising). The brain stem is the primary controller of respiratory rate.

It receives input from sensors that detect oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. In ill patients especially patients with COPD who brain works slightly differently with regards to oxygen levels. If we introduce higher levels of oxygen than they are use to we can actually cause the brain to stop the person breathing. Other conditions such as severe head injuries to the brain can cause damage to the brain stem again effecting/stopping the patient’s respiratory rate. The presence of drugs or alcohol is an important factor that also can affect respiratory rate.

Certain prescription drugs, such as narcotic pain relievers can depress the respiratory center in the brainstem. High levels of alcohol have the same effect which can cause respiratory arrest. 2. 4 A normal pulse rate for and adult is between 60-100 beats per minute. Babies infants and children can have massively different pulse rates. To take a patients pulse you first need to find a pulse site on the body. There are many pulse sites on the body but the top five are as followed; 1. Carotid — side of the neck 2. Radial — the wrist 3.

Femoral — near the groin 4. Pedal — on the foot 5. Brachial — at the inside of the elbow or under the shoulder. Factors which can affect pulse rate are as followed activity level, fitness level, body position (standing up or lying down, for example) emotions, body size or medications. Patients with high blood pressure can be treated with a drug called a beta blocker this simply reduces the pulse rate which in turn helps reduces blood pressure. Pulse oximerty is an extremely important tool. It is non-invasive technique to monitor oxygenation.

It monitors the percentage of haemoglobin that is oxygen-saturated. Oxygen saturation (SATS) should normally always be above 95%, although patients with chronic conditions such as COPD it will be lower. The patient will usually no their own individual oxygen SATS. Treating a patient with COPD must be done carefully, as stated above high oxygen levels could cause these patients to go into respiratory arrest. With that in mind patients must be treated individually. A normal health person with SATS below 95% will probably need treatment with either a nebulizer or high flow oxygen.

However all the observations must be taken into consideration when treating any patient. 2. 5 BMI is a measurement to see if your weight is healthy for your height. For most adults, an ideal BMI is in the range 18. 5 to 24. 9. If your BMI is 25 or more, you’re over the ideal weight for your height: * 25 to 29. 9 is overweight * 30 to 39. 9 is obese * 40 or more is very obese If your BMI is less than 18. 5, you’re under the ideal weight for your height. By using this index a patient can control the dietary intake to control weight gain or loss to ensure they stay within the ideal range.

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