Obesity in Black American Women Essay Sample
Culture. Biology and Lifestyle Cause Forty Nine Percent of Black American Women to be Corpulent Abstract. Obesity is a major factor in wellness today. Certain cultural groups and genders suffer from fleshiness more than others. Around 49 % of all Black American adult females are classified corpulent today. There are many grounds for this. But the three the Black American adult females are susceptible to are civilization. life style and biological science. Forty nine per centum of Black American adult females are corpulent. This is an over representation compared to 38 % of Latina adult females and 33 % of non-Hispanic white adult females. ( Phelan. Johnson. Wesley ) . Many factors determine a person’s weight and wellness position.
Economicss. life style. diet. civilization. biological science and society all affect a person’s organic structure size and composing. Culture. biological science and life style have the largest impact on why Black American adult females are corpulent. Health. economic and social deductions of fleshiness are overpowering and affect every individual in this state. The medical community defines fleshiness as holding a Body Mass Index ( BMI ) of 30 or greater.
BMI is merely a comparing of weight to tallness. The existent expression is weight in kgs divided by tallness in metres squared. A BMI of greater than 25 but less than 30 is considered fleshy and a BMI of greater than 40 is considered morbidly corpulent. BMI is a comparing of weight to height. non fat to height. BMI is a utile tool for most of the population. but does non work good for to a great extent muscled people. such as organic structure builders. Fat is damaging to wellness. Muscle is non.
The general population knows that fleshiness causes diabetes and bosom jobs. But fleshiness is much more terrible than that. Obesity causes wellness jobs that many find oculus gap. Obesity causes hardening of the arterias. increased cholesterin and cardiac failure. In add-on to damaging the bosom and arterias obesity causes malignant neoplastic disease. Twenty per centum of all malignant neoplastic disease related deceases in adult females are attributed to fleshiness ( Dixon ) . Fifty per centum of all Type II diabetes patients are corpulent. ( Dixon ) . Obesity is associated with increased hazard of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease ( Kogiso. Moriyoshi and Nagahara ) .
Obesity causes many more non so good known. but still really refering wellness issues. Thirty one per centum of all arthritis patients are corpulent. ( Dixon ) . Sixty three per centum of adult females who suffer from degenerative arthritis are corpulent ( Dixon ) . Corpulent adult females show a 37 % increased hazard of depression ( Stunkard ) . Fleshiness can do sterility and gestation complications ( Phelan. Edelman ) . It even can cut down the effectivity of birth control. Corpulent people are three times more disposed to endure from sleep apnea ( Visscher. Seidell ) .
And for the existent shocker. 300. 000 deceases per twelvemonth in the United States entirely are attributed to fleshiness! Fleshiness is merely 2nd to smoking in preventable deceases per twelvemonth in the US. ( Visscher. Seidell ) . The grounds about half of all Black adult females in the US are corpulent are complex and many. We can indicate our finger at economic sciences. life style. society. biological science. diet. civilization. Culture. life style and biological science are the primary grounds 49 % of Black adult females in the US are corpulent. Surveies have shown that civilization can hold a profound consequence on organic structure size.
Several surveies have found that the Black American population has a penchant for larger organic structure size ( Johnson ) . Portia Johnson. in her article. Scholarly Positions on Obesity in Black American Women. references a 2002 survey that shows that African American work forces prefer African American adult females with a larger organic structure size. The same writer besides cites a 2006 survey that shows that African American adult females “describe a theoretical account of wellness that speaks to the Black women’s cultural belief that a larger organic structure size is ideal” ( Johnson ) .
African adult females besides have a penchant for larger organic structures. A 2006 survey on cultural Zulus. Zulu migrators to London. and Anglo Londoners show a penchant for larger organic structure size by the Zulu migrators and the cultural Zulus ( Brewis 88 ) . Each participant in were shown grey scale images of adult females of known BMI. The participants were asked to take which image represented the most healthy and attractive organic structure. The Anglo Londoners chose a BMI size of 20. the cultural Zulus chose BMI 26 and the migratory Zulus chose a BMI of 24.
Dr. James Kirby and co-workers made the interesting find that merely populating in a community with 25 % or more non-Hispanic inkinesss increases 1s leaning of being overweight ( Kirby et al ) . Similarly Dr. Kirby discovered that life in a community of 25 % or more Asians decreases a person’s leaning of being overweight ( Kirby et al ) . Kirby surmises this is due to the handiness of healthy nutrient. Parkss. pavements and diversion installations in each community. Kirby found that a predomination of black Americans live in communities with fewer recreational installations. gyms. Parkss and fewer picks of healthy nutrient than other ethnicities. The same survey besides found more fast nutrient eating houses and convenience nutrient shops in predominately black and Latino American communities.
Possibly the most convincing grounds is in the words of African American adult females. In her article ‘Voices from the Inside: African American Women’s Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles’ Jill Rowe interviewed African American adult females on healthy life styles and nutrient picks. One adult female explains eating in African American civilization as: It’s about like every individual in my household has something they cook existent good and I don’t want to ache anybody’s feelings. When you go to your mama’s house. I’ve ever gone to the icebox. That’s how African Americans show their love. From the birthday parties. to when you have company. My household. when we’re happy we eat. When we’re sad. we eat. We eat when we’re married. we eat when we’re born. we eat when we die. It’s ever. who’s conveying the fried poulet and lb bar. ( Rowe )
Culture can significantly impact a person’s weight. But we should besides be cognizant that biological science can impact weight excessively. Research workers have found that Black American adult females have a lower Resting Metabolic Rate ( RMR ) . RMR is the rate at which energy ( Calories ) are metabolized to maintain variety meats working at remainder. Black American adult females have a lower RMR than white or Latino adult females. This means they burn fewer Calories throughout the twenty-four hours and map more expeditiously than white Americans doing it harder to lose weight ( Johnson ) . A 1996 survey found that the Resting Energy Expenditure ( REE ) of black American adult females was lower than for Caucasic American adult females.
The research workers measured the REE of each participant and found that the Black adult females had a REE of 1790 Calories per twenty-four hours at remainder. while the Caucasic adult females had an REE of 1949 Calories per twenty-four hours at remainder. Simply put this means that Caucasic adult females burn. on norm. 250 more Calories per twenty-four hours at remainder than Black American adult females do. This makes it harder for black adult females to lose weight ( Johnson ) . Research workers have besides discovered that Black Americans have an over look of fatty acerb conveyance protein. This means that more fat is delivered to flesh out storage cells doing it easier for Black Americans to hive away fat than white Americans ( Barakat ) . Research workers have measured and found more upper organic structure fat in Black Women compared to white adult females. A larger below the skin degree ( hypodermic ) fat degree was found in Black Women as compared to white American adult females ( Conway ) .
Diet and exercising are portion of a persons’ life style and both have a important impact on weight and wellness. Several surveies have proven that Black Americans eat more sugared nutrients as compared to European Americans. Portia Johnson and co-workers cite a 2000 survey on penchant for sweet nutrient amongst African Americans and European Americans. The survey offered gustatory sensation trials to each cultural group and compared how each group responded to Sweets. The research workers discovered that Black Americans ate more of the sweetened nutrients offered at assorted intervals during a gustatory sensation trial ( Johnson ) . They conclude that African Americans could be utilizing a sweetened nutrient to counterbalance for greater sensed emphasis doing greater weight addition and fleshiness.
Angelia Paschal and co-workers examined the consequences of a survey on self-reported diet and exercise wonts of African American work forces and adult females. They found that 55-75 % of the adult females in their survey seldom exercising. They besides found that 76 % of all participants did non eat the minimal day-to-day demands for fruit and less than half met the lower limit demands for veggies. Not surprisingly this survey reports that 62 % of participants were diagnosed with high blood pressure and 14 % were diagnosed with elevated blood sugar degrees and/or diabetes ( Paschal et al ) . A survey that compared fittingness of Latina American adult females to Blacken American adult females found similar consequences. “More than one-half of the adult females reported prosecuting in no regular physical activity.
However. the significant variableness in the figure of proceedingss exercised per hebdomad points to the demand to look into methods to heighten the continuance of physical activity. ” ( Sanchez-Johnsen et Al ) . Genesis. a church based wellness and fitness plan aimed at Black Americans. found that many of the participants did non correlate fleshiness with hapless wellness. The participants in Genesis completed a self-reported study where merely 16 % indicated they were corpulent. but when clinically measured 87 % were found to be fleshy or corpulent. This indicates that participants failed to link extra weight with medical hazard. perchance due to cultural conditioning. personal denial or non tie ining organic structure weight with wellness hazard ( Cowart et Al ) .
It is non all somberness and day of reckoning for adult females of colour in the US. Culture. biological science and life style are all things that can be changed or at least worked with to lose weight and addition fittingness. There are several plans in this state aimed at overall fittingness for Black American adult females. The Genesis plan has worked with black Americans through churches and found this combination really successful. Genesis provided wellness and diet instruction. exercising prescriptions and a motive spouse.
Some of their successes include a 71 % less soda ingestion. fried meat ingestion was reduced from 91 % to 55 % . The per centum of respondents describing no exercising at all went from 45 % at the start of the plan to 27 % on the station pilot study ( Cowart et Al ) . Merely as diet. life style and civilization can be changed so can biology. Resting Metabolic Rate ( RMR ) can be raised by obtaining a leaner organic structure mass as musculus is more active than fat. Witherss and co-workers have proved this with a survey conducted on 49-70 twelvemonth old adult females. Their survey has found that aerophilic preparation in older adult females increases RMR.
They compared active adult females to non-active adult females and found that the active adult females had a significantly higher RMR. Having a organic structure composing of more thin mass to flesh out mass greatly has “implications for increased independency and improved quality of life. ” ( Withers et Al ) . Black American adult females have particular challenges and considerations in weight loss and fittingness.
They face a civilization that encourages eating and appreciates big organic structure size. a more efficient metabolic system that uses fewer Calories at remainder. a leaning for their organic structures to hive away fat. and a lifestyle that makes diet and exercising hard. Yet cognizing these challenges is half the conflict. With cognition. the support of the community and their household. and committedness they can get the better of these challenges and make a end of life-time fittingness and wellness.
Barakat. HA. “Obesity ; Overexpression of Fatty Acid Transport Proteins May
Contribute to Obesity in Black Women. ” Science Letter. 7 Feb 2006. 1218. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Brewis. Alexandra. Obesity Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press. ( 2011 ) . Print. Conway. Joan. “Ethnicity and Energy Stores” . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 62. 5. Nov 1995. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Cowart. Luvenia. et Al. “Designing and Pilot-Testing a Church-Based Community Program to Reduce Obesity among African Americans. ” ABNF Journal. 21. 1. ( 2010 ) . 4-10. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Dixon. John. “The Effect of Obesity on Health Outcomes. ” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Vol. 316. Issue 2. 25 Mar 10. 104-108. Endocrine Aspects of Obesity. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Edelman. Allison. “Special Feature: Do We Have a Problem? Obesity and Contraception. ” OB GYN Clinical Alert. Dec 2011. n. pag. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Johnson. Portia ; Yvonne Wesley. “Scholarly Positions on Obesity among Black Women. ” ABNF Journal. 23. 3. ( 2012 ) . 46-50. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Kirby. James. et. Al. “Race. Topographic point. and Fleshiness: The Complex Relationships among Community Racial/Ethnic Composition. Individual Race/Ethnicity. and Obesity in the United States. ” American Journal of Public Health. 102. 8. Aug 2012. 1572-1578. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Kogiso. Tomomi. et Al. “Clinical Significance with Fatty Liver Associated with Metabolic Syndrome. ” Hepatology Research. Vol. 37. Issue 9. Sep 2007. 711-721. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Paschal. Angelia. et Al. “Baseline Appraisal of the Heath Status and Health Behaviors of African American Participating in the Activities for Life Program: A Community Based Health Intervention Program. ” Journal of Community Health. 29. 4. Aug 2004. 305-318. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Phelan. Sharon. “Obesity in the American Population: Kilogram calories. Cost and Culture. ” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Volume 203. Issue 6. Dec 2010. 522–524. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Rowe. Jill. “Voices From the Inside: African American Women’s Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles. ” Health Education and Behavior. Vol. 37. Dec 2010. 789-800. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Sanchez-Johnsen. Lisa. et Al. “Ethnic Differences in Correlates of Obesity between Latin-American and Black Women. ” Obesity Research. 12. 4. Apr 2004. 652-660. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Stunkard. Albert. “Depression and Obesity. ” Biological Psychology. Vol. 54 Issue 3. 1 Aug 2003. 330-337. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Visscher. Tommy. Jacob Seidell. “The Public Health Impact of Obesity. ” Annual Review of Public Health. ( 2001 ) .
355-375. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Witherss. RT. et Al. “Energy Metabolism in Sedentary and Active 49- to 70-yr-old Women. ” Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 84. Apr 1998. 1333-1340. Web. 18 Feb 2013.
Brewis. Alexandra. Obesity Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press. ( 2011 ) . Print.
Brewis’ book is a must read for anyone perusal. researching or working in wellness. weight direction or fittingness. The writer takes a expression at fleshiness from an anthropologist’s point of view. Where did fleshiness originate? How does if consequence certain races/genders more than others? These are some of the inquiries answered. The writer has lived in different civilizations and worked with different ethnicities obtaining replies to some of the enigmas environing weight addition. She has uncovered grounds why fleshiness is prevailing in the United States and other states.
And discusses why some ethnicities are more vulnerable to burden addition after migrating to the United States or other developed states. The writer has studied the civilization of the Pima Indians of both the US and Mexico and explains why fleshiness affects the US Pimas more than the Mexican Pimas. Brewis besides explains why some ethnicities find larger organic structure weigh acceptable and why some ethnicities have larger males than females and why they find this absolutely normal. Biagioli. Brian. Advanced Concepts of Personal Training. National Council on Strength and Fitness. ( 2007 ) . Print.
This book was by a medical physician. This manual is applicable to anyone interested in larning more about physical fittingness. nutrition. physiology. organic structure composing and exercising mechanics. It is the National Council on Strength and Fitness’ usher for all their certified personal trainer campaigners. The manual contains 540 pages with many illustrations explicating fleshiness. Resting Metabolic Rate ( RMR ) . Body Mass Index ( BMI ) and physiology. This manual includes chapters on particular populations such as adult females. kids and particular needs persons. HBO The Weight of the Nation. HBO Documentary Films ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ; National Institute of Health. Et Al. Assorted actors/directors. ( 2007 ) . DVD.
This is a four portion docudrama on fleshiness in America. Each portion is about one hr long. The parts consist of effects. picks. kids in crisis and challenges. The movies explore why the United States is confronting an fleshiness crisis. and what we can make about it now. Assorted wellness experts narrate the movies. Interviews are conducted with a host of citizens covering with fleshiness right now. They tell in their ain words the challenges they face. There is important commentary and interview on ethnicities. females. citizens populating in interior metropoliss and the issues environing fleshiness and weight addition. The Skinny on Obesity. Perf. Robert Lustig et Al. UCTV Prime. 12 Apr. 2012. Web Video. This picture series plays on UCSF Prime TV online. Dr. Robert Lustig is endocrinal expert at the UCSF Children’s Hospital. This is a seven portion series that tackles the rudimentss of the fleshiness epidemic such as sugar. endocrines. fast nutrient. childhood fleshiness. and endocrinal system.
Each portion is about 15 proceedingss long. Merely a basic apprehension of wellness and physiology is needed to to the full understand constructs presented. Platkin. Charles. The Automatic Diet. New York. Penguin. 2005. Print. This book discusses how to slowly better your diet over clip with little alterations. Dr. Platkin holds a maestro of public wellness and is one of the nation’s taking public wellness advocators. He writes The Diet Detective. a syndicated article that appears in 100s of newspapers throughout the state. His book takes the reader through little stairss of diet and lifestyle alterations that together make a whole new diet makeover doing healthful eating simple and therefore ‘automatic’ .