Of White Hairs and Cricket by Rohinton Mistry

What does Manolin offer Santiago? He offers to return to Santiago after making some money with successful fishermen. 6. What plan did he announce to Manolin? He announces his plan to go far out in the sea the following day. 7. How was Santiago’s shack? It was furnished with only a bed, a table and chair. There was a place to cook. On the wall were two pictures, one of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the other of the Virgin Cobre, the patroness. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 20 8. What made Santiago feel lonely? What did he do for that? The photograph of his wife made him feel lonely.

So he threw it down. 9. What was Santiago’s recurring dream about? It was of lions playing on the white beaches of Africa, a scene he saw from his ship when he was a very young man. 10. How does he consider the sea? He considers it as a woman whose wild behavior is beyond her control. 11. What objects does he observe while moving away from the shore? He observes flying fish pursued by dolphins, a diving, circling sea bird, Sargasso weed, the purple Portugese man of war, the small fish that swim among the jellyfish like creatures filaments. 12. How did Santiago know that a huge fish was pulling on the line?

He saw the projecting stick that marks the top of the hundred fathom line dip sharply. 13. Why cannot Santiago increase the tension on the line? The line is too taut as the marlin is pulling the line. So it will break and the fish will get away. 14. How does he keep his strength after his hand being cut? He eats the tuna he caught the day before which he had expected to use as bait. 15. When does he declare that the marlin is great? What does he decide at that time? The fish leaps into the air and Santiago sees that it is bigger than any he has ever seen. It is two feet longer than the skiff itself.

Santiago decides not to let the fish learn its own strength. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 21 16. What are his thoughts about baseball and other games? He thinks that the great DiMaggio plays brilliantly even though he had the pain of bone spur in his heel. He wonders if DiMaggio would stay with the marlin. To get more confidence, he recalls the great all-night arm-wrestling match he won as a young man. Having defeated the great Negro Cienfuegos, Santiago earned the title ‘The Champion’. 17. When did Santiago wish that the boy was with him when the marlin repeatedly jumps out of the water?

Santiago is thrown into the bow of the skiff, face down in his dolphin meat. He tries to control the line with his back and hands. Then he wishes that Manolin was with him. 18. When does he feel ‘I do not care who kills who’? When the marlin begins to circle, riot against the line, battering the boat with its spear, Santiago feels faint and dizzy and sees black spots before his eyes. He thinks that the fish is killing him. 19. What does he feel after killing the marlin? He thinks about how much money he will be able to make from such a big fish. He also imagines that DiMaggio the famous baseball player would be proud of him. 0. What happens an hour after killing the marlin? Having smelled the marlin, blood, a mako shark comes. It hits the marlin and eats 50 pounds of its flesh. Santiago sinks the harpoon into its head and takes the weapon along with him. 21. How does he try to cheer himself? By saying that “a man can be destroyed but not defeated” he cheers himself. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 22 22. Why does he believe that he violated his luck when he sailed too far out? When he finds that the flesh of the marlin is eaten by the sharks and only the bone with the head is left, he thinks thus. 23.

According to Santiago what was the thing that defeated him? It was that he went too far into the sea. Paragraph Questions and Answers 1. Character Sketch of Santiago, the Hero of the novel Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea highlight Santiago as the main character. He is the ‘Old Man’ of the title. Santiago is a Cuban fisherman. He has been unlucky for a great span of time. For eighty four days, he has been unable to catch a fish. He is proud of his abilities even after this defeat. He is humble and has great knowledge of the sea and its creatures. He is talented in his craft. He has great hope even after the unlucky circumstance he faces.

He always faces challenges in his life. The marlin is the greatest challenge he faces and fights for three days continuously. His victory over this fish brings out his spirit of adventure. 2. Character Sketch of Manolin Manolin is a minor character who appears in the beginning and at the end of the novel. His presence is very important since his devotion and love to Santiago reveals the Old Man’s value as an individual and a fisherman. Even though Santiago is a failure as fisherman, Manolin likes to go fishing with him. Manolin shows this love openly. He is eager about Santiago’s food and ther necessities. Manolin is a good companion to Santiago even though their ages differ greatly. His parents want him to go with other successful fishermen but Manolin is determined to come back to Santiago after earning money. At the end of this novel we find Manolin abandoning his father and going to Santiago. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 23 Essay Questions and Answers 1. Bring out the symbolism implied in the struggle of the old man against the sea in the novel. The word symbolism came to be associated with Hemingway only after the appearance of the novel The Old Man and the Sea.

In The Old Man and the Sea, we find that the symbolism of Hemingway has far deeper significance. Here also the story is only the small visible part built up by a series of parables and symbols. Hemingway himself has said, “I tried to make a real old man a real old man and a real boy, a real scene, a real fish and real sharks. But if I made them good and sure enough, they would mean many things. So apart from being a moving little story on fishing, the book could be read as personal parable and universal allegory”. Hemingway has taken many facts from his own life for this novel.

Something of his character and personality is given to the hero of the novel. But in The Old Man and the Sea, the identification between the author and the hero is complete. In Santiago’s story the reader is to detect the struggles of Hemingway his confidence and his determination. Santiago goes for his work always with care and precision. He shows extraordinary courage. He represents Hemingway. They are similar in many ways. In spite of the extreme difficulties Santiago triumphs over the fish, even though finally he is defeated by the sharks. He is happy that he did not surrender to the marlin or the sea. For Hemingway Gulf Stream is time.

The marlin which is hidden in the deep sea is truth hidden in the depth of time. Hemingway is trying to understand this truth like Santiago who tries to catch the marlin from the depth of the sea. We see Hemingway’s daring soul in Santiago’s determination to go far into the sea. The symbolism in the soul is not limited to personal level. The whole novel is underlined by a universal parable. It is the representation of life as a struggle against unconquerable natural forces. Victory is possible in this action. Santiago represents the great heroes of Greek tragedy fated to failure yet struggling nobly against the hatred of an adverse enemy.

School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 24 Santiago’s aspiration, personality and inevitable nature of his failure reminds us of those heroes. His words “man is not made for defeat, a man can be destroyed, but not defeated” reflects this comparison. In the novel there is an unmistakable Christian strain. Santiago fights the good fight, without caring for the reward. Towards the end of his struggle, he even says, “I don’t care who kills who”. Santiago is an example of the doctrine of Christian love. He has the fisherman apostle and martyr from the sea of Galilee in him. He has also something of St.

Francis in him as he feels for the birds and fishes. The natural compassion he feels towards creatures is essentially a Christian virtue. He repeatedly mutters “Hail Mary” but we cannot take him as a religious person. Instead we can see the Christian Spirit in him. He shows certain qualities of mind and heart which are clearly related to the character and personality of Jesus Christ in the parables. Hemingway’s use of symbolism is so restrained that he cannot be categorised along with those who are usually labeled as symbolists. He uses symbolism with a strict restraint so as to work protect his realism. . Write a note on Hemingway’s style with special reference to ‘Old Man and the Sea’. “Use short sentences. Use short paragraph. Use vigorous English. Avoid the use of adjective especially such extravagant one ‘splendid’, ‘gorgeous’, ‘grand’, ‘magnificent’ etc”. Ernest Hemingway was very much indebted to these rules which demanded fresh language and economy. Even the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 came to Hemingway mostly because of his style – his mastery of the art of modern narration. The Old Man and the Sea is the best example of Hemingway’s splendid style.

The most remarkable quality of the style of ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ is its simple conversational tone. The fresh and simple, colloquial and unemotional style suited Hemingway’s objective narrative technique very well. The very beginning of the novel is informal, simple, forceful and relaxed, putting the reader immediately at ease. The simple style whichSchool of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 25 Hemingway has chosen has great appropriateness to this story of simple fisherman. Carefully chosen formal words would have been incongruous with the theme and setting which are simple too.

In the simplest possible words Hemingway conveys the deepest feelings of the old man. Hemingway has practiced the strictest objectivity in writing. The author remains deliberately in the background, never thrusting himself forward. Though the story is one of much suffering, the descriptions never reach emotional heights. The author is just like a neutral onlooker and careful details kindle our imagination and tell the story themselves. The chief features of Hemingway’s style are objectivity, dramatic emphasis employing a terse dialogue, and terse sentences with little subordination.

To achieve immediacy, Hemingway has used words sparingly, with a powerful suggestion of action and experience behind these words. Hemingway’s contribution to modern literature consists of employing the raw language of every day life in literature. The novel’s swift action and vivid style have contributed to its great success. In short, Hemingway’s style in ‘Old Man and the Sea’ fully reveals his involvement in writing the novel. Moreover he was able to keep up his style unflaggingly throughout the whole book. Suggested Questions 1.

Give an account of the character of Santiago in Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’. 2. Ernest Hemingway as a realist. 3. The novel reflects the basic human qualities of comparison, courage and endurance. Justify (refer summary of the text. ) THE PHOENIX THE PHOENIX – Sylvia Townsend Introduction to the author Sylvia Townsend Warner (1893-1978) was Qn English novelist, short story writer and biographer. Her first and best seller story is Lolly Willows. In 1940, she published The Cats Cradle Book. When she was 84 she published her last and most remarkable book, Kingdom of Elfin.

Summary Lord Strawberry had the finest Aviary in Europe. All the apartments for birds like eagles, humming birds, snow buntings had a climate that suited them perfectly. But for many years the finest set of apartments meant for Phoenix remained empty. It carried the label “Phoenix : Habitat : Arabia”. Many scientists on birds told the Lord that Phoenix is a fabulous bird which is extinct. But the Lord did not belt. His family had always believed in Phoenixes. Meanwhile his agents reported of birds like orioles, macaws, turkey buzzards, dyed orange etc; saying that they were phoenix.

They sent their statements along with the expense of it. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 27 Lord Strawberry himself went to Arabia, found a phoenix and brought it home. It was a remarkable fine bird than the other birds in the aviary. The Lord was much attached to it. Ornithologists, poets, journalists and millionaires were impressed by it. They constantly visited it. But the bird was not attracted by these attentions. All the time it ate well and seemed perfectly calm. Lord Strawberry lost his wealth in keeping this aviary. He died penniless. The aviary was left to be sold.

Usually, with such a rare bird as the Phoenix, it would have been costly but it happened that the Lord died just after the World War Money and bird seed became hard things to come by. At first a fund called Strawberry Phoenix Fund, was opened by the London Zoo. To it students and naturalists contributed according to their ability. As their means were small, the fund raised was not high. So Lord Strawberry’s executors who had the death duties to consider accepted the offer of Mr. Tancred Polder, owner and proprietor of Poldero’s Wizard Wonderland. He considered his phoenix a bargain.

It adapted itself to its new surroundings. It makes profits to Mr. Poldero until the crowds began to lose interest. Poldero goes on a new venture to gain profits learning that it will give a grand show of flames at the end of its life. He proceeds to age the bird unnaturally. He didn’t give it proper food, made it cold and put disagreeable birds and alley cats with it. He did all these because its natural environment was Arabia, a dry place. When he understood the phoenix was nearing death, he called the media to shoot the spectacular show of the bird’s death and rebirth.

The bird died and was reborn in the flame but the greedy Poldero and viewers also died in the process. This story is a satire on the human desire to view strange things. The irony is that the crowd who came to see the end of the Phoenix faced their own death. Self-Check Questions 1 Consider The Phoenix as a satire on the human need to see strange things and disordering the natural phenomenon. 2. Bring out the irony in “The Phoenix”. 3. The story is a conflict between Man and self and Man and Nature. UNIT 2 OF WHITE HAIRS AND CRICKET – Rohinton Mistry Introduction to the Author

Rohinton Mistry born on 3rd July 1952, is an Indian born Canadian writer in English. He belongs to the Parsi community. He published 11 short stories in the Penguin Books. He won the Governor General’s Award for his second novel Such a Long Journey. It also won the commonwealth writer prize for Best Book. His third book A fine Balance got the Giller Prize. His books picture the different aspects of Indian socioeconomic life and Parsi Zoroastrian life, customs and religion. Summary This story is taken from the collection ‘Swimming Lessons and other Stories’. It is a first person view through a 14-year old boy Kersi Boyce’s eye.

It is a concern over age and mortality. Every Sunday morning Kersi has to pull the white hairs from his father’s head. He is looking for a job and wants to look young. He has been unemployed and is seeking for one. The father, during this time goes through the classified advertisement for jobs. Kersi’s grandmother Mamaiji has had her cataract surgery and is supposed to be taking rest. But she insists on spinning thread. She winds the thread in a very experienced way. Kersi is fascinated by this. Kersi’s father declares a certain ad promising and wants the boy to pluck every white hair.

Mamaiji always disagrees with him saying that the boy is underfed. It is now that the father says that the ad will end their troubles. Kersi’s mother always speaks optimistically but this day she keeps silent. At the end mother asks him to forget planning and leave things to God. Kersi gets sick of pulling out the white hair. He goes into the compound and finds Dr. Sidhwa visiting Viraj’s house. Kersi sees his best friend Viraf and greets him. He waits for a bit and then goes and speaks to Viraf. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 29 Kersi finds his friend very much upset.

He understands that his friend’s father is ill. Kersi goes to see the sick person. He is in bed, needles sticking out of him. Now he thinks about his father. He is also mortal. He understands that his father is growing old. He remembers how his father used to take him and his brother out for playing. Now his father does not do that. Kersi thinks of the white hairs on his father’s head. It is growing more and more. This makes him realize that his father is growing old. He returns and wants to pluck out the white hairs in his father’s head, to stop him growing old. But his ego stops him.

He wants his father to ask him first. He doesn’t ask his father, instead goes to his room and cries. The thought of death comes to him when he sees Viraf’s father’s end. Many things give him the thought of mortality, growing up and death. They are the loss of childhood, cricket matches, and the increasing weakness of Mamaiji and the father’s vain hope of getting a new job. The story stresses on the fact that death and aging are envitable. Self-check Questions 1. Bring out the plot in the story. 2. Give the character sketch of Kersi and his Dad. 3. How is the inevitability of aging shown through the story? 4. What role oes Viraf’s father play in the story? UNIT 3 SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLS – O. Henry Introduction to the author William Sydney Porter (1862-1910) was known by his pen name O. Henry. He was an American writer. His stories are known for their clever twisty endings. His most energetic period of writing started in 1902. His stories are set in the earl 20th century. His famous stories are The Cop and the Anthem, The Clarion Call, The Last Leaf, The Gift of the Magi, A Retrieved Reformation, The Ransom of Red Chief etc.. Summary Old Jerome Warren was rich and lived in a hundred-thousand dollar house at 35, East Fifty Soforth Street.

He was a down-town broker. He adopted his old friend’s son named Gilbert. He was a well-known painter. Old Jerome had a stepniece also, Barbara Ross. Old Jerome had no family of his own. He always took up the burdens of others. Gilbert and Barbara went on friendly. There was an understanding between the two. They instructed the minister to keep old Jerome’s money in a state of confusion. Thirty years before, there was a brother of Jerome named Dick who went to the west to seek his fortune. Nothing was heard of him until one day old Jerome got a letter from Dick. Dick was in trouble and had become a drunkard!

All, that his thirty years of prospecting had gained him was one daughter. She was nineteen years old. Dick sent her by ship. He prepaid Jerome her charges to clothe, feed, educate, comfort and cherish for the rest of her natural life or until her marriage. Jerome met Neveda Warren at the station. She was an unsophisticated goodlooking little girl. Everyone was friendly towards her. But as usual a complication emerged between one man and two ladies. So upon the coming of Neveda, she and Gilbert and Barbara Ross formed a figurative triangle. One day a messenger – boy delivered a letter to Niveda.

He waited for her reply. Before opening it, she knew it was from Gilbert. She asked old Jerome about Gilbert. She wanted him to read the letter Gilbert had just sent him. Jerome read it threeSchool of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 31 times. He told Neveda that Gilbert in his letter had asked whether Neveda and Barbara will be ready at four in the afternoon for an automobile drive over to Long island. Jerome found nothing wrong in his request and gave her permission to go. But he wanted her to give just a line of note to Gilbert in return. But Neveda didn’t give a reply in writing.

But she said that she loved a ride in an automobile as she never had gone in one. After two months, Barbara was sitting alone in the study of the house. Old Jerome and Neveda had gone to the theatre. Barbara had a sealed letter in her hand. It was from Gilbert to Neveda. It had been delivered at nine after Neveda had left. She tried to read the lines of the letter by holding the envelope up to a strong light but she couldn’t. When Neveda returned and went to the study to Barbara, Barbara handed over the letter to her. Neveda was unbuttoning her elbow gloves. She asked Barbara whose letter it was.

She was tugging at a button. Barbara guessed from the little gold palette at the corner of the envelope that it was Gilberts. When Barbara asked her to read and find out the contents of the letter. Neveda pretended as if she was had difficult in unbuttoning and wanted Barbara to read it. Out of curiosity Barbara readily read it. She told Neveda that it was Gilbert’s invitation to Neveda to go to his studio at twelve that night. Neveda went to Gilbert’s studio. Gilbert asked if she had read his letter. She told him that Barbara read it for her and she saw it later.

Gilbert telephoned his old friend Jack Peyton and his sister saying that it was going to get married. He wanted her to show him the letter. They were going to have a drive. While he pretended putting on his raincoat, he asked Neveda to read the newspaper. It was then that she said she had never been to school and never learned to read or write. After their marriage Gilbert told Neveda what he had written in that letter. It was about some flowers, hydrangea and lilac. Barbara played the joke anyway. Self-check Questions 1. Character sketches of Gilbert, Barbara and Neveda 2.

Bring out the suspense in the story. 3. How did Barbara act as a mediator of Gilbert and Neveda? 4. What incident culminated in the marriage of Gilbert and Neveda? 5. How did Barbara help them to get married? School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 32 UNIT 4 DIAMOND NECKLACE – Guy de Maupassant Introduction to the author Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) is a well known 19th century French novelist, short story writer and poet. He is regarded as one of the fathers of the modern short story. His stories have the special feature of economy of style and twist at the end.

He wrote some 300 short stories, six novels, three travel books and one volume of verse. His masterpiece story is Ball of Fat. Summary Mathilde Loisel is “pretty and charming”. She always feels uncomfortable in being married to a lowly clerk in the Ministry of Education. She believes that she has been born into a family of unfavourable economic status. Mr. Loisel was able to provide her only with a humble life style. She feels sorry in having to live like this. She imagines a luxurious life. She dreams of the extravagant rooms and food. She does not possess any costly jewels or clothing. She always wishes for this.

She never goes to her rich friend Madame Forestier since it would make her still unhappy thinking of her life. One day Mr. Loisel comes home from office with a special surprise. He is proud of it. It is an invitation to a formal party hosted by the Ministry of Education. Loisel thinks that Mathilde will be excited for getting a chance to attend such a party where many important people may come. She cries and tells him that she doesn’t have any good dress to wear. She tells him that a suitable dress may cost 400 francs. She buys a beautiful dress with it. Her next complaint was that she doesn’t have any jewels to wear.

Mr. Loisel suggests of wearing flowers, but Mathilde refuses. He tells her to borrow one from her friend Madame Forestier. Mathilde does so. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 33 At the party she becomes the target of everyone’s attention. At 4 in the morning she goes home with Loisel in a cab. At home she shockingly realizes that she has lost the diamond necklace. They search everywhere but finally has to buy one to give as substitute. It costs 40000 francs. The jeweler gives it for 36000 francs. The Loisels begin to lead a life of poverty. It takes ten years to repay the debts.

One Sunday she sees Madame Forestier. She cannot recognize Mathilde because she looks different. Mathilde says that the changes are because of Forestier and explain the 10 year life of strain. It is then that Forestiers tell that the diamond necklace Mathilde lost is not original but a fake one, an imitation of costume jewellery which cost nothing. Self-check Questions 1. Character sketch of Mathilde. 2. Character of Mr. Loisel 3. Role of the necklace in the life of the Loisel’s 4. How apt is the title to the story? 5. ‘’There is a deceptiveness of Appearance in the story’’. Refer closely to the text and justyify the statement.

School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 34 UNIT 5 MISS BRILL – Katherine Mansfield Introduction to the author Katherine Mansfield (1888-1923) was a prominent modernist writer of short fiction. She was born and brought up in New Zealand. Her first published stories appeared in the High School Reporter. She was interested in the works of Oscar Wilde. Mansfield was recognized to be a great writer in the last years of her life. Most of her works remained unpublished at her death. It was Murry who did the editing and publishing work for her. She is considered to be one of the best short story writers of her age.

Many of her works including Miss Brill, Prelude, and The Garden Party are famous The Dolls House and The Fly are well known. The Dolls House is made into a film. She died of tuberculosis. Summary Miss Brill has The Jardin Publiques in a French town as its setting. It is an early autumn Sunday afternoon. Miss Brill is a middle aged spinster. This character is revealed through her own thoughts. This is called the stream-ofconsciousness narration. The air is still and Miss Brill is happy to have worn her fur stole. The stole is like any other stoles as per the fashions of the times.

It is made in such a way that its fake eyes and nose can be connected to its tail. This will help the wearer to have it secured around the neck. She prepares to go for her usual Sunday stroll to the park. She brushes the fur so that she feels that life has come back into its dim eyes. Miss Brill is happy to be in the park and watches the people. The sound of the bands seem to be louder and happier for her than it has been on previous Sundays. She sits in her special seat with two others sitting nearby-an old man and woman. They did not speak. Miss Brill always expects to listen to talks.

So she is disappointed at this. The old couple left after sometime. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 35 She remembers the previous Sunday. An Englishman and his wife are having a talk over the selection of spectacles for the lady. Miss Brill feels that nearly all of the people coming Sunday after Sunday are the same. There is something funny about them. Two young girls come by and two young soldiers meet them. They pair and go-off arm-in-arm. Two peasant women pass with donkeys. A cold, pale nun hurries by. A beautiful woman comes along and drops a bunch of violets. A little boy hands it to her.

She taintes of the old invalid gentleman to whom she reads the newspaper four afternoons a week while he sleeps in the garden. By this time the band has been having rest. Now they start again. Just at this time a boy and girl comes and sits down where the old couple has been. They are in love. Miss Brill’s happy mood is shattered by the ridiculous comments made by them. She returns to her tiny apartments and places her fur back in its box. She imagines that she hears its crying. Self-check Questions 1. How is Miss Brill revealed through her thoughts? 2. What is the role of the stolen fur in her life? 3.

What are the usual things that Miss Brill came to notice in the park? School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 36 UNIT 6 MISERY – Anton Chekhov Introduction to the Author Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (1860-1904) was a Russian physician, dramatist and above all the greatest writer of short stories. He first wrote stories for financial gain. Later his artistic desire grew and he made novel changes which have influenced the evolution of modern short story. He died of Tuberculosis. Chekhov’s works have been translated into many languages. Summary The story opens with the wet snowy evening in a Petersburg street.

The street has just been lighted. Iona Potapov is a sledge driver. He sits on the box without getting a fare. His mare is covered with the falling snow and it is also motionless. It’s a long time since Iona has gone driving with a passenger. It is then that an officer in a military overcoat with a hood over his head came to the sledge. He orders Iona to take him to Vyborgskaya. Iona begins to make his drive but all through the journey, the officer scolds him for driving improperly. Iona was so much depressed since he has lost his son. His son died that week after suffering from fever.

He laid three days in the hospital and then died. On their way, another coachman swears at Iona, a pedestrian crossing the road brushes the horses’ nose with his shoulder. He looks angrily at Iona. Iona looks at the officer and begins to say something. It is about his son’s death. He wants to share his sorrow with someone. The officer is unwilling to listen to his sorrows. Finally they reach the destination. After sometime, three young men-two tall and thin, one short and hunchbacked, come up railing and shouting at eachother. They get into the sledge and demand Iona to take them to the Police Bridge.

Inside the sledge they quarrel for the seats. Using bad language, they abuse each other. School of Distance Education Reading Fiction Page 37 Again Iona tries to tell about his son’s death but the three are not ready to listen to him. They just mocked at him. Ion’s misery is immense, beyond all bounds. If his heart is to burst and his misery to flow out, it will flood the whole world. The three get down at their destination paying twenty kopecks. They disappear into a dark passage. Then he sees a house-porter with a parcel. This man also is not in a state to listen to him. Iona can bear his sorrow no longer.

He goes back to his place of residence. There also he finds no one to listen to his sorrow. He wants to talk of his son’s death, the funeral and went to the hospital to get his son’s clothes. Iona still has a daughter Anisya. Finally he goes to the stables where his mare is standing. There he talks to his mare all his sorrow. He asks his mare to imagine herself to be a mother thinking of her colt that died. The little mare just goes on munching. Self-check Questions 1. Give a character sketch of Iona. 2. How are his different passengers responding to his grief? 3. How did his mare become his silent listener?

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