Oil and Chemical Plant Layout and Spacing
GE Global Asset Protection Services (GE GAP Services) layout and spacing recommendations are for property loss prevention purposes only and are intended for existing and new oil and chemical facilities. These guidelines are intended to limit explosion overpressure and fire exposure damage. They do not address shrapnel damage. If these guidelines cannot be followed, then additional loss control measures, such as fire proofing, waterspray or blast hardening will be necessary. GE GAP Services guidelines only address spacing and layout within a plant and are mostly applicable to open structures.
An open air design favors vapor dissipation, provides adequate ventilation, reduces the size of the electrically classified area, and increases firefighting accessibility. Additional information can be found in several publications. 1 POSITION Management Programs Management program administrators should report to top management through the minimum number of steps. They should also institute loss prevention inspection and audit programs to communicate program effectiveness to top management. This management feedback is a key feature of GAP. 1. . 1 (OVERVIEW). 2 In developing a program, pay particular attention to the following important areas: Hazard Identification and Evaluation Program Determine the plant layout and spacing necessary to limit loss size based on worst case scenarios for vapor cloud, vessel and building explosions, and for fires. Calculate overpressure circles. See GAP. 8. 0. 1. 1 for hazard analysis and evaluation methods applicable to various explosion or fire scenarios. This analysis can be completed in coordination with GE GAP Services loss prevention personnel. 5 Woodland Street, Hartford, Connecticut 06102-5010 Copyright? 2001, GE Global Asset Protection Services GE Global Asset Protection Services and its affiliated organizations provide loss prevention surveys and other risk management, business continuity and facility asset management services. Unless otherwise stated in writing, our personnel, publications, services, and surveys do not address life safety or third party liability issues. The provision of any service is not meant to imply that every possible hazard has been identified at a facility or that no other hazards exist.
GE Global Asset Protection Services and its affiliated organizations do not assume, and shall have no liability for the control, correction, continuation or modification of any existing conditions or operations. We specifically disclaim any warranty or representation that compliance with any advice or recommendation in any document or other communication will make a facility or operation safe or healthful, or put it in compliance with any law, rule or regulation. If there are any questions concerning any recommendations, or if you have alternative solutions, please contact us.
GAP. 2. 5. 2 September 3, 2001 Management of Change Conduct a Hazard Identification and Evaluation program for all new processes or for any modification to an existing process prior to completing final site selection and equipment layout. Determine the need for changes to spacing or layout. Duplication of Facilities For large-scale chemical and petrochemical plants, provide multiple process trains. In large scale plants, duplicate, with installed spares, equipment that is highly susceptible to loss or important for continued operations.
For smaller scale or batch type plants, install processes important to production in the form of multiple small-scale units rather than a single large unit. Physically separate duplicated units, process trains or equipment with adequate spacing in accordance with this section or compartmentalize with blast resistant construction. General Consider the following when determining the layout and the separation required:
High hazard operations (see Appendix A) Grouped operations Critical operations Number of personnel at risk Concentration of property and business interruption values Equipment replacement and installation time Interdependency of facilities Critical customer or supplier relationships Market share concerns Fire and explosion exposures Corrosive or incompatible materials exposures Vapor cloud explosions Sources of ignition Maintenance and emergency accessibility Drainage and grade sloping Prevailing wind conditions Natural hazards and climate Future expansions External exposures