On Job Training
On-the-Job Training 1. Introduction Every employee may have experienced some kinds of on-the-Job training (OJT) in their careers. An employee probably learns 80 to 90 percent of his/her Job knowledge and skills through OJT (Carnevale and Gainer, 1989). On-the-Job training has a general reputation of its effectiveness for vocational work. Its expediency is a major reason for a company to adopt it. However, many companies may only notice its benefits, like few costs and can be implemented quickly, but neglect its limitations.
In this report, the definition of on-the-Job training will first be discussed, and then ollowed by its practice and advantages. Last but not least are the limitations of OJT, and we will evaluate these into three categories: limitations for employees, employers and company which/who participating in on-the-Job training. 2. On-The-Job Training On-the-Job training (OJT) is an informal training method which permits an employee to learn Job tasks by actually performing them, thus to place trainees in occupations.
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This can enhance trainees’ prospects for long-term employment and also permit them to become self-sufficient.
Normally, this type of training is to transfer nowledge from a skilled and experienced worker to a new-hire; in other words, someone who knows how to do a task shows another how to perform it. Trainees are learnt through training in an actual work setting, to the processes, work tasks, tools and methods of a specific Job or group of Jobs. So, it is especially appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s Job, which are relatively easy to learn and require working with equipments or facilities.
In practicing on the Job training, one trainer usually will assign one to few trainees, depending on the Jobs’ characteristic. Because of the reasons that on-the-Job training method is planned, organized, and conducted as to enhance employees’ skills and productivities, it is viewed as one the best training methods by many organizations. And to practice a successful on-the-Job training, it is highly recommend to adopt one-to-one coaching or limit the number of trainees assigned; also, company should plan the training programmes carefully and relatively. 4. Advantages of on-the-Job training 4. Save cost OJT is a cost effective method for a company to use for training their employees. Training is delivered by existing colleagues so the company saves the money for mploying instructors or the expenses for external training. Employees are not away from their work place during training and they are actually working while learning. 4. 2 Standardization of work practices OJT make sure every employee is trained in the same way to perform the Jobs or tasks. It provides a basis for high work standards in working areas. Thus, same standard can be applied to all employees.
Oacobs & Jones, 1995) It also allows new employees to be integrated into the company more easily and quickly by avoiding unsuitable skills for their specific roles. They can learn standard skills approved by he employer. 4. 3 Real taste in the working environment Employees are actually working as they are learning under OJT. They are trained in their own working environment where they can use the equipments which they have to use for their specific duties. This can reduce employees’ fears and anxieties about learning a new task with familiar equipments and people.
The opportunities to practice in real working environment can increase employees’ confidence. Employees become more productive as they are more familiar with their Job duties. 4. 4 Increase communication between employees and departments OJT provides an pportunity for employees to communicate with staff they seldom talk to. Discussion will be increased among employees about the best way of performing a task. OJT also enhances the transfer of specific Job information between different departments. Oacobs & Jones, 1995) 4. 5 . Easy to monitor Managers and supervisors can easily observe and assess the employees through OJT.
They can assess the progress and improvement over a period of time. It is easily to identify a problem and solve it quickly. 4. 6 Flexible training progress Training can be delivered in flexible time as it is decided by the company. OTJ skills can be learned in one day, two weeks or three months, which is depends on the company schedule. 5. Limitations of on-the-Job training 5. 1 For employees who participating in on-the-Job training: In the hotel industry, the receptionists will always be the position under the on-Job training as its works suit the requirement of the on-Job training, routine work for the job position. . 1. 1 Pressure on the employees The on-Job training may add pressure on them. On the Job training will have a trainer to monitor their work during their working hours. With the strict supervision over the mployees, employees may feel that they are under great pressure as their work is supervision of senior staff, they may have pressure and affect the quality of work. 5. 1. 2 Different outcome resulted from different trainers There will not be only one trainer in the organization. Different trainers may have different standard toward the training, this may lead to different outcome.
And different standard employees will be trained up. In the hotel industry, different standard receptionists may create different value toward the organization. 5. 1. 3 Improper planning bring fragmented picture to employees As the on-Job raining requires proper planning before, the improper planning may lead the employee to have fragmented picture of the organization. This may affect their understanding toward the organization. If the receptionists do not have a clear picture of the organization, they may feel confused to the core value of the organization and affect the loyalty of the receptionists. . 1. 4 Overload the employees On-Job training is a continuous process throughout the employees’ working hours. The training time is long and employees need to learn a lot on a day. So it may overload the employees. For the receptionists, their working time is long and they will further add workload on their original work. Overloaded receptionists may prone to have the mental health problem. 5. 1. 5 Not immediate feedback abandoned employees On-Job training will require immediate feedback to ensure the effectiveness of the training.
If the trainers do not ask for immediate feedback after the training practice, employees may feel abandoned. Receptionists always have to maintain a good mood to ensure their quality of work, once they feel abandoned, the mental health may be affected, the loyalty of the employees may be affected. 5. For trainers practicing on the Job training: 5. 2. 1 Increased workload of the trainers Not Just the employees, during the On-the-Job training, there are also some limitations of trainers. First of all, the workload of the trainers, or the supervisors will be increased a lot.
As we know, there are huge amount of tasks which a supervisor have to do, such as making thousands of decisions, managing the daily operations, supervising other employees and so on. They are already extremely busy, if they are needed to train employees during their work. We think the supervisors may unable to afford the high level of workload. Additionally, if there is one more task is added to the supervisors, the responsibility of them will be increased respectively. Since the salaries will not change, but more workload is needed. The trainers may refuse to do the Job, and say “This is not my job! However, their complaints cannot change the fact. They still need to do this Job. responsibility causes more pressure. Finally, the morale and the quality of work of supervisors may be affected negatively. 5. 2. 2 Threats of trainers’ own Jobs The other limitation to supervisors is they will be afraid if they teach all of their knowledge to the employees. During the On-the-Job training, trainers will be the coaches or the mentors to supervise what the employees have done. If there is something wrong, trainers will give the instructions to correct their faults. After a period, the employees will learn all the knowledge of the supervisors.
That means the level of knowledge will be the same between trainees and trainers. It will be good news for the trainees undoubtedly. However, trainers may not be happy at this moment. The reason is that, the trainees are having the same level of knowledge with the trainers. Trainers will think that the stability of their Job will be threatened. It is ecause except the experience, the difference between employees and supervisors is the knowledge about the Job. If the employees know everything about the Job, the trainers will worry that the employees are cleverer and they will replace the trainer’s job in some day.
So, On-the-Job training will affect the thinking of supervisors, because it may cause a threat to their Jobs. In an extreme situation, employers may hesitate and not to teach all their knowledge to the trainees. Here are the limitations of On-the-Job training of the employers. 5. 3 For company which practicing on-the-Job training: 5. 3. 1 Lack of experienced staff To adopt on-the-Job training, a trainer is required. Usually, this person is the one who are experienced enough, and most importantly, they can perform the tasks that associated with the role of trainer.