Oral Communication in English
Foreword Oral communication help students to improve their self, it fulfills a number of general and discipline-specific pedagogical functions.
Learning to speak is an important goal in itself, for it equips students with a set of skills they can use for the rest of their lives. Speaking is the mode of communication most often used to offer explanations, transmit information, express opinions, make arguments and make impressions upon others. Students need to speak well in their personal lives, future workplaces, social interactions, and political endeavors.If basic instruction and opportunities to practice speaking are available, students position themselves to accomplish a wide range of goal and be useful members of their communities. Nowadays in this new millennium a usage of English has become an important language in Malaysian and it help instructors at a local college or university to teach students in their learning so that students will practices their self in oral communicate in English well.Besides that oral communication skill can take many forms, ranging from informal conversation that occurs spontaneously and, in most cases, for which the content cannot be planned, to participation in meetings, which occurs in a structured environment, usually with a set agenda. Oral communication is a unique and learned rhetorical skill that requires understanding what to say and how to say it.
Oral Communication in English Essay Example
Unlike conversational speech, speech in more formal environments does not come naturally. As a speaker there are several elements of oral communication which needed to be aware in order to learn how to use them to his advantage.Speaker should learn how to communicate effectively with several other elements in the apart from the language. The Skills are eye contact, body language, style, understanding the audience, adapting to the audience, active and reflexive listening, politeness, precision, conciseness, etc. At tertiary level it is assumed that the learners know the basics of the language. At this level teaching speaking skills is irrelevant. What the teacher has to teach is the communication skills.
For this he has to know the individual needs of the students.And this can be known in a better way when the learners perform a task in the class. Task-based approach seems to be suitable for teaching and learning these skills. In the communication process it like to prepare something for dinner, that mean we need few items to get the meal ready on the dinner table. Besides the ingredients, we may need the cooking utensils and electricity or gas to cook the food. Without this process to preparing the meal may not be cooking and it similar in the process of oral communication that needed to follow the process in early.It same when oral communication in English do where students need to know how to apply English in their oral communication so that their will speak with well.
Teacher plays their role to ensure students will give exposure to follow up each method to help students in their communication. They are so important that without them communication may not be able to take place. In the communication there are seven elements process which are source, message, channel, receiver, feedback, noise and context or environment.All of this process help students do their oral communication in English more better and effective. 1. 1. 1Channel The channel is the medium used to convey the message.
It can be in the forms of touch, smell, sound waves, light waves, visuals, or anything that may stimulate our senses. Nowadays, technological advances allow us to receive message not only from media channels such as the radio and television but also through the internet and satellite. 1. 1. 2 Context or environment The context or environment of communication can be a part of the noises that influence a communication process.They include the physical, time place and psychological situations as well as past and current knowledge of communicators involved. Communicators should consider all these factors to get an effective communication.
For example, a speaker may find a difficulty in persuading the audience to change their bad smoking habit if they are not psychologically ready to accept the charge. 1. 1. 3 Feedback Feedback is the receiver’s response towards the source. For example, when we agree with a person’s statement, we usually nod while he or she is explaining the subject.A feedback informs the sender that the receiver has received the message conveyed. In the process of influencing or informing others, feedbacks are very important to measure the effectiveness of communication.
1. 1. 4Message The message is the content of the communication process like ideas or emotions. The source encodes the message into verbal codes such as in writings or speeches. The message can also be encoded into nonverbal codes. For example, a weeping person may convey a message of sadness. 1.
1. 5 Noise Noise means anything that causes communication to be ineffective.Through Beeba and Redmond (1999) define noise as “anything, either literal or psychological, that interferes the clear reception and interpretation of a message”. Psychological noises such as uncontrollable emotions or preconceived ideas about something or someone may causes communication to be ineffective. For example, we may not want to listen to a politician, who is known to be corrupt. 1. 1.
6 Receiver The receiver also knows as the decoder and it is the person or party, who receives the message. The people will decode or translate the received message into something that can be understood.Beebe, and Redmond (1999) define interpersonal communication as “a special form of human communication that occurs when we interact simultaneously with another and mutually influence each other, usually for purpose of managing relationship”. Interpersonal communication serves many functions. They include improvements in family relationship, relationship with friends and colleagues as well as physical and emotional health. ?There are some activity and practicing skill that make oral communication in their interpersonal communication more effective in a classroom as bellow: 1. 2.
1 Listening skillsListening skills help students listen what the message that delivery to them. As example in classroom students A begin by telling the other person about their picture, describing detail and emotional attachments. Instruct students B to use proper interpersonal communication skills in listening to their partner and students should lend forward, maintain eye contact and used head nods. Then students B should ask open-ended question to create dialogue. Instruct student B to ask why and how questions. Person A and B switch roles so that both students have the chance to practice their interpersonal communication skill.This situation same while teacher taught student how to speak in English and how to delivery information through listening skills.
The teacher listens the performance of the students and comments on the individual performance. He points out the errors of the individual students. At the end of the semester, students are assessed using these tasks. 1. 2. 2 Murder Mystery This activity requires students to communicate and work together. Students will be separate into teams and give them a murder mystery scenario.
Use characters with different personalities and possible weapons.The teams must work together to discuss possible motives and who they believe is the murderer. Encourage students to use learned interpersonal communication skills such as listening, eye contact and follow-up questions. The teacher should observe the groups as they work together. Provide an evaluation for each student after the activity. Students will learn what skills are their strengths and which skills they should work to improve. 1.
2. 3Team Connections In this activity teacher will separate the class into teams or group. On the board, write the terms “collaboration” and “cooperation. The groups will learn about these two important concepts for interpersonal communication within a team. Have the groups talk about the meanings of both words and why they are important in teams. Then, encourage the whole class to come up with seven interpersonal communications skills that are important in a team. List these terms on the board.
The groups will come up with ground rules for their team, including how they will use interpersonal communication skills. Teams should identify how they will interact to resolve conflicts. The team rules can be used all year as part of the classroom group projects. The purpose of small group discussion do in oral communication is encourage active participation by all group member, foster awareness of the various tasks necessary in small-group discussion and makes students comfortable in a variety of roles in a discussion group. Through this students be able to interact each other because they all would be speak in small group, they receive positive feedback that is built into the process, they will participate actively in their learning and they will have specific role to fulfill, clearly defining their role in the small group.For make the small group communication is more effective in oral communication of students, a tips and resource are needed to make sure students will able to follow what are teaching that instructor or teacher apply to them. For example, in a group roles activity it is important to vary the composition of small group, allowing students the opportunity to work with many classmates of various abilities, interest, backgrounds, home languages, and other characteristics.
The students will have experience in different roles and will improve their skill through activity that do which repeated throughout the year. Students also will focus on the task through time the exercise. If research is required, involve all students in the process, regardless of their role. This activity provides an excellent way for students to share research and come to a consensus about important information. For role ideas, see Student or Teacher Resource, Sample Role Cards. To encourage students to reflect on their learning, use Student Resource, Small-group Discussion Reflection Sheet.Beside of this activity in a group roles, other activity such as place mat, determining key ideas, jigsaw, and discussion web also help students to do their oral communication because through that activity ensure students participate and become a speaker.
There are a few strategies used to improve small group communication skills. They are by understanding the interaction process, understanding group dynamics, improving perception building and observing skill, and choosing the right communication style.All of this strategy help instructor to improve students learning in a small group communication and it can be improved if every member of the group improves him or herself by taking into account the understanding of the interaction process, psychological elements of other members, and ability to observe and choose the right style of communication. 1. 5 PUBLIC COMMUNICATION Public communication refers to a communication, whereby a speaker addresses a relatively large audience with relatively continuous discourse, usually in a face-to-face situation (Devito, 1997).Public speaking is still one of the most important channels to convey message to the audience. We speak in public to inform, to entertain and to influence the audience in order to achieve our goals.
It enable students will be able to prepare a good speech in English. There are five main parts in a speech with a general outline and this outline is a basis for any effective speeches which are introduction, thesis sentence, body of the speech, conclusion and reference and sources.There are few general guidelines for an effective speech among instructor and a student which is first use simple and accurate language, second use effective introduction and conclusions, third adopt natural or conversational approach to the speech. Maintain eye contact, smile, use movement wisely, maintain psychological closeness, and avoid physical barriers such as a table between us and the audience, fourth attend to feedback signals from the audience and fifth prepare our speech and rehearse, perhaps with a friend or in front of a mirror.