Organ donation is the taking of healthy tissues and organ from a living or dead person to a living recipient in need of a transplantation. There are processes involved in organ donation from the moment someone decides to be an organ donor to the time the organ is transplanted into another person. A nurse’s role in this process is crucial in many ways and for many people (the medical team, the donor/donor’s family, the recipient). According to the U. S. department of health and human services, 117,376 people are waiting for an organ, 18 people will die each day waiting for an organ, and 1 organ donor can save up to 8 lives.
The supply and demand for organs is disproportionate. There are many reasons behind this shortage and they include knowledge and attitudes of health professionals, processes for donor identification, timing of the request for organ donation, refusal of family members to consent to donation, and cultural considerations that influence the willingness to donate. Also, organ donation is an option in less than 1 percent of deaths because brain death, the irreversible cessation of all brain function, must occur in order for a hospital to allow most organ transplants.
Organd Donation Essay Example
When discussing donations, many people think of organs. However, tissue donation also has a major impact on the lives of many recipients. Some examples are: donated corneas can restore vision, veins and arteries can restore circulation and are used in coronary artery bypass graft surgery, defective valves are replaced with healthy heart valves, bone is used for knee and hip replacement; connective tissue is used to repair joints, and even the skin is used for patients with severe burns. Tissue donation provides recipients life enhancing benefits. Living donation is also an option.
People who are healthy and without any complications can donate their organs and even choose whom they want to donate their organs to. The organs that can be procured from a living donor are a lobe of the lung, a segment of the liver, the kidney, a part of the pancreas, and even a portion of the intestine. The living donor has to consent to procedures and testing of the organ to make sure the organ is functioning before the surgery. The living donor should also be given all the information regarding the whole process of donation and all the procedures, along with the risk factors.
The risks are similar to any surgery, including bleeding and other complications. If their remaining organ fails, they themselves will need an organ replacement. The living donor always has the option to change their mind anytime during the process. Virginia Henderson (1897-1996) is often referred to as the “first lady of nursing”. Her theory of activities of living gives a broad range of ideas for the theory to be applied in many areas of nursing practice, including the organ donation process. In this article, her model is applied to the role of nurses in the management of organ donors.
The following is a description of the model and the role nurses play, especially after a person who is brain dead and suffered neurological injuries. 1. Normal breathing: A Nurse is aware that inadequate oxygen will damage organs, and therefore understands the importance of early airway and oxygenation to maintain organ viability. 2. Eating and drinking: Fluid and Electrolytes, blood transfusion, and medications may be necessary to maintain organ viability. 3. Elimination of body waste: Monitoring organ function (kidneys) through lab testing at regular intervals is essential for organ viability. . Desirable posture/sleep and rest: Frequent position changes to prevent skin breakdown and pulmonary complications are important for the viabilities of the lungs for transplantation. 5. Select suitable clothing: dress and undress: The patient needs to be treated with dignity and respect because their value as a human being is not lost. 6. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others: Ensure safety of the donated organs as well as protecting the emotional environment of the patient’s family. 7.
Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing/modifying environment: Extremes of body temperature puts the body in a hypermetabolic state and increases oxygen consumption, therefore, nurses need to monitor the body temperature of the donor. 8. Grooming/protecting the integument: Keeping the patient neatly groomed helps the family feel better. 9. Communication with others: Allow the family members to express their fears, emotions, and needs. Nurses need to provide concise, honest answers and communication is critical in this delicate situation. 10.
Worshipping according to one’s faith: Nurses should help facilitate worship or end-of-life rituals for the family at the bedside to express their grief. 11. Play and recreation: recreational activities leading to death are simple accidents and nurses to remind the family that sometimes things go wrong and no one is to blame. 12. Learn and discover: nurses should provide grief support and give guidance to the family and maybe other health care staff. On one end is the nurse caring for the organ donor and on the other end are the nurses working with the transplant team and caring for the organ recipient.
In both ends, patients and families are going through a lot of emotions and the quality most people look for in a nurse is that of comfort. Beach, P. R. , Hallett, A. M. , and Zaruca, K. , (2011, May). “Organ Donation After Circulatory Death: Vital Partnerships. ” American Journal of Nursing. 111(5), pp. 32-38. Tanner, K. W. , (2011, February). “Maximizing Organ Donation through Aggressive Donor Management. ” American Nurse Today. 6(2). Retrieved: April 10, 2013. http://www. americannursetoday. com/popups/articleprint. aspx? id=8502 Meyer, K. Bjork, I. T. and Eide, H. (2012, June). “Intensive Care Nurses’ Perceptions of Their Professional Competence in the Organ Donor Process: A National Survey. ” Journal of Advanced Nursing. 68(1), pp. 104-115. Nicely, B. , & DeLario, G. T. (2011). Virginia Henderson’s principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in Transplantation, 21(1), 72-77. Daly, B. J. , (2006, April). “End-of-Life Decision Making, Organ Donation, and Critical Care Nurses. ” Critical Care Nurse. 26(2), pp. 78-86.