Organizational Studies and Human Resource Management

8 August 2016

1) ________ refers to evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. A) Attitude B) Behavior C) Appearance D) Demeanor E) Performance Answer: A Explanation: A) Attitudes are evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, about objects, people, or events. They reflect how one feels about something. Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 2) The statement, “A person who eats meat and then fights for animal rights demonstrates double standards” is an evaluative statement.

Such an opinion constitutes the ________ component of an attitude. A) cognitive B) affective C) reflective D) behavioral E) reactive Answer: A Explanation: A) The cognitive component of an attitude is a description of, or belief in the way things are, which is exemplified in the statement, “A person who eats meat and then fights for animal rights demonstrates double standards. ” Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 3) Which of the following statements represents the cognitive component of attitude?

Organizational Studies and Human Resource Management Essay Example

A) I have decided to inform my supervisor that I will be quitting my job. B) I intend to work during the weekend to meet the month’s deadline. C) I feel upset about having to work during Christmas. D) It is disappointing to know that I did not get a good evaluation. E) This job is not giving me an opportunity to explore my skills. Answer: E Explanation: E) The cognitive component of an attitude is a description of, or belief in the way things are, which is exemplified in the statement, “This job is not giving me an opportunity to explore my skills. ” Page Ref: 70

LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 4) Abigail Jones is a sales executive at Orbit Bank in Brussels. She is the best performer on her team and often gets the highest number of corporate accounts for the company. However, she feels that she does not get sufficient credit for her hard work. During lunch, she says to her colleague, “I have been getting the largest accounts for the bank for the past eight months.

Yet, my manager never acknowledges the kind of effort I put in to get these accounts. ” Which component of attitude is being demonstrated by Jones? A) positive component B) cognitive component C) affective component D) behavioral component E) reflective component Answer: B Explanation: B) The cognitive component of an attitude is a description of, or belief in the way things are, which is exemplified in the statement, “My manager never acknowledges the kind of effort I put in to get these accounts. ” Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application

Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 5) Which of the following is an example of the affective component of an attitude? A) believing that one achieved all objectives of a project B) relying on the information of a company’s annual report C) perceiving whistle-blowing as the right thing to do D) feeling hurt at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing E) deciding to fire an employee because of underperformance Answer: D Explanation: D) The affective component refers to the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.

Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 6) Johanna Rouse feels disheartened because she was not selected for the campaign exchange program in Amsterdam. Which component of an attitude does Rouse’s feeling represent? A) cognitive B) affective C) reflective D) behavioral E) reactive Answer: B Explanation: B) The affective component represents the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills

Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 7) Janice Hartley works as a writer at a fashion magazine in New York. She was recently asked by her editor to write an article on “10 must-haves for the autumn season. ” Her editor has now sent back the article saying it is not interesting enough to hold the attention of the reader. Janice is upset and disappointed about the feedback. Which component of an attitude is represented in this scenario? A) positive component

B) cognitive component C) affective component D) behavioral component E) evaluative component Answer: C Explanation: C) The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude is known as the affective component. It is reflected in this scenario because Janice is upset and disappointed about the feedback received. Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 8) Kimberley Mayfield recently evaluated her subordinate’s progress report.

She now plans to inform her about the objectives she did not achieve and how she can perform better. By doing this, Mayfield will be demonstrating the ________ component of an attitude. A) cognitive B) affective C) reflective D) behavioral E) reactive Answer: D Explanation: D) The behavioral component of an attitude describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. By planning to inform her subordinate of her performance, Mayfield is demonstrating the behavioral component of attitude. Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate

Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 9) Which of the following statements is an example of the behavioral component of an attitude? A) I have decided to apply for the position of a campaigner in the climate department. B) I am thrilled to know that the human resource department is looking for a climate campaigner. C) The position of a climate campaigner is challenging and interesting. D) The position of a climate campaigner will allow me to explore my skills as a campaigner.

E) I think the position of a climate campaigner involves extensive travel. Answer: A Explanation: A) The behavioral component of an attitude describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. The statement, “I have decided to apply for the position of a campaigner in the climate department” represents an intention to apply for the position and demonstrates the behavioral component of attitude. Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values

10) Sarah Mayer works as a security officer and is in charge of keeping track of who is in the office at any given time. She notices that some employees do not sign out of the office when they go out for meals, which makes it difficult to keep track of attendance of employees. Even though Mayer asked the employees repeatedly to sign out, they have not followed her advise. She now decides to report the issue to her supervisor. Which of the following components of an attitude is being demonstrated by Mayer? A) affective B) behavioral C) positive D) cognitive E) knowledge

Answer: B Explanation: B) The behavioral component of an attitude is an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Mayer’s intention to report the issue to her supervisor represents the behavioral component of her attitude. Page Ref: 70 LO: 1 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 11) The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by ________. A) Abraham Maslow B) Leon Festinger C) Geert Hofstede D) Daryl Bem

E) Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Answer: B Explanation: B) In the 1960s, Leon Festinger argued that attitudes follow behavior. Festinger proposed that cases of attitude following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance, any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept 12) Which of the following does cognitive dissonance indicate between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes? A) congruity B) tenacity C) solidarity D) consistency

E) incompatibility Answer: E Explanation: E) Cognitive dissonance is defined as any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Discuss the effects of stress in the workplace and methods of stress management 13) Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in ________. A) organizational dissonance B) cognitive dissonance C) attitudinal clarification D) positivity offset E) affective reactance

Answer: B Explanation: B) Cognitive dissonance is defined as any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Organizational dissonance, attitudinal clarification, positivity offset, and affective reactance are not types of attitude or behavior in OB. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Discuss the effects of stress in the workplace and methods of stress management 14) Julie recently joined a youth center as a counselor that provides support services for teenage mothers.

An important part of her job involves referring pregnant teenagers to abortion clinics, should they decide to avail of such services. This aspect of her work, however, conflicts with her religious beliefs. Her manager, Kyle, is aware of this and expects her to submit her resignation at any time, but Julie continues to carry out her duties in a sincere manner and shows no signs of quitting her job. Which of the following best explains this situation? A) Julie allows her professional life to be dictated by her religious ideals. B) Julie refuses to acknowledge the hard truths of life.

C) Julie has accepted that people have the freedom of choice. D) Julie is unable to empathize with the teenagers who visit the youth center. E) Julie does not realize the importance of her work to society. Answer: C Explanation: C) In the case of cognitive dissonance, research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. In this scenario, Julie achieves this consistency by acknowledging the fact that people have the freedom of choice and this allows her to carry on working at the youth center.

If Julie allowed her professional life to be dictated by her religious ideals or did not understand the importance of her work to society, then she would most likely not continue working at the center. Similarly, if she refused to acknowledge the hard truths of life or was unable to empathize with the teenagers who visited the youth center, then she would be more likely to resign. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 AACSB: Reflective Thinking Difficulty: Hard Quest. Category: Critical Thinking

Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values Sonia works as a lab research assistant at Frost Labs which conducts trials for cosmetic products such as sprays, dyes, ointments, soaps, and the like. She joined the firm right out of college and has been working for them for almost two years now. 15) Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument that Sonia is experiencing cognitive dissonance? A) She believes that cosmetics help boost women’s self-confidence. B) She believes that testing products on animals is an unethical practice.

C) She majored in pharmacology as part of her Masters program in college. D) She recently received a positive performance review from her supervisor. E) She is confounded by the fact that the cosmetic industry rakes in almost $7 billion annually. Answer: B Explanation: B) Cognitive dissonance implies an incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. If Sonia believes that testing products on animals is unethical and yet conducts trials for cosmetic products, which would most likely be conducted on animals, it would suggest that she is experiencing a conflict between her behavior and attitude.

If Sonia believes that cosmetics help boost women’s self-confidence it would weaken the argument that she is experiencing cognitive dissonance, as would the fact that she majored in pharmacology, which is a discipline related to the field of cosmetic testing. A positive performance review is irrelevant or, at the most, only slightly weakens the argument that she is experiencing cognitive dissonance. The fact that Sonia is confounded by the annual revenue generated by the cosmetic industry is irrelevant to the argument. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Difficulty: Hard Quest. Category: Critical Thinking Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 16) Which of the following, if true, would weaken the argument that Sonia is experiencing cognitive dissonance? A) She believes that beauty is merely a superficial aspect of one’s personality. B) She does not wear makeup as she is aware of the ingredients that go into making these products. C) She recently attended a presentation on the harmful effects of certain chemicals used in cosmetics.

D) She believes that research and testing are an integral part of providing consumers with safe products. E) She feels that this field of work does not allow her to utilize her full potential. Answer: D Explanation: D) Cognitive dissonance implies an incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. If Sonia believes that research and testing are integral to providing consumers with safe products, it would suggest that her attitude and behavior (conducting trials) are in sync with one another, thereby weakening the argument that she is experiencing cognitive dissonance.

If she believes that beauty is a superficial aspect of one’s personality and does not wear makeup because she is aware of the ingredients that go into making such products, then it would imply an incongruence between her behavior and attitude, thereby strengthening the argument. Similarly, if Sonia is aware of the harmful effects of the chemicals used in cosmetics, it would strengthen the argument that she is experiencing cognitive dissonance. If she feels that this field of work does not allow her to utilize her full potential, it would also strengthen the argument for cognitive dissonance.

Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 AACSB: Reflective Thinking Difficulty: Hard Quest. Category: Critical Thinking Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 17) Anna Jonas owns a manufacturing firm in Indonesia and strongly believes that it is important that workers’ rights be respected. However, because of the recent economic meltdown, she makes the management pay workers a wage which is below ethical standards. In addition, the working conditions are below standards because of low investment in safety equipment.

She knows her actions are unethical but continues to do so to avoid major losses. Jonas is most likely to be experiencing ________. A) cognitive dissonance B) emotional contagion C) ethical evasion D) self-concordance E) positivity offset Answer: A Explanation: A) There is a contradiction in what Anna Jonas is feeling and the situation in which she finds herself. She is experiencing cognitive dissonance which may be defined as incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Hard

Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Discuss the effects of stress in the workplace and methods of stress management 18) Which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding cognitive dissonance? A) High dissonance is accompanied by high rewards. B) People are less inspired to reduce dissonance when it is within their control. C) People are less likely to reduce dissonance when the behavior is crucial. D) People are more motivated to reduce dissonance when attitudes are important. E) The desire to reduce dissonance is not affected by moods and emotions. Answer: D

Explanation: D) Festinger argued that people will be more motivated to reduce dissonance when the attitudes or behavior are important or when they believe the dissonance is due to something they can control. Page Ref: 72, 73 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Concept 19) Joseph Pierce is the managing director of Drake Coal Power Plant in North Yorkshire. He knows that coal is a major contributor to climate change and has made his research team study impacts of coal on the environment. After knowing the facts, he faces a high degree of dissonance between his values and behavior.

Which of the following is he most likely to do to reduce the dissonance between his belief and behavior? A) get government sanction to build and develop more power plants across the country B) increase revenue by building power plants in developing and under-developed countries C) reassure the public that there is no correlation between environment and coal production D) hire more employees to fill positions in new power plant stations E) provide locals benefits to substantiate for the effects of coal power stations Answer: C

Explanation: C) Festinger proposed that cases of attitude following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance, any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Research has generally concluded that people do seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. They either alter the attitudes or the behavior, or they develop a rationalization for the discrepancy. Page Ref: 72 LO: 2 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Hard Quest. Category: Application 20) Leon Festinger argued that ________ follow(s) ________. A) behavior; attitudes

B) emotions; attitude C) attitudes; behavior D) thought processes; moods E) conduct; feelings Answer: C Explanation: C) While Festinger argued that attitudes follow behavior, other researchers asked whether there was any relationship at all. Page Ref: 73 LO: 2 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 21) Kim Anderson works as a campaign manager at an environmental organization in Ottawa. In the past few months, she has noticed that her team member Janice Kenneth has shown a lot of potential as the next project lead.

However, Anderson heard from the grapevine that Kenneth may be quitting the job. She now needs to know whether she has the intention to lead the campaign in the next few months, which are crucial months for the campaign. Which of the following questions would best help Anderson understand Kenneth’s intention toward the project? A) How are you liking your job on the whole? B) Do you like the work culture in the organization? C) Do you see yourself working with us in the next 6 months? D) Are you motivated enough to achieve all project milestones?

E) Are you happy with your overall job performance? Answer: C Explanation: C) Specific attitudes tend to predict specific behaviors, whereas general attitudes tend to best predict general behaviors. For instance, asking someone about her intention to stay with an organization for the next 6 months is likely to better predict turnover for that person than asking her how satisfied she is with her job overall. On the other hand, overall job satisfaction would better predict a general behavior, such as whether the individual was engaged in her work or is motivated to contribute to her organization.

Page Ref: 73 LO: 2 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 22) With reference to cognitive dissonance, in which of the following situations is the attitude-behavior relationship most likely to be strong? A) The affective component of the attitude is weak. B) The behavior is not affected by the cognitive component of the attitude. C) The attitude does not reflect the person’s fundamental values.

D) The behavior is affected by external factors and is not entirely under the control of the person. E) The attitude refers to something with which the person has direct experience. Answer: E Explanation: E) The attitude-behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to something with which we have direct personal experience. Page Ref: 73 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 23) Which of the following is true of moderating variables in attitude relationships?

A) Attitudes that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior. B) General attitudes tend to predict particular or specific behaviors. C) Attitudes are less likely to be remembered if frequently expressed or talked about. D) The relationship between an attitude and a behavior is weaker if an attitude involves a direct relation to personal experience. E) Conflicts between attitudes and behavior occur when there are no social pressures. Answer: A Explanation: A) Attitudes that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior.

One would be more likely to remember attitudes one frequently expresses. So the more one talks about an attitude on a subject, the more likely one is to remember it, and the more likely it is to shape a behavior. Page Ref: 73 LO: 2 Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 24) Which of the following is most likely to be related to reduced absences and lower resignation rates? A) high job involvement B) high cognitive dissonance C) low psychological empowerment

D) low organizational commitment E) high emotional contagion Answer: A Explanation: A) High job involvement is also related to reduced absences and lower resignation rates. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 25) ________ refers to a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. A) Job satisfaction B) Job design C) Positivity offset D) Constructive dismissal E) Picketing Answer: A

Explanation: A) When people speak of employee attitudes, they usually mean job satisfaction, which describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, while a person with a low level holds negative feelings. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 26) Which of the following statements represents a person’s job attitude?

A) I enjoy my work because it offers me challenges and helps me hone my networking skills. B) I believe my work has a direct impact on the processes of the organization. C) I believe my work performance indicates my calibre and potential. D) I agree with the organization about its commitment to the environment. E) I believe in the organization’s objectives about supporting the underprivileged. Answer: A Explanation: A) When people speak of employee attitudes, they usually mean job satisfaction, which describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.

A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, while a person with a low level holds negative feelings. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 27) Which of the following actions best represents Kelly’s high job involvement? A) Kelly always complains about her work to her colleagues. B) Kelly actively takes part in team activities and proactively takes up additional job responsibilities.

C) Kelly shares the organization’s vision of supporting renewable energy. D) Kelly dislikes the unethical practices followed by her employer. E) Kelly wants to continue working for the organization because many of her college friends are working there. Answer: B Explanation: B) Job involvement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 AACSB: Analytic Skills

Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 28) High levels of both job involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to ________. A) withdrawal behavior B) positivity offset C) organizational citizenship D) emotional contagion E) cognitive dissonance Answer: C Explanation: C) High levels of both job involvement and psychological empowerment are positively related to organizational citizenship and job performance. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept

Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 29) Employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy is termed as ________. A) psychological empowerment B) organizational dissent C) organizational commitment D) employee engagement E) secondary action Answer: A Explanation: A) Employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy is termed as psychological empowerment.

Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Apply the study of perception and attribution to the workplace 30) The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is referred to as ________. A) emotional contagion B) job involvement C) job stability D) emotional dissonance E) direct action Answer: B Explanation: B) Job involvement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth.

Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 31) In her work in the publishing industry, Vera Loranzo seeks out new authors who she considers promising. In the past two years, she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional, and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their

manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. After learning about her management’s decision, she is extremely frustrated and is beginning to resent the job she does. However, she knows there is nothing she can do and continues working because of the good perks and salary benefits the job offers. How can Loranzo’s job attitude be best described? A) low job involvement B) low job satisfaction C) high psychological empowerment

D) high positivity offset E) low emotional contagion Answer: B Explanation: B) Vera is beginning to have a negative feeling toward her job resulting in low job satisfaction. She believes that she has invested tremendously in the organization and it shows a high job involvement. She also demonstrates a low psychological empowerment because she succumbs to the situation and feels there is nothing she can do to make the situation better. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 AACSB: Analytic Skills Difficulty: Moderate Quest. Category: Application

Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 32) Ben has been working as a process executive at an accounting firm for the past two years. A hard worker, his work is of good quality and he often puts in extra hours at the office to ensure his schedules are on track. Noticing his efforts, the management offers him a 20 percent hike. Two months later, Ben submits his resignation and soon joins a startup organization, at a senior position. Which of the following best explains this situation? A) Ben felt the hike was unwarranted. B) Ben, though highly skilled, lacked ambition.

C) Ben was motivated by the prospect of extrinsic rewards. D) Ben found his work to be routine and monotonous. E) Ben was gunning for a position at the competing firm all along. Answer: D Explanation: D) Even if Ben was a highly competent employee, he would be more likely to quit in spite of the salary hike if he found his work to be routine and monotonous. This implies a lack of job satisfaction and involvement. If Ben felt the hike was unwarranted, it would still not drive him to resign from the firm. Similarly, if Ben was motivated by the extrinsic rewards it would not explain his leaving the firm as he was given a salary hike.

It cannot be argued that Ben lacked ambition as he found employment with another firm, at a senior position. It also cannot be argued that Ben was aiming for a position at the competing firm all along, because he worked as a process executive for two years and he joined a startup company. Page Ref: 74 LO: 3 AACSB: Reflective Thinking Difficulty: Hard Quest. Category: Critical Thinking Learning Outcome: Describe the factors that influence the formation of individual attitudes and values 33) Which of the following questions best helps understand an employee’s organizational commitment?

A) Do you feel you have a good working relationship with team members? B) Do you feel the organization will take care of you and your family in times of need? C) Do you enjoy your work even in the face of challenges? D) Does the organization provide valuable feedback to help you increase productivity? E) Do you believe in the organization’s objective on sustainable work practices? Answer: E Explanation: E) The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization is referred to as organizational commitment.

Page Ref: 75 LO: 3 Difficulty: Easy Quest. Category: Concept Learning Outcome: Define organizational behavior and identify the variables associated with its study 34) Organizational commitment is defined as ________. A) the degree to which employees identify with the organization they work for and its goals B) the state of discord caused by opposition of values between people working together C) the degree to which an employee’s sense of cognitive dissonance is related to their job D) the employee’s degree of disagreement or differential opinions about organizational

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