Origami and MRT

2 February 2017

Course Application #1: Origami and MRT 1. Define middle-range theories. Why are they considered to be useful in conducting nursing research? Give at least three examples of middle-range theories, discuss what these theories are all about and how these theories are useful in nursing practice and research. Middle-range theories are a set of related concepts and proposed relationships among the concepts that can be depicted in a model. Middle-range theories are more precise and only analyses a particular situation with a limited number of variables. They contain fewer concepts and adaptable to a wide range of practice and experience.

Middle-range theories are basic, usable set of ideas less abstract than grand theory and more abstract than micro-range theory. Middle-range theories are progressed and advanced at the circle of practice and research to guide casual practice and intellectual research in nursing. Middle-range theories are sufficiently abstract to allow generalization, and yet satisfactorily grounded in reality so that they could be empirically verified. Middle-range theories present concepts and propositions at a lower level of abstraction and hold great promise for increasing theory-based research and nursing practice strategies.They may be developed inductively through qualitative research and practice observations or deductively through logical analysis and synthesis. Research based on middle-range theories can provide empirical evidence to guide practice as well as expanding knowledge bases in the nursing discipline as it seeks to define the abstract concepts and propositions in the theories. Middle-range theories stress the significance of considering the outcome of various manifestations/conditions happening together on patient’s performance and stimulate assessment of patient’s working outcomes.

Origami and MRT Essay Example

Symptom Management Theory by Humphreys et al. This middle-range theory describes how persons manage their symptoms in interaction with the environment. It maintains that health and illness affect symptom management, that improvement in symptoms extends beyond personal health, and that symptoms are subjective and experienced in clusters. Practice application occurs with patient-provider communication marked by understanding of the symptom experience and implementation of effective strategies. Research application includes measurement of symptom-specific outcomes and contextual factors related to the symptom under study.Unpleasant Symptoms Theory by Lenz and Pugh This middle-range theory maintains that there are commonalities across different symptoms experienced by persons in varied situations, and symptoms are subjective phenomena occurring in the family and community contexts. Practice application includes assessment of the symptom, symptom management and relief intervention.

Research applications include gathering empirical measurements through scales and observations that capture the symptom experience. Cultural Marginality Theory by ChoiThis theory describes the experience of people who are caught between two cultures. Assumptions specific to the theory include across-cultural conflict recognition, marginal living and easing cultural tension. Practice applications include promoting parent-child engagement through cross-cultural understanding and being sensitive to the struggle of immigration. Research application includes activities aimed at developing an instrument to measure cultural marginality and studying mental health outcomes of persons living through across-culture conflict. 2.What are the similarities and/ or differences of Origami and Middle-range theories in terms of the process? (Please do the activity as instructed on the journal) Middle-range theories and origami in terms of process are similar in a sense that both follow specific steps towards reaching a desired outcome.

Middle-range theories exemplify origami by utilizing similarity of intentional actions/strategies or deliberate folds in achieving desired results. An origami creator envisions an object or a representation of an object in mind as the desired outcome. The creator of the art form explores ays, through a series of folding techniques and then outlines the instructions into successfully molding a flat piece of paper into a readily identifiable object. Likewise, middle-range theories in nursing have specific goals/outcome(s) in mind related to care. Formulation of these middle-range theories is a product of careful observation and experimentation, through assessment, planning and evaluation of the series of implementations and interventions, and then outlining these series of steps/strategies for nurses to follow towards attainment or re-creation of a desired nursing outcome/goal.Both middle-range theories and origami entail careful planning and execution of deliberate actions specifically tailored towards achieving the desired outcome. The actions/strategies used in both origami and middle-range theories are detailed and well defined as to allow others to apply these steps/strategies in replicating the same results.

Careful execution of the underlying steps for creating the desired art form in origami should conform to readily identifiable and acceptable form or representation of the desired object, just as the strategies/concepts in middle-range theories should conform to personal/professional experience or understanding of the desired nursing outcome. If and when the series of steps outlined in both origami and middle-range theories fail to produce the desired outcome, alternative steps/theories will be considered to achieve the desired outcome.Both origami and middle-range theories stress the importance of the series of steps/strategies, identifying, defining and detailing each step/strategy towards achieving the desired results. Take for instance Marion Goods’ theory on pain: a balance between analgesia and side effects and the origami art of creating a paper airplane. Marion Good’s theory aims at balancing analgesia and side effects for acute pain management whereas the author of the origami has a paper airplane in mind as an objective.Marion Goods suggests that to achieve a balance between analgesia and side effects, nurses must encourage patient participation through health teaching and goal setting, in using multimodal therapy through the use of potent pain medication plus pharmacological and non-pharmacological adjuvants with attentive care. Likewise, the author of the origami paper airplane outlines step-by-step instructions of folding paper at specific angles to achieve the readily identifiable form of a paper airplane.

Nurses who utilize this theory as a guide must reflect on the concepts/propositions included therein and evaluate whether the nursing objective of acute pain management as proposed in the theory conforms with one’s personal/professional understanding and experience of the subject, as is the case in origami, where the author, after completion of the instructions must see whether the finished product looks like an airplane or is an acceptable/recognizable representation of an airplane.If otherwise, nurses and the author of origami must look at other theories/design pattern or formulate new ones to achieve the desired outcomes. 3. In your opinion, are nursing theories still relevant nowadays in guiding nursing practice despite the trend into evidenced-based nursing practice? Explain. Yes. Theory and practice goes hand in hand. If nursing theory does not drive the development of nursing, our profession will continue to develop in the footsteps of other disciplines.

Firstly, nursing theories were developed primarily to show nursing as a profession in its own right. Developing our own body of knowledge e. g. nursing theories is the only way to promote nursing as a distinct discipline. Secondly, nursing theories were formulated to guide practice. Bridging the gap between theory and practice or academe and clinical practice should be promoted. Nursing theory gives us a sense of identity in promoting better patient care and recognition of the unique contributions nurses make in the healthcare service.

Nursing theory, practice and nursing research are interrelated and complement each other. They allow prediction of the consequences of care and a range of patient responses. They stimulate growth and development of the nursing discipline. Nursing theory for me connotes knowledge bases, while practice connotes skills or the ability to put knowledge into application. The ability to integrate knowledge and skills paired with the right attitude for me is what makes for a competent nursing professional.

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