Patricia Benner Dr’s Novice to Expert Summary
The rules are context-free and are independent of any specific duties. Advanced Beginner The Advanced beginner has by now gained some experience from actual situations and has begun to recognize recurring meaningful components. Based on experiences, the advanced beginner has by now started to formulate principles to guide their actions and to demonstrate an acceptable level of performance. Competent The Competent is typically a Nurse on the same job or floor for 2-3 years’ experience. The Competent is now more aware of long term goals.
By then he has gained a wider perspective from making their own clinical plans and taking action based on conscious critical thinking. Proficient The Proficient is more holistic in their understanding of situations as whole parts. The Proficient has by now learned to anticipate quick changes in clinical situations and how to quickly alter courses of action. Expert The expert has gained more background experience and no longer relies on principles or guidelines to make logical connects and act on them. This enables him to function efficiently with a very flexible and intuitive grasp of clinical situations