Person Perception Essay Sample
* Refers to the different mental procedures that we use to organize judgements and draw decisions about the features and motivations of other people.
Variables that give impact to individual perceptual experience:
1. Features of the individual you are detecting.
2. Context of the state of affairs.
3. Own personal features.
Based of our feelings are:
1. Functions and societal norms
2. Physical cues
3. Salience of the information
* The first thing we find out about a individual ; besides called “first impression”
Actor – Observer Effect
* We think other do things because of their personalities and we think we do things because of the state of affairs were in.
* Classifying a individual into a certain group ( societal class ) based on something you observe about the individual which in bend. affects your judgement of them.
Implicit Personality Theory
* A aggregation of beliefs and premises that we have about how certain traits are linked to other features and behavior. * It is use to make full up losing information on a individual.
* Refers to the procedures through which we use available information to organize feelings of others. to measure what they are like. * It allows people to understand the persons and groups of their societal universe.
Social Percept are besides interlinked with Self-Perception. Both are
influenced by self-motives.
Two Major Determinants of Percept:
1. Structural Factors
Those factors driving entirely from the nature of physical stimulations and the natural effects they evoke on the nervous system of the person. 2. Functional Factors
Derive primary from an individual’s demands. tempers. past experiences and memory.
Whatever perceptual experience is being observed is a map of both sets of factors because neither set operates entirely.
How do we organize feeling of others?
Ordering the universe
* Puting people or things into utile classs that specify how they are related or similar to each other.
Categorizations – aid to function the “knowledge” map of attitudes.
Why do we make up one’s mind how to sort people and things?
Clinchers of our determination:
* Purposes of the perceiver- we use constructs to find how people will impact the chase of our ends. * Social context- refers to activities that are appropriate in a given scene. to the functions normally enacted at that place. and to people who are present. * Accessibility in memory- experience may do some categorizations more accessible than others.
One manner to simplify things is to form people into a group.
* A fixed set of features we tend to impute to all group members that enable us to do speedy judgements
Cultural Stereotypes – “ Americans are hardworking and intelligent”
“Filipinos are lazy”
Gender Stereotypes – “Males are more dominant. independent and aggressive”
“Females are more emotional. sensitive and gentle”
Beginning of Stereotypes:
1 ) Direct Experiences – an brush with a member of a group. 2 ) Own Self-Esteem – presuming others are inferiors merely to asseverate own’s high quality. 3 ) Desire to heighten group solidarity – developing negative stereotypes of group with which we compete.
IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORY
* Assumption about how personality traits are related. * A particular sort of stereotyping.
* A “mental map” of the manner we believe traits are related to each other. * We tend to judge a individual who has one good trait as by and large good. This inclination to comprehend personalities as dust storms of either good or bad traits is Halo Effect. Facts on IPT:
1 ) It has single differences
2 ) It is opposition to alter.
* A procedure through which we link behaviour to its causes- to the purposes. temperaments and events that explain why people act the manner they do.
1 ) Dispositional Attribution ( internal ) – defines an act due to personal factors. 2 ) Situational Attribution ( external ) – defines an act due to situational factors.
Principle of Covariation ( Kelly )
* We attribute the behavior to the possible cause that is present when the behavior occurs and absent when the behavior fails to happen – the cause that covaries with the behavior.
Three types of information:
1 ) Consensus – do all or merely few people respond to the stimulation in the same manner as the mark individual? Consensus asks about generalisation across histrions. 2 ) Distinctiveness – does the mark individual respond in the same manner other stimulation as good? This asks generalisation across state of affairs. 3 ) Consistency – does the mark individual ever respond in the same manner to this stimulation? This asks generalisation across clip.
1 ) LLH – ( Low consensus. low peculiarity. high consistence ) – attribute to actor ( internal ) 2 ) HHH – ( high consensus. high peculiarity. high consistence ) – property to object ( external ) 3 ) LHL – ( low consensus. high peculiarity. low consistence ) – attribute to fortunes ( internal/ external interaction )
Analogous Inference Theory
* Analyses the conditions under which perceivers will reason that temperaments of an actor’s behavior.
Factors that affects whether or non a dispositional ascription is made include: 1 ) The strength of environment forces on behavior – if we perceive environmental forces are strong. people are non likely to do dispositional ascriptions. 2 ) Normativeness – to what extent could the behaviors have been expected on the footing of functions and societal norms? 3 ) Hedonic relevancy – grade to which the action proves honoring or penalizing to the perceiver. 4 ) Personalism – extent to which the actor’s behavior is perceived as intended to impact or act upon the perceiver in some manner.
Table OF CONTENT
I. PERSON PERCEPTION
* Variables that give impact to individual perceptual experience.
* Bases of our feelings.
* Primary consequence.
* Actor – observer consequence.
* Social classification.
* Implicit personality consequence
II. SOCIAL PERCEPTION
* Determinants of perceptual experience
* Why do we sort people and things?
* How make we make up one’s mind how to sort people and things?
* Origins of stereotypes
* Implicit personality theory
* Correspondent theory