Within the discipline of psychology, there are several perspectives used to describe, predict, and explain human behavior. Describe three major psychological perspectives and name at least one leading theorist for each. One of the major psychological perspective is, The Positive Psychology Perspective. Positive psychology is a field of psychological research and theory focusing on the study of positive emotions and psychological states, positive individual traits, and the social institutions that foster those qualities (S.E, 2014). The following topics that fall under positive psychology perspective includes, personal happiness, optimism, creativity, resilience, character strength, and wisdom. Positive psychology perspective is focused on developing therapeutic techniques that increase personal well-being (S. E, 2014). Another major perspective is, The Cross-Culture Perspective. The cross-culture psychology as caused a large numbers of psychologists to begin studying the diversity of human behavior in different cultural settings and countries (S.E, 2014). The Evolutionary Perspective is another major psychological perspective. Evolutionary perspective is referred to the application of the principles of evolution to explain psychological processes and phenomena (S. E, 2014). The evolutionary perspective was put into work by an English naturalist, Charles Darwin. The theory of evolution proposes that an individual member of any species are better to adapt to their surroundings than are others (S. E, 2014). Part II: Research Methods
Provide a brief overview of some of the research methods used by psychologists. Include strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. Some of the methods that psychologists use for research methods are, Scientific Method, Descriptive Method, and the Experimental Method. The scientific method’s strengths are that all the information used for this research is that it is based on the assumption of the behavior and mental processes that follow consistent patterns (S. E, 2014).
The scientific method uses four steps in the research: formulate a testable hypothesis, design the study and collect the data, analyze the data and draw conclusions, and then finally report the findings. The weakness for the scientific method is that it takes a great deal of critical thinking and the information can always change that a person gives you and then in return will change your data. Another research method is the Descriptive method and with that they use strategies for observing and describing behavior (S. E, 2014).
The strength to this method is that a psychologists can come up with the answers to when the certain behaviors take place, how often they occur, and whether they are related to other factors, such as a person’s age, ethic group, or educational level (S. E, 2014). The weakness for the descriptive method is that in some cases that the research is done in natural settings and at times it can be dangerous to get the information because you are evaluating the person in their natural place. Experimental method is another way to research.
It is used to demonstrate a cause- and – effect relationship between changes in one variable and the effect that is produced on another variable (S. E, 2014). The strength for this research method is that you can measure the changes that are made, if there are any. The weakness is that extraneous variables might produce inaccurate results by influencing changes (S. E, 2014). Part III: Ethics in Research Describe two ethical issues related to research. Why is informed consent necessary for ethical research?
Two ethical issues related to research are students as research participants and the use of deception. Using the students as research is sometimes a course requirement or a chance for extra credit for some students (S. E, 2014). The use of deception can be used by psychologists as part of the study only when two conditions have been met. Informed consent is necessary for ethical research because the psychologists must inform the participants of the purpose of the research, including any factors that might sway a person’s willingness to participate in the study.
The psychologists must also explain that the participant is free to decline at any time they chose to (S. E, 2014). Part IV: The Brain and Mind Identify three major structures of the brain and their respective functions in the human body. The three major structures of the brain are the Fore brain, the Hind brain, and the Mid brain. The Fore brain represents 90% of the brain. It is in the uppermost region of the brain. The fore brain is involved in more sophisticated behaviors and mental processes (S. E, 2014). The fore brain is also called cerebrum.
The Hind brain is another major structure of the brain it regions at the base of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. Sensory and motor pathways pass through the hind brain to and from regions that are situated higher up in the brain (S. E, 2014). The other major structure of the brain is the Mid brain. The mid brain contains structures involved in processing visual and auditory information. Auditory sensations from the left and right ears are processed through the mid brain, it helps you to go in the direction that you need to (S. E, 2014).