The elected provincial and town officials were mostly the same local officials during the Spanish period. This was because the requirements voting animation to public office were restricted to these who were citizens of 20 years of age or above who friendly to Philippine independence and were distinguished for their high character,social position and honorable conduct both in the center of the community and the suburb. The masses were excluded in the electoral process.Since the illustrates (rich/healthy/ educated) had exclusive control of the electoral process, the provincial and municipal reorganization merely resulted in perpetuating elite dominance of society and government.
But not all areas Of Luzon came under the control Of lustrous during the Revolution. In some towns, uneducated and poor masses were elected by an electorate who most probably did not meet the qualifications stipulated in Sinusoidal decree. According to illustrates of local officials in some provinces complained over the election of the uneducated and ignorant who they argued were totally incapable of governing.
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The American Presence The American entry into the picture convinced the remaining fence-sitting illustrious to support the Revolution. When rumors of an impending Spanish- American War were circulating in April 1 898, several noted illustrious led by Pedro Alexandra Pattern offered their services to the Spanish Governor- General. When Continual returned from exile, several illustrious serving the Spanish militia, like Don Feline Bemoaning, abandoned the Spaniards and announced their conversion to the revolutionary cause.Indeed, the resumption of the revolution brought an electrifying response throughout the country.
There was a simultaneous and collective struggle to oust the Spaniards. The Americans arrived in the Philippines shore in 1898. On May 1, 1898, the U. S. Asiatic Squadron led by Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish forces in the historic Battle of Manila Bay. Gob-Gene. Basil De San Austin, in order to get the support of prominent Filipinos in the Spanish- American War, signed a gubernatorial decree on May 9, 1898.
The decree, creating a Consultative assembly. Named the following prominent Filipino: Cetacean Areola, Joaquin Gonzales, Marxism Pattern Antonio B. Battista, T. H. Pardon De Tavern Manuel Senate Gregory Aren’t, Isaac Fernando Iris, Juan Rodriguez, Boniface Reveal, Aristocrat Battista, Jose Ulna, Jose Lizard, Richard Stefan Barrett Terror Gonzales, Pantaloon Garcia, Pedro Serrate American duplicity was working well when commodore George Dewey, commander of the U. S Asiatic squadron, sent a representative to president Continual during the declaration of Philippine Independence.At the same time, the U.
S government accepted the terms of payment for the Spaniards to surrender to the Americans after the Mock battle of manila on August 13, 1898. They knew fully well that Philippine independence was already declared two months earlier. On June 12, 1898, between four and five in the afternoon, Continual, in the presence of a motley crowd – a crowd consisting of different commonalities, proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in Kuwait, cavity.Ambrosia Rareness Battista also known as Don Bossing, was a lawyer and author of the Declaration of Philip pine Independence. The Americans, putting aside said declaration, assumed as the new colonial master of the archipelago. The Filipino freedom fighters, of course, vehemently resisted. This young republic had no choice but to face another war -a losing war.
The Americans, almost certain in its hold of the islands, started to rule the country amidst Filipino resistance that lasted up to 1 902 and beyond. The Filipino-American WarDuring the Filipino-American War, many illustrious played the middle ground, on one hand, they sent words of support to Continual and, on the other started contemplating on an autonomous status for the Philippines under the U. S. An example was the Lillo illustrious who eventually sided with the Americans since their economic interests-sugar production and importation- dictated collaboration with the new colonizers. Indeed, in the parlance of contemporary Filipino political culture, the illustrious were the classic balancing or two-faced. Several events made the Filipinos suspicious of the motives of theAmericans which led to hostility between them. Instances like the instructions of the Americans to Gondola’s troop to evacuate the strategic locations in Manila Bay area, the refusal its surrender, the area limitations assigned by the Americans to the Filipino troops after the mock battle of Manila, the Benevolent assimilation proclamation by Pres.
Mckinley, and finally the shooting incident in a bridge wherein an American sentry Private Grayson fired at and killed a Filipino soldier who was crossing the bridge that eventually resulted to the outbreak of the Filipino-American War.Although the Filipinos were at a disadvantage because Of lack Of arms but still they did not made it easier for the Americans to conquer the country. It took the foreigners almost three years to quell the fighting Filipinos. The Organization of the Philippine Republic Despite the constant vacillation of the elite, Continual and his advisers tapped on their services in organizing the Philippine Republic. Continual was eager to prove that the Filipinos could govern themselves, and his advisers were illustrious, Continual only trusted his own kind- the wealthy, educated, ND politically experienced -in the matter of governance.Thus, he called on them to convene and create a Congress, which would draft a constitution. He wanted a Philippine constitution to complete the required trimmings of a sovereign nation- flag, army, government, and constitution.
In his actions. , Continual was advised by Application Mamboing who became known as the Sublime Paralytic because his spirit was not deterred by his physical handicap, and the Brains of the Revolution due to his intellectual acumen.On January 21, 1 899, Continual proclaimed the Mallows Constitution, Which was rafted by the illustrious of the Mallows Congress. On January 23. 1899, the Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Mallows, Vulcan, The new capital of the fledging government. The Mallows Constitution The Mallows Constitution of 1 899 is the first democratic constitution in all of Asia, a distinction fitting the Philippine Republic of President Emilio Continual, Which was the first independent representative government in Asia.There were two important provisions of the Mallows Constitution.
First, it established a popular and representative government with three distinct and equal branches of government- the executive vested on the president, the legislative in the hands in the Assembly of Representatives, and the judicial anchored on a Supreme Court elected by the Assembly with the concurrence of the President . Second, the Constitution provided a Bill Of Rights for its citizens.Dictatorial and Revolutionary Governments of Continual -Continual and his leaders returned to Cavity, resumed their war offensive against Spain and reestablished the revolutionary government. -He established a dictatorial government but plans were afoot to proclaim the independence of the country because the Spaniards were reeling from defeat one battle after another . -June 12,1898- President Emilio Continual declared the proclamation of Philippine Independence in the balcony of his mansion in Kuwait Cavity and was rend by Don Ambrosia Rareness Battista. The declaration further emboldened the fighting Filipinos. – For the first time, the Philippine flag ,seen under the supervision of Dodo Marcela De Canonical in Honking.
-Two bands played the March National Filipino compassed by Maestro Julian Feline, which became the Philippines National hymn. The Philippine Republic was, however, short-lived. -Gondola’s forces were fighting the Spaniards without military assistance from the Americans except for the Battle of Manila Bay. -On Gag 13,1898, the Spaniards surrendered Manila to the Americans and doomed the end of Philippine Independence. Spanish troops bad being routed in all fronts by the Filipinos, the continuing presence of the Americans was unsetting. -If did not take long for the Filipinos to realize the genuine intentions of the United States. -On Feb.
. 4, 1899, the precarious and uneasy Philippine American alliance collapsed when the Phil-American War broke but and threaten to annihilate the new found freedom of Filipinos under the leadership of the first president, Emilio Continual The blue color of the Philippine flag is the symbol for peace, truth, and justice.The red is the symbol for patriotism and velour. The white triangle is the symbol for equality and fraternity. It is also symbolize the Justinian, the secret Filipino society who stands against the Spanish rule. The three golden stars in the corners of the triangle, represent the three major group of island in the Philippines, namely the Luzon, Visas and Mindanao. The golden sun at the center of the triangle is the symbol for unity, freedom, people’s democracy, and sovereignty.