Physical Cognitive Development of Adolescence
Daniel Offer – healthy self images of adolescents were displayed * Personal experience + medial portrayals = public attitudes * Acting out and boundary testing are an adolescent’s way of accepting rather than rejecting parents’ values * Life course is influenced by ethnic, cultural, gender, socioeconomic age, and lifestyle differences Physical Changes . Puberty * Period of rapid physical maturation * Hormonal and bodily changes in early adolescence * Ends long before adolescence does * Signs of sexual maturation and increase in height and weight 2. Sexual maturation, height and weight * Male pubertal changes * Increase in penis and testicle size, straight pubic hair, minor voice change, first ejaculation (masturbation), kinky.
Pubic hair, maximum growth in height and weight, armpit hair growth, detectable voice changes, facial hair growth * Female pubertal changes Enlarged breasts, pubic hair, armpit hair, increase in height, wider hips than shoulders, no voice change * Menarche – first menstruation (late in pubertal cycle) * May be irregular and not ovulate until after a year or two * Breasts are rounder * Weight * Girls overweight boys until age 14 when boys surpass them * Height * Girls are the same height until middle school years * Growth spurt (beginning) – girls: 9; boys: 11 * Growth spurt (peak) – girls: 11 ? ; boys: 13 ? * Increase in height – girls: 3 ? ; boys: 4 3. Hormonal changes Hormones – powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine gland via bloodstream * Testosterone – development of genitals, height and a change in voice *
Estradiol – breast, uterine, and skeletal development * Hormone-behavior link is complex 4. Timing and variations in puberty * Pubertal sequences * Boys: 10-13 ? until 13-17 * Girls: 9-15 * Precocious puberty – very early and onset of puberty * Before 8 years (girls) and before 9 years (boys) * 10 times more in girls * Treated by medically suppressive gonadotropic secretions.
Short stature, early sexual capability, and engaging in age-inappropriate behavior . Body image * Preoccupied with bodies – especially in early adolescents (dissatisfaction) * Gender differences * Girls: less happy and have more negative body images – body fat increases * Boys: more happy – muscle mass increases 6. Early and late maturation * Boys * Early: self-views are positive; successful peer relations * Late: (at 30) stronger sense of identity * Girls * Early: greater satisfaction with figures; more age-inappropriate behavior * Late: (10th grade) are more satisfied than early-maturing girls; taller and thinner