Plant nutrition The elements which are required to complete life cycle of plant, are called nutrition elements. In the absence of any of the elements, plants can not complete their life cycle and these can not be supplemented by other elements. Elements required for Plant nutrition Classification These essential plant nutrients are classified into two on the basis of quantity required, such as – (a)Macronutrient and (b) Micronutrient Macronutrient The elements which are required in relatively large quantity are called macronutrient.
Organic manure applied to soil, increases its water and nutrient holding capacity. Chemical fertilizer Any fertilizer produced from inorganic matter through chemical process is called chemical fertilizer. There is one or more than one nutrient element in urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, murate of potash and Zinc and the amount of the nutrient element is also high. Chemical fertilizer can be classified into several types on the basis of plant nutrient categories, such as, nitrogen fertilizers, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer etc.
Besides, there are mixed fertilizers available in many countries. Use of mixed fertilizers in Bangladesh is also increasing. Importance of fertilizers Any material applied to the soil to promote crop development is considered to be a fertilizer. Plants obtain nutrients from the soil. So, cultivation of crops in the same piece of land for years reduces the quantity of nutrients present in the soil. Plant nutrients need to be applied so that deficiency due to crop cultivation does not occur. The fertility of the soil largely depends on the amount and rate of nutrients provided to it.
To enhance healthy and continuous growth of plants, it is important to provide the soil with adequate nutrients. Thus, fertilizers contain the essential nutrients that are supplied to the soil, thereby improving plant growth and producing high yields. Fertilizers increase the capacity of the plants to hold more water and thus, becoming more resistant to even severe drought conditions. Fertilizers that contain potassium are best meant for strengthening the stalks and straws of plants. Further, they assist in enhancing seed and fruit quality, thereby delivering a better produce and stocks.
To encourage faster growth of plants, farmers use fertilizers containing nitrogen. Nitrogen functions as a growth booster and greening agent as well. To improve the green color of plants, nitrogen aids in forming chlorophyll and manufacturing plant protein. Deficiency of nitrogen can be diagnosed by plants that display stunted growth and light-green leaves. Therefore, fertilizers with rich nitrogen content are important for greening plants and lawns. So, fertilizers are important. They should be applied if the plant is not getting sufficient nutrition.