Political Corruption and Corruption Related Abuses
Corruption is a social problem that has interested many scholars. Ruzindana (1999) asserts that corruption in Africa is a problem of routine deviation from established standards and norms by public officials and parties with whom they interact. He also identifisd the types of corruption in Africa as bribery, private gain, and other benefits to non-existent workers and pensioners (called ghost workers). The dishonest and illegal behavior exhibited especially by people in authority for their personal gain is corruption. According to the ICPC Act (section 2), corruption includes vices like bribery, fraud, and other related offences.
Corruption is the abuse or misuse of power or position of trust for personal or group benefit (monetary or otherwise). Corruption is a symptom of numerous difficulties within contemporary societies. It usually involves more than one party. It takes a form of an organized crime. At times, an organization can be established on corruption to beget corruption. Gbenga (2008) asserts that corruption is contagious.
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According to thfe perception index of Transparency International, Nigeria was ranked 144th out of the 146 countries, beating Bangladesh and Haiti to last position.
An analysis of the anti-graft/anti-corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue in spite of the laws because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences. It is now dawning on the Nigerian public that the so-called private enterprise and legislators are free from scrutiny, and governors claim to be immune. Corruption is found in the award of contracts, promotion of staff, dispensation of justice, and misuse of public offices, positions, and privileges, embezzlement of public funds, public books, publications, documents, valuable security, and accounts.
Equal opportunity Denmark is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world. The Danish welfare model ensures a healthy work-life balance as well as free education and healthcare for all. As an international student in Denmark you too will benefit from our efficient public services. Equal rights Danish law guarantees freedom of religion and prohibits discrimination based on gender, race, religious belief or sexual orientation. A large majority of Danes are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, supported by the Danish state.
Nonetheless, most Danes view the church as a cultural institution and religious discussions are not very predominant in the public debate. A safe and family-friendly society Denmark is a family-friendly society where children and their parents enjoy plenty of cultural activities and easy access to nature, beaches and sports facilities. Danish cities are bicycle-friendly and green. And with Denmark’s low crime rate, children can roam freely and even walk themselves to school. Work-life balance A core value in Danish society is maintaining a balanced work and family life.
According to the OECD, people in Denmark devote more time than the OECD average to socializing with friends, family, sports, hobbies and games. The official working week is 37 hours. If you work overtime, you will usually be compensated financially or given time off from work instead. As an employee you are entitled to five weeks vacation and to take leave with full pay on the first day that your child is sick. The work culture in Denmark is team-oriented, informal and based on open dialogue between management and employees.
And in-job training enjoys high priority at most workplaces, including university level courses. New Zealand, Denmark, Finland and Sweden have been consistently ranked at the top of the Corruption Perceptions Index and are perceived to be the least corrupt of all the countries surveyed. They are not perfect – still falling short of the target 10 out of 10 on the index – but many still want to know about how these countries have managed to contain corruption. Beside law enforcement, there is a broad consensus that fighting corruption involves public participation and transparency mechanisms such as disclosure of information. Preliminary findings from upcoming country studies for Finland, Denmark and Sweden indicate that this “integrity system” function relatively well in these countries. But what makes their “national integrity systems” more effective? Beside a strong commitment to anti-corruption by political leaders, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and to a certain extent New Zealand all share a common set of characteristics that are typically correlated with lower levels of corruption.
Recent studies show that freedom of the press is positively correlated with control of corruption in well established democracies. Finland, Denmark, Sweden and New Zealand all have high GDP per capita, low inequality rates, literacy rates close to 100 %, and prioritise human right issues (e. g. gender equality, freedom of information). Crucially, they all perform well in terms of government openness and effectiveness. So what works? * disclosure of budget information closes the door to waste and misappropriation of public funds.
Therefore, countries should seek to promote information disclosure as well as enhance citizens’ participation throughout the budget process. The Open Budget Index shows that Sweden allows citizens to assess how their government is managing public funds. * Codes of conduct for public servants. Denmark obliges ministers to monthly publish information on their spending travel and gifts * Legal framework criminalising a wide range of corruption related abuses and an independent and efficient judiciary. * For some, being corrupt may be the easiest way-or indeed the only way-to get what they want.
At times, a bribe may provide a convenient means of avoiding punishment. Many who observe that politicians, policemen, and judges seem to ignore corruption or even practice it themselves merely follow their example. * For some, being corrupt may be the easiest way-or indeed the only way-to get what they want. At times, a bribe may provide a convenient means of avoiding punishment. Many who observe that politicians, policemen, and judges seem to ignore corruption or even practice it themselves merely follow their example. * As corruption snowballs, it becomes more acceptable until it is finally a way of life.
People with pitifully low wages come to feel that they have no option. They have to demand bribes if they want to make a decent living. And when those who extort bribes or pay them to gain an unfair advantage go unpunished, few are prepared to swim against the tide. * “Because sentence against a bad work has not been executed speedily, that is why the heart of the sons of men has become fully set in them to do bad,” observed King Solomon. -Ecclesiastes 8:11. * Two powerful forces keep stoking the fires of corruption: **selfishness **and **greed***.
Because of selfishness, corrupt people turn a blind eye to the suffering that their corruption inflicts on others, and they justify bribery simply because they benefit from it. The more material benefits they amass, the greedier those practicers of corruption become. * “A mere lover of silver will not be satisfied with silver,” observed Solomon, “neither any lover of wealth with income. ” (Ecclesiastes 5:10) * Granted, greed may be good for making money, but it invariably winks at corruption and illegality. Corruption is a global phenomenon still it seems that the level of corruption in Mauritius is much wider than its actual size.
I believe that the real problem of corruption in Mauritius is because of the number of different ethnic groups and each group wants to protect his own religious group; so it does not really matter whether you have the qualifications or have the ability to do something, if you come from the right ethnic group and know someone from this ethnic group in a higher position, you will be successful in whatever you intend on getting done. As far as politicians go, they are after all politicians, once they are where they wanted to be, they forget the promises that they made.
Period. For a long time now corruption has been a major problem in Mauritius. I’d probably say it started shortly after we got independence and as the people who were in charge at that time tried to shape and build the country, it went wrong somewhere down the line. Some people saw it as an opportunity to get way ahead in life and now corruption is everywhere. Corruption is so deep-rooted that if you try to eradicate it all, you’ll certainly have to destroy all government organisations and some private ones as well. In Mauritius, it’s a way of living.
People are used to it and it’s going to be difficult to change the mindset of people. It’s worth noting that the level of corruption is so bad that if you try to voice out your concerns, you might put your life and your loved ones in danger, so just like the 3 wise monkeys, you need to “see evil, hear no evil and speak no evil”. Firstly, it is the most significant factor where the decision maker uses his power to bribe the judiciary to rule in his favor. In this case the decision maker, a convicted individual, blends the notion of self-interest to serve his purpose that is to evade punishment.
This coincides with the idea of overlapping between duty and enlightened self-interest. If we relate this to tawhidic perspective, the concept of amanah can be applied over here. Amanah or free will, which has been given only to humans and jinn, is very important especially if we have the power and we use the power to bribe the judiciary to rule his own favor. This is branch away from the teachings of Islam and also the study of ethics in business. Secondly, is the act of inviting bribery where it becomes more demanding and expect bigger sums of money, which proves that a culture of bribery is slowly evolving in Mauritius.