Pos Malaysia VS Gdex comparative study

8 August 2016

The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the current and prospective profitability, liquidity and financial stability of Pos Malaysia Berhad and on its competitors’ GD Express Sdn Bhd within five years of historical financial statement on both companies. Both companies are incorporated in Malaysia, listed in Bursa Malaysia and in the same industry with are postage services. The time frame for five year historical financial statement both companies that we used as a sample to our study is within 2008 to 2012. The financial year end is different between both companies.

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Pos Malaysia Berhad financial year end is on 31 December each year. In year 2011, financial year end for Pos Malaysia Berhad had change to 31 March each year due to changing in CEO. During that year, the company recorded 15 month performance for 2011/12. Meanwhile GD Express Sdn Bhd financial year is on 30 June each year. Methods of analysis used for this study include trend, horizontal and vertical analyses as well as ratios. All calculations on vertical analysis, horizontal analysis and ratio for both companies can refer in the appendices.

The report also investigates the fact that the analysis conducted may have its financial distress and the abilities of the company in order for them to survive. This study also includes interpretation on Pos Malysia Berhad and GC Express Sdn Bhd performances based on quatitative and qualitative aspects. 2. 0 Pos Malaysia Berhad 2. 1. Company Profile POS has gone through a long journey in its postal business that can be traced back to the 1800s. Its identity as the national postal service provider remains strong even until today.

POS had become a corporate entity in 1992 followed by a corporate exercise that made it part of the listed entity, Pos Malaysia and Services Holdings Bhd. Started as a medium for the transmissions of letters, newspapers and business documents, the postal service soon evolved into a multiple services provider. It began to venture into parcel delivery, registrations, insurance service, transaction of money (postal order and money order) and investment of funds. The postal service, then known as Jabatan Perkhidmatan Pos, also began to take over numerous services on behalf of the Government machineries.

It started to collect payment of electricity bill, sale of dog license, payment of pensions, sale of television license and others. The name has change from Jabatan Perkhidmatan Pos to Pos Malaysia Berhad in 21st century. In 2003, POS had undertaken a major operations restructuring which had resulted to business units as PosMel for day-to-day mailing services for both public and retail, PosLaju for premier courier services and PosNiaga for accessibility to Pos Malaysia business through its network of over 1,000 outlets and access points.

Through another corporate exercise, the listing status of Pos Malaysia and Services Holdings Bhd was transferred to Pos Malaysia in 2007. DRB-HICOM had acquired a 32. 21% stake in POS from Khazanah for RM622. 79m or RM3. 60/share. However, in accordance with the agreement, DRB-HICOM was given a refund of RM0. 10/share or RM17. 3m as the conglomerate was unable to secure the Federal Lands Commissioner-owned (FLC) land parcels. This then brought the acquisition cost to RM605. 5m or RM3. 50/share.

Following the sales and purchase agreement, POS had emerged as one of DRBHICOM’s associate companies allowing for further strategic integration among the two groups. 2. 2. Vision and Mission Pos Malaysia Berhad vision is to become the trusted leader in the delivery of integrity physical and digital solutions. Meanwhile, their mission is to Deliver excellent customer experience and convenience in the areas of communications, logistics, financial services and supply chain solutions at the highest level of reliability and integrity. 2. 3. Business Clusters

Pos Malaysia’s 5 Business Clusters, aimed to provide quality, reliable, timely and innovative solutions to our customers, encompasses the following: Communication and Distribution Solutions (CDS) Extending the scope of mail services, CDS leverages on the strength of our extensive physical delivery network to provide customers with total communications and distribution solutions. The conventional mail business forms the core component of CDS followed by other strategic initiatives such as PosEdaran and Direct Mail. Supply Chain Solutions (SCS)

SCS is formed to strengthen our domestic courier business, pursue international courier segment and venture into niche logistics. PosLaju brand will drive the growth for both domestic and international courier businesses, whilst Al-Ajwa, logistics & warehousing business will complement and complete the services under SCS. One-Stop Solutions (OSS) OSS focuses on providing convenience to customers by offering financial and insurance products and services as well as other retail offerings under one roof. OSS products and services will be identified, designed and delivered through PosNiaga, Pos Insurance, [email protected] and [email protected]

Digital Solutions (DS) All our digital based offerings including our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Datapos Sdn. Bhd. and Digicert Sdn. Bhd. will be consolidated under DS to ultimately offer total digital solutions. This new cluster aims to strengthen our current businesses and explore to capitalization of digitization opportunities and trends. International Business Solutions (IS) IBS manages the operations for cross-border mail and parcel services, as well as enhancing relationship with other international postal operators and aims to position Pos Malaysia as the leading international hub in the region.

Pos Malaysia International and Asia Xpress are part of the solutions provided under IBS. 2. 4. Major products and services Mail business PosMel Direct Mail PosEdaran; MyDespatch and MyShopping Courier business On-Demand Pick-up Services (ODP) Pos Laju Prepaid Boxes and Padded Envelops Retail business Pos-on-Wheels (PoW) PosShoppe Shared Banking Services (SBS) Pos 1Malaysia Insurance: Family Plan International Express Money Order (IEMO) Issuance of Joint Stamps with Indonesia Opportunities with Uni. Asia General Insurance Berhad (UAG) PosAssurance One-Stop Solutions [email protected] 2. 5. SWOT Analysis Strengths

Weaknesses Pos Malaysia has monopoly of mail delivery services Support from business and bulk mails Wide user base which spans across the country Competitive pricing against other courier service providers Network of over 1,000 outlets or access points includes Pos Malaysia Outlets, Pos Minis, Pos24 (Self Service Terminals), Post-On-Wheels (Mobile Outlets), postal agents and stamp agents, making it one of the most extensive retail network in Malaysia. Business model mainly focused on conventional mail delivery services Lack of close competitors and this might discourage further business innovation Opportunities

Threats Attractive pricing as compared to smaller competitors due to its monopoly position Synergies with DRB-HICOM Group’s companies such as Bank Muamalat Major portfolio of land parcels, particularly parcels owned by Pos Malaysia Approval by Federal Land Commissioner to develop its land parcels An increasing usage of e-mails and online transactions 2. 6. The Masterbrand The word POS lays the foundation for the brand and gives the inspiration for its aspiration by providing focus for the expansion of its vision.

Its bold font represents Pos Malaysia’s established solidity through the years and it is coloured in Pos Malaysia’s corporate colour, symbolizing its commitment as the premier postal service provider. The word ‘Malaysia’, in POS blue, goes well with the contrast colour red of the word ‘POS’ and gives synergy to the overall concept. The three birds represent the united vision, action, and ambition of Pos Malaysia. Their upwards flight presents Pos Malaysia as a forward looking, progressive and integrated postal service provider, able to rise to any challenge that we may face.

The Wing also rises up. It supports the white bird of Pos Malaysia as they fly. It establishes Pos Malaysia as a dominant force, with the intent to rise to any challenge. It ends in a high, symbolising the focused and concentrated effort in delivering and achieving more. 3. 0 GD Express Sdn Bhd 3. 1. Company Profile GD Express Sdn Bhd (GDEX) was formed in 1997 to provide express delivery service for both the domestic and international markets. It operates a network of 136 stations, comprising 59 branches, 2 affiliate stations, 52 agents and 23 lodge-in centers throughout East and West Malaysia.

GDEX has a fleet of more than 400 trucks and vans used primarily for hauling of documents and parcels between stations and the National for local pick-ups and deliveries. The company’s express delivery service operation is structured along the “Hub and Spoke” concept whereby customers’ packages are collected by the branches, sent by trucks to a Central Clearing Hub for sorting and then redirected to their ultimate destinations. The group currently employs more than 2000 staff. GDEX is the first local express delivery company to obtain ISO 9001: 2000(Quality Management System) certification for all its entire 25 departments in 2003. In November 2009, GDEX upgraded its (Quality Management System) to ISO 9001: 2008 covering 27 departments. In November 2012, GDEX obtained ISO 14001:2004 (Environmental Management System) certification. Both systems were integrated as Quality and Environmental Management System to facilitate operations procedures complying with two international standards. GDEX is listed on the ACE market of Bursa Malaysia through its holding company GD Express Carrier Bhd in May 2005. 3. 2. Vision and Mission.

GD Express Express Sdn Bhd vision is to a team of caring and passionate people, an organization of sound value and dynamic processes, empowering its customers with value-for-money effective solutions and contributing to the well-being of the community by being role model in the Logistic Service Industry. Meanwhile, mission of GDEX is to deliver the most trusted and professional express carrier services in the countries they operate. 3. 3. Company Philosophy GD Express management philosophy starts with people refer to themselves, and ends with people refer to their customers.

GDEX core values revolve around people, emphasizing on respecting, developing and caring for their staff and network members. Correspondingly, GDEX people are expected to be pro-active, professional, honest, improvement seeking and problem solving. They believe that only people with such qualities can perform with integrity to deliver a cost effective, speedy and reliable express carrier service. GDEX are committed to fulfilling the management principles laid down when they review, modify or reconstruct our organization structure, operating systems, administrative functions, financial management, internal controls and marketing strategies.

GDEX will ensure every action in the company has to be objective oriented and accountable, while every member is remunerated according to performance. While people are the subject of their core values systems, these values have to be protected and preserved above all. Putting in place corporate governance ensures that operations will be conducted properly, that check and balance must function to govern every person in the organization, including the most senior. Only when this is in place can GDEX become a truly reputable logistics-based institution.

Adopting the core values and management principles when modifying or building the systems is a long and never-ending process. While this is in progress, the management continues to implement quick measures in dealing with immediate operational issues. At GDEX, it is understood that every member, including the Managing Director, must be hands-on. Managers go down to the floor and work alongside the clerical and delivery staff, learning, guiding and solving problems along the way, and treating each other with care and respect.

The reciprocal commitment between our staff and management is the foundation of the commitment to their customers. 4. 0 Pos Malaysia Berhad and GD Express Sdn Bhd Analysis 4. 1. Income Statement 4. 1. 1. Revenue As we can see at the graft above, the revenue of Pos Malaysia has decrease by RM212. 15 million (14. 32%) from year 2008 to 2009. In 2010, the revenue star increase year by year. The highest revenue recorded by Pos Malaysia is in year 2011/12 due to 15 months performance. Revenue of Pos Malaysia comes from sales of their major products and services which are mail, courier and retail services.

Mail business contributes 62. 2% or RM92. 15 million from total sales in year 2011/12. Under this mail services, POS has introduce direct mail services to further enhance promotions efforts of customers’ products and services. POS also introduce PosEdaran services, including MyDespatch and MyShopping products with focus on merchandise delivery and allow customers to shop from home. Meanwhile, courier business contributes RM308. 7 million or 20. 8% from total sales of Pos Malaysia in year 2011/12.

POS has continuously expand network coverage area by opening new outlets to provide greater accessibility and convenience o their customers. POS has continues to upgrade the track and trace system and also venture into new services which are warehousing and Umra’ baggage handling. Retail business contribute around RM202. 6 million, 13. 7% from its total sales by continues to leverage on extensive branch network to create post offices as “One-Stop solutions’ centre for the public and introduce new business model such as “[email protected]” and PosAssurance. Effective on 1 July 2010, government has announced the new tariff for domestic postage. The price for domestic postage stamps for standard mail weighting up to 20 gram was increase to 30 cents to 60 cent. Meanwhile mail up to 50 grams was increase from 40 cents to 70 cents. The revised tariff from government is also one of the reasons for increasing revenue each year. For GDEX, you can see that they perform on an increasing form. This is because more and more people want their item to be delivered on time, so GDEX is up to that standard. Not to say that Pos Malaysia deliver slow, but the item they sent is not up to their promise.

GDEX also show an increase in revenue due to a increase in the courier item tariff. The highest recorded revenue was in 2012, and increase of 25% from the previous year. This is due to advertising that GDEX have done by giving out brochure to advertise their service. They also make a few contract with few online shopping company for example LAZADA and ZALORA that also help boost their performance and revenue over the year. Since the online shopping is getting more and more popular, it is projected that GDEX will continue to improve their revenue over the year.

Operating Profit Operating profit of Pos Malaysia shows a decrease of 4. 5% (RM3. 88 million) form year 2008 to 2009 due to lower or decrease in revenue for year 2009. The operating profit start increase until year by year until 2012/13. Due to 15 month performance, the operating profit in year 2011/12 shows the highest profit for POS. POS has incurred around RM1. 30 billion for their operating expenses. POS has spend 60% from the operating expenditure for their staff cost in year 2011/12 and increase to 61. 4% in year 2012/13.

As at 31 March 2013, 16,245 number of staff recorder by Pos Malaysia Berhad and it is the highest number of staff recorded since POS has establish. This staff cost include salaries, bonuses, allowances and contributions to Employees’ Provident Fund for staff exclude their key management personnel. The second highest operating expenditure incurred by POS is transportation, 12. 8% from total operating expenditure incurred in year 2011/12 and reduce to 12. 0% in year 2012/13. Total 8,200 number of vehicle own by Pos Malaysia as at 31 March 2013.

This transportation includes van, truck and motorcycle use for shipping of documents and parcels between stations and the National for local pick-ups and deliveries. Transportation cost incurred includes fuel, maintenance, renewal of road tax and others. As you can see in operating expenditure graph, the staff cost for 2012 increase significantly because of their business expanding so their need more staff to deliver the item. The increase of operating profit over the previous year is 23%, this shows that the operating profit is at a very good level and maintain very well by the company.

Transportation cost increase by a little due to an asset increment to buy new transportation, so that will increase the company transportation cost. 4. 1. 3. Net Profit Before Taxation (NPBT) Pos Malaysia incurred net loss on year 2008. This loss is due to reversal of impairment loss on financial assets amounted to RM116. 10 million. In year 2009, POS started gain a profit of RM109. 26 million. The impairment on loss on financial asset has been writ back at RM4. 89 million. The profit before tax decrease by 9. 33% from year 2009 to 2010.

During 2010, POS incurred impairment loss on financial asset designated as available for sales and impairment loss on property plan and equipment. Both amounted to RM25. 09 million and RM22. 27 million. In year 2011/12, changes in new Chairman give positive picture to POS net profit before tax when the profit increase by RM101. 14 million and RM8. 33 million in the following year. During that year, Pos Malaysia has included zakat assessment in their profit before tax. The zakat assessment is based on net current assets or based on results of the year.

For GDEX on the other hand, in 2008, the profit is RM4. 354 million but drop 18% on 2009 due to economic distress on the year and due to the rise of fuel price at the end of 2008 that give significant negative effect to the company that make their profit drop to RM3. 561 million. In 2010, GDEX regain their strength and increase their profit more than 130% than previous year. This all due to efficient man handling and contract signing to increase their profit to RM8. 257 million. For 2011 and 2012 the company shows improvement to their profit.

This shows that the company generate profit more and more every year and have quality and efficiency to make profit. 4. 2. Balance Sheet 4. 2. 1. Asset Pos Malaysia shows an increase in their PPE over the years except for 2012 that show a slight decrease in their PPE valuation (3%) over the 2011 PPE. Intangible asset or the company goodwill remain the same over the five years perios that is RM4. 63 million. For investment of Pos Malaysia, for long term and also short term investment you can see that based on the horizontal analysis, the company are reducing their investment over the years.

Their investment become smaller over the years but for 2010 the short term investment for Pos Malaysia increase significantly that is by more RM97 million. But the long term investment on that year decrease from RM208 million(2009) to RM96 million in (2010). For cash and cash equivalent, for 2009 the amount drop by 46% from the previous year due to the loss incurred in 2008 that is from RM2. 715 million to RM1. 453 million. The amount increase 3% in 2010 to RM1. 503 million. But drop back by RM1. 313 million in 2011 to RM190,000. But for 2012, the company increase their cash by 680% to RM1. 482 million.

For GDEX, they manage to increase their total asset over the years. But the in 2011, GDEX manage to increase their asset to more than 50% from previous year from RM57 million to RM86 million. This is due to the increase in their PPE and also prepaid land lease. For the year 2011, GDEX bought PPE such as truck, motorcycle and others to deliver their item faster. The company goodwill remain the same over the 5 years. GDEX show a decrease in trade receivable in 2009 because of the market during that time, but increase back their receivable for the next 3 years to RM27million from RM16 million in 2009.

Liability Pos Malaysia liability divided into two main parts that is current liability and non-current liability. Part of current liability is short term borrowing, current tax liabilities and the major part of current liability is trade payable. The trade payables of Pos Malaysia over the years are 95% of its total liabilities. The trade payable of Pos Malaysia had a decrease from RM725 million to RM422 million in year 2009. But in 2010 the value of trade payable increase to RM471 million. The value again increase in 2011 and 2012 to RM564 million and RM605 million.

GDEX liability have to major source for it non current liability that is the long term borrowing. In 2011, the borrowing increase drastically due to new loan that their make to finance for the purchase of their asset. The value increase by five time from the year before. But the value drop by 3% because of the borrowing were transfer to short term portion. For the other payables, in 2012 it increase significantly from the previous year that is an increase of almost 60% due to the borrowing that their make during the year. 5. 0 Ratio Analysis 5. 1.

Profitability ratio Profitability ratio is to measure company ability to generate profits as compared to expenses over a specific time period. Gross profit margin determines company’s efficiency to manage the cost of its inventory and manufacturing of its products and subsequently pass on the costs to its customers. Net Profit Margin before tax 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 POS -3. 61% 8. 50% 6. 61% 9. 37% 11. 92% GDEX 4. 4% 2. 77% 7. 27% 7. 50% 7. 52% Net profit margin ratio is calculated to determine profit that company’s earned after deducting all of expenses.

For the purpose to analyze and compare company performance with its competitor, we used net profit margin before tax because each companies will have different and vary amount of taxation. Both companies, POS and GDEX show an increase in profit margin. Between these two companies, Pos Malaysia shows an improvement in both operational efficiency and profitability. From negative net profit margin in 2008, POS has show an improvement in 2009. Increase by 4. 89% of net profit margin mean that the company improved its profit and efficiency by 4. 89%. Even though the net profit margin has decrease by 1. 89% in year 2009 to 2010, but POS increase back their profit margin from year 2010 to 2011/12 and 2011/12 to 2012/13. A higher net profit margin of POS compare to GDEX shows that POS perform better than GDEX from year to year. 5. 2. Liquidity ratio Liquidity ratio is use to determine the company’s ability to converts its assets to cash without a loss in value to meet its short term obligations. Most of creditors will use liquidity ratio in order to predict and measure whether company able to make payment on time to them and continue to meet its short term obligation even when facing unforeseen event. Working Capital

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