Poverty Tourism: a Question of Ethics? Essay Sample

8 August 2017

Abstraction

Poverty touristry is a modern signifier of touristry. where tourers travel to less developed topographic points to detect the lives of destitute and deprived communities. typically located in the Third World. While experience seeking has emerged as a popular signifier of new touristry. it is necessary to inquire the inquiry of whether exercisings such as poorness touristry are ethical. The intent of this paper is to research the conflicting paradigms of poorness touristry. Giving the reader a full apprehension of poorness touristry and it’s effects on all parties involved. both positive and negative. and so theorize about the hereafter of poorness touristry. and picks of tourers.

This will be achieved by analyzing the ethical issues associated with poverty touristry such as voyeurism. the death of civilization. unequal distribution of net income. the issue of control and direction of poorness touristry every bit good as the possible benefits of this activity.

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Based on research and findings. the paper will besides theorize the hereafter of the poorness touristry and the sustainability of Third World touristry. With the usage of believable writers and professionals in the field of touristry and poverty touristry. and the writer’s ain personal experiences with poorness touristry and Third World touristry. the journal article concludes that the hereafter of poorness touristry is dependent on the ability of stakeholders to expeditiously pull off the pattern and ethical tourer behaviour.

Literature Review

Poverty touristry is a modern signifier of touristry. where tourers travel to less developed topographic points to detect the lives of destitute and deprived communities. typically located in the Third World. While experience seeking has emerged as a popular signifier of new touristry. it is necessary to inquire the inquiry of whether exercisings such as poorness touristry are ethical. Is it take downing to the dwellers of these now famed slums to be perceived as attractive forces and ‘must-see’ sights? Is it moral to leer at person less fortunate than yourself in order to experience humbled? In order to reply these inquiries. believable and reputable secondary informations on this subject was sourced. In add-on to this. primary research will be conducted with Simon Pawson. an industry expert. The three key beginnings used for back uping grounds in this statement are ; Evan Selinger and Kevin Outterson’s 2009 essay The Ethical motives of Poverty Tourism. a on the job paper. Poverty Tourism and the Problem of Consent written by Selinger. Outterson and Kyle Powys Whyte in 2011. every bit good as Martin Mowforth and Ian Munt’s Tourism and Sustainability: Development. Globalization and New Tourism. the 3rd edition. published in 2009. These beginnings are cardinal to the writer’s statement and supply academic logical thinking for the poorness touristry argument.

The Ethical motives of Poverty Tourism. written by Selinger and Outterson explores the impression that poorness touristry is an undue act when tourers condemn the destitute communities. The papers holds much virtue as the Boston University School of Law published it. and both writers are reputable lectors. Selinger belongs to the section of Philosophy at Rochester Institute of Technology in New York. giving the papers a strong theoretical base. based on the moral expostulation to poverty touristry. that when coupled with a phenomological research paradigm provides the paper with a philanthropic foundation. Contrastingly. Outterson a talk at the Boston University Schools of Law and Public Health provides the paper with convincing legal grounds and besides a personal history of an experience in a Brazilin Favela. which serves to add value to Selinger’s constructs. but besides ads a sense of engagement and personal battle with the subject of poorness touristry. This subdivision of the paper enables the reader to experience included in the essay. yet the utmost academic linguistic communication and multiple mentions make it hard for person on an entry degree of research to the full grasp. While the paper does non dig into every aspect of poorness touristry it does chiefly focuses on the thought of voyeurism. saying seven scenarios of immoral behaviour. and go oning to discourse poverty touristry as an act of voyeurism. an interesting argument. that despite its sexual roots and the unsettling images that come to mind. turn out the writer’s point that poverty touristry is immoral and unethical.

Selinger. Outterson and Whyte collaborated to compose Poverty Tourism and the Problem of Consent portion of The Journal of Global Ethics is a more rounded text. as it aims to research reciprocally good minutess between tourers and dwellers of poorness touristry. every bit good as admiting that poorness touristry can non get away the kink of development. The paper serves as a sold foundation for the statement against poverty touristry as while it condemns the pattern without ethical boundaries. it places much importance of set uping poverty touristry as a collaborative and consensual pattern between the tourer and the occupant. The writers mentioned above unite with Whyte. portion of the Department of Philosophy at Michigan State University to bring forth an academic and enlightening paper. The paper offers the reader a clear lineation of what is included. and works to supply opposing sentiments on poorness touristry. foregrounding both the benefits for and unwanted affects on the destitute communities. It fills the research spread that The Ethical motives of Poverty Tourism creates and while still being philosophical. provides solid quantitative informations in a rationalist paradigm. The essay is of great significance to the argument over poverty touristry and unlike the first beginning. adequately provides in-depth and considered probe. without being of the utmost academic criterion of the first article. enabling it to be more accessible to a pupil.

The 3rd beginning Tourism and Sustainability: Development. globalisation and new touristry in the Third World written by Mowforth and Munt is a foundational beginning for anyone involved in touristry research. and respected in the touristry industry and academic kingdom. The book provides a broad research base with diverse subjects and thoughts. It is utile as it focuses on the construct of power and touristry. and the impression that touristry is yet another avenue for First World domination. and development in the Third World. These are cardinal facets to the ethical argument of poorness touristry. and cardinal to the writer’s statement of moral expostulation of it.

It delves into the thought of selling the Third World. and pro-poor touristry. and discusses many theories attached to this thought. every bit good as supplying sound existent universe instances as examples of these theories in action. The text compares the theoretical footing for the benefits of Third World development. yet the research spread appears in its deficiency of strong personal voice. frequently trusting on other mentions and philosophers to support an sentiment. Yet this can besides be seen as a really positive facet of the text. as the other two documents are so colored that this book is reviewing in its well-considered usage of research and other faculty members. This is a strong and relevant text for any pupil research worker and offers many points of position. leting one to utilize the relevant beginnings as back uping grounds of their ain statement.

Each of the three beginnings discussed above are sound texts. and offer the reader much academic stimulation. Yet. when studied independently. they are deficient for the range of research that such a controversial issue as poverty touristry requires. When the three beginnings are considered in contrast to one another. their collaborative informations provides a strong model for the ethical issues environing poverty touristry. In order to make full the spread in research. an in-depth interview will besides be conducted as a comparing to these texts. which place an doubtless negative stigma on poorness touristry. and this will assist enable the author to organize a convincing statement and supply credibleness to their paper and research.

Poverty touristry is a modern signifier of touristry. where tourers travel to less developed topographic points to detect the lives of destitute and deprived communities. typically located in the Third World. While experience seeking has emerged as a popular signifier of new touristry. it is necessary to inquire the inquiry of whether exercisings such as poorness touristry are ethical. Is it take downing to the dwellers of these frequently famed slums to be perceived as attractive forces and ‘must-see’ sights? Is it moral to leer at person less fortunate than yourself in order to experience humbled?

The intent of this paper is to research the conflicting paradigms of poorness touristry. The paper will utilize secondary and primary research every bit good as empirical observation to analyze moral and ethical issues refering this topical motion in touristry. It will dig into the ethical issues associated with poverty touristry such as voyeurism. the death of civilization. unequal distribution of net income. the issue of control and direction of poorness touristry every bit good as the possible benefits of this activity. The paper aims to give the reader a full apprehension of poorness touristry and it’s effects on all parties involved. both positive and negative. and so theorize about the hereafter of poorness touristry. and ethical behavior of tourers.

In order to reply these inquiries. believable and reputable secondary informations on this subject was sourced. The three key beginnings used for back uping grounds in this statement are ; Evan Selinger and Kevin Outterson’s 2009 essay The Ethical motives of Poverty Tourism. a on the job paper. Poverty Tourism and the Problem of Consent written by Selinger. Outterson and Kyle Powys Whyte in 2011. every bit good as Martin Mowforth and Ian Munt’s Tourism and Sustainability: Development. Globalization and New Tourism. the 3rd edition. published in 2009. These beginnings are cardinal to the writer’s statement and supply academic logical thinking for the poorness touristry argument. Each of the three beginnings discussed above are sound texts. and offer the reader much academic stimulation. Yet. when studied independently. they are deficient for the range of research that such a controversial issue as poverty touristry requires. When the three beginnings are considered in contrast to one another. their collaborative informations provides a strong model for the ethical issues environing poverty touristry.

In order to make full the spread in research. an in-depth interview has been conducted with Simon Pawson as a comparing to these texts. which place an doubtless negative stigma on poorness touristry. enabling the author to organize a convincing statement and supply credibleness to their paper and research. This interview provided the paper with the necessary information to counter argue the ethical issues of poorness touristry with the benefits of this pattern in the Third World. Simon Pawson is a good educated adult male and enlightens the statement by underscoring the of import function touristry direction dramas in poorness touristry. while besides admiting the potency for development in state of affairss like poorness touristry. every bit good as provides some first manus experiences. Pawson was able to pull upon his experience working with developing communities and peoples. such as his function as the Director and Founder of the Kampuchean Education and Development Organisation. a non-government assistance administration based in Siem Reap. which aims to help poorness afflicted kids in Cambodia

This paper uses 80 per centum secondary informations and 20 per centum primary research every bit good as empirical observation as the foundation for the statement of moralss in poorness touristry. This information has been sourced through exploratory. descriptive. analytical. prognostic. deductive and inductive research. Supplying it with a sound apprehension and analysis of poorness touristry and the ethical inquiries that arise from it. The personal experiences of the writer’s ain travels are apparent in this paper. utilizing these experiences as a platform for ethical oppugning due to the personal challenges faced by the author in many of these destitute states.

An debut to Poverty Tourism
Poverty touristry can merely be defined as tourers going to less developed topographic points for the premier intent of detecting people populating in poorness. Yet. this is a multi-faceted issue in which many ethical rules are challenged. Tourism in it’s kernel is a value-laden experience. and Selinger and Outterson insist that while the act of poorness touristry has some earnestly negative intensions. world touristry is a far excessively naive look to exemplify experiences of this nature ( 2009. p1 ) . Yet. Poverty touristry must non merely be discussed with a negative stigma attached. as in many instances. poorness touristry has the chance to make a wide-range of occupations and contribute to the supports of the impoverish communities in these undeveloped homes. For illustration. place corsets on Amantani Island. in Peru. where the small towns rely entirely on tourers for their income. Yet when tourers visit slums like Dharavi in Mumbai. India. the biggest slum in Asia. we are forced inquiry whether tourers are paying for an experience. some sort of hallmark or as travel blogger Pickard challenges. simply to ogle at poorness ( 2007 ) ?

It is the ethical inquiries like this. raised by poorness touristry that are of peculiar concern to the future sustainability of the pattern. and to many tourers themselves. Poverty touristry reveals a figure of disputing issues that are faced by the Third World host. stakeholders. and the traveler. In order to analyze these ethical issues. an apprehension of moralss is indispensable. Ethical motives are the moral rules that govern a individual or group’s behaviour. and touristry moralss relate to the moral rightness of the behavior of tourers and stakeholder likewise ; duties. concerns. restrictions. and autonomies. There are a overplus of ethical issues that are exploited by poorness touristry. including voyeurism. the loss of civilization. unequal distribution of net income and the issue of control.

Poverty Tourism and Voyeurism
Critics and faculty members have likened poverty touristry to voyeurism. which is when a individual additions pleasure from detecting others prosecuting in sexual activity. This is a distressing image. and many tourers would deny any association with such a socially unacceptable pattern. Yet. what many tourers fail to gain. it that voyeurism is besides the act of deriving pleasance from detecting another individual in hurting or hurt. whether that be emotional. physical or societal. This leads us to dispute whether we are denounced as tourers or Peeping Toms. triping the argument of moralss in poorness touristry. Selinger and Outterson. in their essay The Ethical motives of Poverty Tourism. challenge this thought of voyeurism. and assert that in the context of poorness touristry. this observation has the possible to be morally distressing and ethically ambitious ( 2009. pp 9 ) .

They formulated a taxonomy of fortunes where observation can be construed as voyeurism. These include ; where people perceive that they are being observed for take downing intents. and when members of privileged groups misrepresent the values and beliefs of an underprivileged group on the footing of selective observation of their lives ( 2009. pp 9 ) . It is these facets of poorness touristry that are cardinal to the impression that is it a signifier of voyeurism. For illustration. when groups are taken on poorness Tourss through slums in India. for tourers to detect the lives of destitute communities. It treats people as objects in a menagerie. non as sceptered persons. but simply another article for picture taking ogling. Residents are forced to sit at that place. while tourers traipse past their places. through the hemorrhoids of rubbish that form the back streets of communities. with neglect of their self-respect. merely to see how “they” live. how “they” exist in such awful conditions. Would we make that in an unfamiliar vicinity in our place metropolis? Would we peer into Windowss and take exposures of people’s pantry’s and kids?

Poverty touristry is no uncertainty a signifier of voyeurism ; it degrades. feats and disregards people’s places. households. and criterion of life. Yet poverty touristry is frequently embraced. if non invited in Third World states. We must inquire ourselves whether this invitation is by the destitute communities. or stakeholders and enterprisers. maximising on a tourer market that is turning globally. In this instance. the communities involved in poverty touristry must no uncertainty be sing death in their cultural traditions due to the inflow of touristry into their slums and communities. merely because tourers want to witness desolation and enterprisers are banking on these bad lucks.

Poverty Tourism and cultural death
One of the biggest issues that consequences from poverty touristry is the death of the local civilization of the host state or metropolis. and the commodification of these communities. as poverty touristry is most frequently built with civilization as a foundation. This can hold both positive and negative impacts. as poverty touristry aims to continue the civilization while still leting stakeholders to harvest the economic benefits from the touristry industry. Yet. societies are frequently profoundly affected when touristry influences a alteration in value systems. and behaviours that threaten the autochthonal rules and traditions of local communities. This can come about in even the simplest ways.

Take Bali as an illustration. one of the most visited finishs in the universe. and globally renowned for it’s repute as true Eden. Tourists demand reliable manner adjustment villa’s. new and unfamiliar five-star culinary art. and topographic point a monetary value ticket on the alone natural beauty of Bali. as Diarta affirms in his article The last-or the lost-paradise: The Balinese Tourism Paradox ( 2004 ) . He believes that the impact of poorness touristry on cultural identify is subjective. as tourers flock here to see the poorness afflicted communities in the rice Paddies. and on the streets. yet return to their plush resorts each eventide. to sip cocktails. The World Tourism Organisation Global Code of Ethics for Tourism provides a model for ethical touristry patterns. puting out 10 articles. runing from sustainable touristry patterns. rights of touristry industry workers. to duties of stakeholders. Of peculiar involvement is article four.

Article 4: Tourism. a user of the cultural heritage of world and a subscriber to its sweetening ( 4 ) Tourism activity should be planned in such a manner as to let traditional cultural merchandises. trades and folklore to last and boom. instead than doing them to devolve and go standardised.

Diarta supports the impression that while the model for ethical touristry efforts to relay the importance of continuing local civilization and heritage. it is extremely likely that through poorness touristry these alone societies will go trade goods that are standardized and homogenised. forced to run into consumer demands to the point where loss of individuality. civilization and genuineness consequence. and it is a procedure which is hard to control. or contrary. He asserts that the Balinese people have volitionally adapted their life styles and traditions to run into tourist demands. saying “actually our native civilization has no “business with tourism” ( 2004. pp 2 ) . and that popular tourer hot musca volitanss in Bali such as Kuta beach now has few associations with traditional Hindu patterns and is driven strictly by tourer demands.

This is a clear development of civilization for touristic additions and evidences the critical importance of touristry direction in poorness afflicted states and aspiration to make a mutual relationship between touristry and civilization. helping the challenge of ethically sustainable poorness touristry. Something which Whyte. Selinger and Outterson support in their essay Poverty Tourism and the Problem of Consent. They encouragement the construct that in order for the benefits of poorness touristry to be just and merely. just trade attacks are deserving researching ( 2011. pp 347 ) . and it must be consensual Acts of the Apostless of poorness touristry by both tourer and supplier. a construct which is hard to find and guarantee. particularly in Third World touristry development.

Unequal distribution of net income
The distribution of income from touristry is a uninterrupted and het argument. So frequently. local communities fail to see the net incomes they deserve end up in their ain pockets. Tourism targets earnestly destitute communities. those who frequently have small or no alternate income. are unskilled and unemployed. and forced to trust on the inflow of tourers into their communities to supply for their households. Mitchell and Ashley ask the inquiry of which hapless benefit signifier poorness touristry in their book Tourism and Poverty Reduction. They assert that touristry linkages affect three dominant groups of destitute people ( 2011. pp 75 ) . The first group is husbandmans and mediators. These are the people who sell the nutrient that is served in hotels and eating houses. and can be located immensely throughout the state and other states. Second include micro and informal enterprisers within the touristry industry. working to supply local goods and services. such as building. and security. The 3rd group of donees are the unskilled locals. They provide trades and other goods to be sold in tourer hot musca volitanss.

Tourism provides incomes for a huge assortment of workers throughout the state. while poverty touristry fails to convey these same benefits to communities. Because tourers are simply detecting communities and societies. and merely pass a little sum on trades or keepsakes. who’s origins nay non even be local and supply small or no returns to the communities involved. This forces us to oppugn how poverty touristry benefits the destitute homes? It is improbable that the money spent on other countries of travel such as eating houses and adjustment reaches the most deprived communities. as they are non closely connected to the indirect touristry linkages.

This is a inquiry of moralss that tourers must inquire themselves when make up one’s minding to see a slum. or enter into a poorness circuit in a Third World state. Urban growing coupled with increasing poorness and societal inequality. and a predicted addition in the figure of people populating in slums to about 2 billion by 2030 ( 2007. pp 1 ) merely heightens the focal point on unequal distribution of net incomes to impoverished communities. Tour operators receive benefits as an enterpriser. but what is the community that tourers are detecting having besides aghast faces and the chink of a camera lens?

Poverty Tourism and the issue of control
Another ethical issue related to poverty touristry is the function of power in Third World touristry. Crick concludes in his 1989 survey of societal scientific discipline literature. that there is an unequal apprehension of the complexnesss of poorness touristry. and much literature fails to analyze the function of power in touristry development ( Crick. 1989. cited in Mowforth & A ; Munt. 2009. pp45 ) . Mowforth and Munt have developed a taxonomy for poorness touristry and touristry development in the Third World. They suggest that the relationship of power in Third World touristry is based on the cardinal thoughts of power and control. viz. by dominant external and international powers. which can be viewed as unethical and unequal. Dobson ( 1995. cited in Mowforth & A ; Munt. 2009. pp 48 ) asserts that it is political orientations. that “map the universe in different ways” . and touristry is a premier illustration of an unequal development procedure.

The First World machination in poorness touristry has led to Third World domination by international enterprisers. and tour companies. who frequently control and organize poverty touristry from outside the finish state. For illustration. tour companies such as Geckso’s Grassroots Adventures form for groups of tourers to come in into small towns in states all over the universe. This administration is of class shut-in without the cooperation of the small town itself and the land staff in the finish state. but poverty touristry begs us to inquire how consensual is this understanding? And how ethical is external administration?

Pawson believes that poorness touristry has the possible to be earnestly exploitatory if non organised and managed in a responsible manner and the supports of the communities are non adequately repaid. For illustration. he visited a Nubian small town in southern Egypt. where the small town was simply a diversion to demo tourers how Nubian people live. He found this to be an unsettlingly inauthentic experience. Later in his trip when he came across a Nubian small town on his ain. he was welcomed into a villagers place and exposed to the true Nubian life style and shortly discovered that these communities were seeing small return for their attempts as external agents were harvesting the economic benefits with small money being put back into the community.

This is evidenced in other countries such as Peru. and Sikkim in Nepal. where the international stakeholders in the home-stay touristry plans reap the pecuniary wagess from tourers. while the communities make a measly return. and furthermore. hold small control over the activities to which they are subjected. This is a clear illustration of how poverty touristry can be unethical in its administration. and execution. every bit good as argues the function of power in touristry development in the Third World. Yet. despite the deficiency of self-denial the communities experience. there are still benefits which poverty touristry can convey.

Benefits of Poverty Tourism
Poverty touristry. while frequently viewed with a negative intension. has the possible to profit the communities. host metropoliss and tourers likewise. Poverty touristry has the possible to be a beneficiary for destitute communities in assorted ways. Tourists can buy handy-crafts and other objects from the occupants. but must seek to guarantee they are locally produced so they know the money is being returned into the community. Tourists can besides convey economic benefits to the host state merely by going at that place and passing money in the state. helping the development of Third World touristry. And Poverty touristry besides provides the communities with an chance to see and see the civilization of the tourer. Furthermore. poorness touristry can be an exceeding acquisition experience for both the tourer and the communities. to pass on where possible. portion values. adapt to other’s civilizations and larn to esteem one another as people. regardless of race. socio-economic position. or cultural differences.

Basically. poverty touristry enables tourers and communities to link and lend to a planetary community. In footings of the moralss of poorness touristry. this can be challenged when discoursing the hereafter of poorness touristry. Poverty touristry. argued in this paper has the possible to be a earnestly unethical pattern. Yet. it besides has the ability to unlock chances for destitute communities for economic growing. support and lifestyle benefits and active battle in determination devising where possible ( Ashely. 2001. cited in Mowforth & A ; Munt. 2009. pp. 344 ) . Mowforth and Munt assert that poorness touristry is built on the natural and cultural assets of the destitute communities. which generates net benefits for the hapless.

Yet. poorness touristry differs from other signifiers of touristry such as ecotourism. sustainable touristry. fair-trade touristry or other ethically based touristry because it does non claim to hold any developmental values ( 2009. pp 345 ) . imploring us to oppugn if this pattern is hence dispensable? Whyte. Selinger and Outterson conclude in their paper that tourers are non prosecuting in poorness touristry in order to last or stay competitory in concern. but are seeking for some sort of hallmark. They question whether poorness touristry is even a true representation of the life styles of the hapless. and do non experience poverty touristry should be an experience for financially privileged tourers to take part in merely see how those less fortunate than themselves live. ( 2011. pp 345 ) . Despite this academic paradigm. from personal experience. Pawson argues that it is frequently through poverty touristry that privileged tourers are inspired to back up and help Third World touristry and aid to relieve despair in these topographic points. Yet we must go on to inquire ourselves whether First World engagement in the development of touristry in the Third World is sustainable and ethical?

Decision
Poverty touristry is a complex issue. which forces us to oppugn our ain ethical touristry behaviours. and besides question the development procedure of touristry in the Third World. But as tourers. we travel to seek for the unfamiliar. the alien and new. it frequently leads us towards poorness touristry. The hunt to see something flooring. and sometimes even lay waste toing can trip strong emotional reactions and can in frequently instances humble a individual. Poverty touristry provides tourers with a opportunity to detect how destitute people live and gives them the chance to give back. and aid those communities. Yet. tourers. stakeholders and enterprisers repeatedly exploit poverty touristry and the communities involved. so we are forced to oppugn the if it is ethical to take part in at all.

Tourism itself presents people globally with ethical issues to make with it’s direction and administration. Therefore when you couple an already controversial issue of touristry development in the Third World with poverty touristry. moral. societal. and ethical behaviors are challenged. personally and globally. Poverty touristry is a combative subject. and one that will go on to be debated every bit long as tourers have the autonomies of going the Earth. Yet poverty touristry does non hold to ever be viewed with a negative stigma attached.

Poverty touristry can be of benefit to communities and tourers likewise through well-managed and every bit distributed power and authorization in the administration of the touristry industry in the Third World. While slum touristry is a really utmost signifier of poorness touristry. there are signifiers that can be of great success. for illustration homestays plans. Amantani Island locals heartily welcome tourers into their places. their households and their manner of life. These communities are so proud of their heritage that they want to continue it and convey this pride to tourers by ask foring them to see it excessively. This sort of plan has the ability to alter people’s manner of thought and hopefully let the touristry industry to see how poverty touristry can be of great success when managed in concurrence with the communities instead than tourers simply detecting destitute people.

The ethical inquiries that poorness touristry unveils such as development. voyeurism. death of civilization. distribution of net income. and the issue of control are all valid and serious concerns. and while poverty touristry direction is hard. dearly-won and demanding. it is indispensable to the hereafter of touristry in the Third World. Tourists must go more cognizant of their moral behaviours when going and go sensitive to the state of affairss in which they choose to take portion in. Possibly tourers should take non to partake in a poorness jaunt or slum circuit. and choose for a more reliable experience through other signifiers of ethical touristry.

Reference List

Diarta. K. S. ( 2004 ) . The last-or the lost-paradise: The Balinese touristry paradox. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved April 23 2012 from ; hypertext transfer protocol: //images. ubud. com/pdf/040925tourist. pdf

General Assembly of the World Tourism Organization ( 1999 ) . Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. Retrieved April 23 2012 from ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //ethics. unwto. org/en/content/global-code-ethics-tourism

Mitchell. J. & A ; Ashley. Caroline. ( 2010 ) . Tourism and Poverty Reduction: Nerve pathwaies to Prosperity. Tourism. Environment. and Development Series. London: Earthsacn
Mowforth. M. & A ; Munt. I. ( 2009 ) . Tourism and Sustainability. Development. globalisation and new touristry in the Third World. 3rd Edition. New York: Routledge.

Pickard. P. ( 2007. November ) . Is Slum touristry in India Ethical? Retrieved April 24. 2012. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. itchy feet. co. uk/magazine/articles/destinations/indian-slum-tours? page=all
Powys Whyte. K. . Sellinger. E. & A ; Outterson. K. ( 2011. December ) . Poverty Tourism and the Problem of Consent. Journal of Global Ethics. Vol. & A ; . No. 3. Retrieved March 5. 2012. from ; hypertext transfer protocol: //ssrn. com/abstract-1732710

UN-Habitat. ( 2007 ) . Slum Dwellers to duplicate by 2030: Millennium Development Goal Could Fall Short. Twenty First Session of the Governing Council. Retrived April 24 2012 from ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. unhabitat. org/downloads/docs/4631_46759_GC % 2021 % 20Slum % 20dwellers % 20to % 20double. pdf *

Selinger. E. & A ; Outterson. K. ( 2009. June ) . The Ethics of Poverty Tourism. Retrieved March 5. 2012. from ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bu. edu/law/faculty/scholarship/workingpapers/2009. hypertext markup language

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