Central Board of Secondary Education CLASS-X CBSE-i POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT I POWER SHARING TEACHERS’ MANUAL CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL i Acknowledgements Conceptual Framework Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE Advisory Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE Ideators: Classes IX and X Dr. Anju Srivastava Mr. N K Sehgal Dr. Uma Choudhary Ms. Anita Sharma Ms. Sarita Manuja Ms. Preeti Hans Ms.

P Rajeshwary Ms. Suganda Vallli Ms. Varsha Seth Ms. Sunita Tanwar Ms. S Radha Mahalakshmi Ms. Neelima Sharma Prof. Chand Kiran Saluja Dr. Usha Sharma Ms. Renu Anand Dr. Rajesh Hassija Mr Mukesh Kumar Material Developers: Classes IX – X English : Ms. Gayatri Khanna Ms. Renu Anand Ms. P Rajeshwary Ms. Sarabjit Kaur Hindi : Ms. Sunita Joshi Ms. Babita Singh Ms. Veena Sharma Mr. Akshya Kumar Dixit CORE-SEWA Ms. Vandna Ms. Nishtha Bharati Ms. Seema Bhandari, Ms. Seema Chopra Ms. Madhuchhanda Ms. Reema Arora Ms. Neha Sharma Chemistry : Ms. Charu Maini Ms. S Anjum Biology : Ms. Pooja Sareen Ms. Neeta Rastogi

CORE-Perspectives Ms. Madhuchhanda, RO(Innovation) Ms. Varsha Seth, Consultant Ms. Neha Sharma CORE-Research Ms. Renu Anand Ms. Gayatri Khanna Dr. N. K. Sehgal Ms. Anita Sharma Ms. Rashmi Kathuria Ms. Neha Sharma Ms. Neeta Rastogi Ms. Manjustha Bose Ms. Varsha Manku Dr. K. L. Chopra Geography: Ms. Meera Bharihoke Ms. Parul Tyagi Ms. Sudha Tyagi Ms. Sonia Jarul Ms. Neena Phogat Mr. Nisheeth Kumar Economics : Ms. Anubha Malhotra Ms. Vintee Sharma Ms. Chaitali Sengupta Physics : Ms. Novita Chopra Ms. Meenambika Menon Mathematics : Dr. K P Chinda Dr. Ram Avtar Sh. Mahender Shankar Sh. J C Nijhawan Ms. Rashmi Kathuria

Ms. Reemu Verma History : Ms. Sajal Chawala Ms. Jyoti Sharma Ms. Kamna Kurana Ms. Shalini Chatarvedi Mr. Dalia Haldar ICT Ms. Guneet Kaur Ms. Ritu Ranjan Mr. Mukesh Kumar Ms. Babita Mr. Akashdeep Political Science: Dr. Sangeetha Mathur Ms. Ananya Roy Ms. Sunita Rathee Ms Amarjit Kaur Ms. Nishu Sharma Ms. Manisha Anthwal Ms. Mamta Talwar Chief Co-ordinator :Dr. Srijata Das, EO Coordinators: Ms. Sugandh Sharma, E O E OMr. Navin Maini, R O (Tech) Dr Rashmi Sethi, E O Ms. Madhu Chanda, R O (Inn) Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, AEO Ms. Anjali, AEO Ms. S. Radha Mahalakshmi, Shri R. P. Sharma, Consultant (Science) Ms. Reema Arora,

Page 2 Power sharing Essay

Consultant (Chemistry)EO Ms. Neelima Sharma, Consultant (English) Mr. Sanjay Sachdeva, S O CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing ii Preface This International Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education – (CBSE) is a progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in imparting a curriculum which would restore the autonomy of the learner to pursue the learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.

The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic needs of the learners worldwide. It has about 12500 schools affiliated to it and over 158 schools situated in more than 23 countries. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the learners and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i, has been visualized and developed with these requirements in view.

The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective of the curriculum is to nurture learner autonomy, given the fact that every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations and additions wherever and whenever necessary. The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge at an astonishing pace.

The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many challenges to educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to incorporate those skills which will enable young learners to become’life long learners’. The ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners.

The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these requirements. The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all subject areas to cater to the different pace of learners. The CBSE introduced classes I and X in the session 2010-11 as a pilot project in schools.

It was further extended to classes II, VI and X in the session 2011-12. In the seesion 2012-13, CBSE-i is going to enter in third year with classes III, VII and XI. The focus of CBSE-i is to ensure that the learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the teacher and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE

UNIT-I • Power Sharing iii would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this ‘Core’. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner’s holistic growth and earning curve. The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom are now global citizens. The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level.

The International Curriculum would evolve building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools’ administering this system strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board. I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training) CBSE, Dr.

Srijata Das, Education Officer CBSE along with all the Officers involved in the development and implementation of this material. The CBSE-i website enables all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for modifying any part of this document are welcome. Vineet Joshi Chairman, CBSE CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I POWER SHARING CONTENTS l INTRODUCTION l POWER-SHARING: CONCEPT OF ACCOMODATION l

NEED FOR POWER-SHARING l CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRI LANKA l l l COMPARISON AND CONTRAST SOME OTHER EXAMPLES FORMS OF POWER SHARING l HORIZONTAL l VERTICAL l AMONG SOCIAL GROUPS l AMONG POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS AND MOVEMENTS iv CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL v POWER SHARING UNIT MATRIX TOPIC KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING APPLICATION Power Sharing : A concept Meaning and the ideology Sharing power = Gaining power Implementation in the family, society and political system Need for Power Sharing Requirements for which Power

Sharing is desired Moral and Prudential Reasons l Case Study Political Systems of Belgium and Sri Lanka l How social differences turn into divisions l How accommodation leads to innovation and national integration Application of the principle in other cases like – USA, CANADA, LEBENON, INDIA etc. Forms of Power Sharing Power Sharing Arrangements at different levels and of various types Observation and Analysis of power sharing in Horizontal and vertical systems, among social groups and political parties Searching examples from the country of origin/residence

Acceptance of diversity in real life l Aiming for national integration CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 1 SCOPE Democracy is the form of government which is essentially based on the principle of sharing political power among political parties of a Nation belonging to diverse ethnic as well as regional groups, majority community as well as minorities existing in the country. The purpose of this unit is to sensitize the students about the fact that all the Nations and societies have such diversities in their population.

Even the countries which follow one language and one religion are not completely homogeneous, and have some or the other kind of demographic diversity. All these diverse groups, if given recognition and acceptance, contribute positively towards the growth and progress of their Nation. If not, then they may lead to civil strife. Therefore, it is required that we accept and accommodate such diversities and extend equal rights to them The unit also intends to create an understanding and appreciation among students regarding benefits of power sharing for the society along with the Nation.

Students must realize that sharing political power is not an easy task as, whichever community is in majority in whichever country, it aspires to control political power and tends to impose its will on the entire population, many a times ignoring the interests of the minority communities. This is natural human behaviour which takes place even at the school, college, local and state level. Denial of acceptance and lack of accommodation of the diversity often results in disputes, conflicts and civil strife which are difficult to resolve.

Power sharing thus becomes an important component of all the true democratic systems for ethical as well as practical reasons. It is the possible remedy for almost all the socio-political conflicts and basically promotes the idea of team work, constructive collaboration and peaceful co-existence instead of individual endeavour of a person, group or a community for the common collective good. There are various ways and forms in which power sharing can be exercised in different countries. This unit discusses four main forms out of them. WHY TEACH THIS UNIT? Modern world today is full of civil conflict.

Except for a few countries almost every Nation is entangled in a conflict of one or the other kind among the majority and minority communities or varied ethnic and regional groups. Democracy is the possible solution to such problems, but only on the condition of sharing political power among the warring groups belonging to various regions and ethnic communities of the respective nations. Through the case study of Belgium and Sri Lanka, this unit will enable the students to not only understand the political systems of these countries but also to have an insight into their problems and ethnic conflicts.

This will make the learners realize that hatred, rigidity and lack of political will to share power with the minorities and people from diverse backgrounds results in even more hatred and even a bigger conflict that may lead to disastrous CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 2 consequences. Students will realize that a country is the motherland/fatherland to both – the majority as well as the minority communities.

Even if a community’s forefathers came from outside and were not the natives of the said country, the current generations have been born and brought up in the same country and live there permanently. They have their sentiments attached to this land and are culturally, historically and psychologically associated with it. Therefore, they have an equal right and claim over the Nation which should not be denied to them. Students will get to know various forms through which political power can be shared and peacefully exercised in a Democracy while accommodating various thnic as well as regional diversities and accepting them as an integral part of country’s population. Moreover, today’s children are going to be tomorrow’s political leaders, visionaries and statesmen. This unit will provide students with basic lessons in conflict management, problem solving and Nation building by power sharing; by involving all the stakeholders in the decision making who are also going to be affected by those decisions, not by appeasement, but by making them contribute constructively towards National policies and programs; by creating mutual trust, faith and harmony.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES The unit will enable learners to: l Acquaint themselves with the political systems of Belgium and Sri Lanka and understand the challenges faced by them. l Familiarize students with the problems that arise in a country due to lack of power sharing. l Recognize the need for sharing political power in a democratic setup. l Understand the significance of power sharing through the case studies. l Critically examine various forms of power sharing in different democratic countries. TEACHERS NOTES I. This Unit has been structured in the following manner:

Section 1 – This section deals with the idea and meaning of power sharing. It also discusses the need and requirement of power sharing for moral and prudential reasons. Section 2 – This part of the unit deals with the Case Study of Belgium and Sri Lanka, power sharing pattern in these countries, differences and similarities and CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 3 result of the policies followed in these countries with regard to accommodation of diversity. Section 3 – This section discusses four different forms of power sharing followed in various Democratic countries.

II. The activities given in the unit are of two types – a) Warming up and fun activities b) Methodology/Strategy based activities Assessment criteria given for the worksheets can be followed for the assessment of activities as well. III. Power sharing is not always successful in every situation and has its own limitations. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 4 INTRODUCTION In modern times, governing people with ethnic diversities, regional differences and a huge cultural variety is a challenging task.

It takes enormous effort, determined political will and serious understanding on the part of the government in order to come to an equation with all the diverse groups and minorities of the Nation so as to govern them effectively, to be accepted and respected by all of them. POWER SHARING: A CONCEPT WARMING UP ACTIVITY l Ask the students to observe the given pictures and try to understand the ideas/messages which are being promoted commonly by all of them. l Let the students discuss and brainstorm on these ideas l All these pictures represent diversity and its acceptance as well as accommodation by others.

The pictures also symbolize the ideas – unity/ integrity, collaboration and team spirit. l Talk about the significance of all these issues in daily life and the political system of a country and relate them to the concept of POWER SHARING. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 5 A Democratic system of governance is the possible solution to this problem, where the final political power rests in the hands of the people who elect their representatives from all the sections, classes, and categories of their society, and send them as representatives in the government to take important decisions on their behalf.

A little imbalance in this situation can lead to conflicts, disputes, and socio-political strife, hence, an intelligent power sharing amongst the organs of the government at various levels, in various forms is seriously required. It is actually essential to the basic design of a Democracy to have power sharing among all its stakeholders and claimants of political power. Activity- II POWERPOINT PRESENTATION l Introduce the concept of Democracy and power sharing in the class. l Describe the meaning of important terms like ethnic diversity, social conflict, civil war, etc. l

Prepare the room, if required, for showcasing the PowerPoint presentation, prepared beforehand l Play the presentation in parts, and pause in between to explain the important topics, one after another, with the help of brainstorming on power sharing as a concept and continue with class discussion. l In order of re-enforce the concept of power sharing, give examples from various countries (the ones mentioned in the student manual) and ask the students to note the important points in their notebooks as the presentation progresses. l Draw the attention of students towards the relation between power sharing and conflict resolution. Ask the student to brainstorm amongst them for 15 minutes on the situation in Belgium and Sri Lanka and come up with their own suggestions and solutions. USE: Worksheet Number – 1,2,3,4 CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 6 POWER-SHARING : A Concept of accommodation : Power-sharing is a method, a powerful strategy for settling all kinds of conflicts, disputes, claims, regarding control and use of political power in a Democratic system. It is the most potential way out for resolving disputes over the issue of holding most powerful position in the political hierarchy.

Instead of struggling and fighting over who should possess more political power and authority over the rest, power sharing depends and relies upon the joint exercise of political power. It promotes peaceful co-existence among diverse groups, ethnic Nationalities, and minority communities of a Democratic Nation and creates unity among them. Activity III l This picture is a game related to Indian Democracy. Observe it and try to find out what does it depict? l Does it relate to any kind of power sharing? Explain. USE: worksheet – 8 Source: www. johnbatchelorshow. com

Power-sharing also allows the cross-cutting of socio-economic or cultural differences among the people and convinces them to put forward their conflicts demands and grievances in such a way that they become positive and constructive for the community and the Nation. This can be done in a variety of ways. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 7 One possible approach is to grant autonomy to the diverse groups, regional or ethnic, over a few or all aspects of their own affairs. For instance, this freedom and autonomy can be restricted just to the cultural issues, i. e. religion and education or it can be extended to cover-up the socio-economic, and the political fields as well. At the extreme level, power sharing can result in granting self-determination, and complete independence, allowing a minority group to establish its own sovereign Nation state. In this case, power-sharing finally leads to peaceful power-dividing. Another approach to accommodation and power-sharing is much more inclusive and integrative in nature. According to this approach, the task and responsibility of governance is shared by elected leaders from regional, lingual, ethnic or minority group within the country.

They work jointly, cooperatively and more effectively for the making of better and acceptable decisions, for the resolution of even the most serious issues involving ethnic conflict, and socio-political strife. While exercising political power, taking important decisions and making public policies, they all are expected to be ethnically, and regionally neutral. This approach requires establishment of a well-structured free and fair electoral system which encourages multi-ethnic collaboration and coalition within the political system of the Nation.

This generally leads to the establishment of Federalism. Implementation of either of the methodologies on power-sharing is quite challenging as the ethnic or regional groups holding political-power are usually unwilling to give up or relinquish this power. On the other hand, the groups devoid of this power tend to demand a substantial and considerable change in the system and claim a share in the exercise of political power, which the dominant group usually does not accept. Here begins the conflict, which at times, may lead to serious consequences.

Rejection to power-sharing, and extension of autonomy, often creates social hatred, and civil discord, which is very difficult to deal with and resolve. However, if the ethnic or minority groups promote their demands, in such a way that they highlight joint benefit of all the communities, and focus on evolving a mutually acceptable method of achieving autonomy, and self-determination for all the groups, they are likely to be more successful in getting their demands fulfilled than they are, if they take a more aggressive or competitive approach.

Need for power-sharing Civil conflict is like a curse for most of the countries of the world today, specifically the developing ones, which have huge ethnic and regional diversity, where these groups are even entangled in bloody wars or use violence to resolve the civil strife. This shatters the economy of the country and destabilizes its political system. Even in the countries which are peaceful, demand for the share in the political power is often made by the people belonging to the potential ethnic groups and political parties.

Such demands, if ignored, can be fatal. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 8 Besides this, globalization has added fuel to the problem as what happens in a Nation, in a particular part of the world, affects many other Nations – neighbouring or distant, that too at times in a drastic manner. Justified peaceful claims, violent uprisings, rebellions, and revolutions for a substantial share in the political hierarchy that emerge in one country are quick to be seen in many other countries, within a short span of time.

In the modern era of highly advanced technology, where anything is possible – mass destruction, or mass construction, the modern developments in transportation, communication, education, and industrial advancement have exerted great pressure on the political organizations of the Democratic countries. A desire for progress, and growth, a good respectable standard of living, social-justice, cultural recognition, economic equality, growing awareness among people, regarding interdependence have led to the demand for political autonomy and self-determination among diverse communities of a country.

People want governments to be more responsive to the citizens, and their needs, they desire even local and regional political units to give expression and recognition to their linguistic, religious, and cultural background, which provides the necessary basis and foundation for a community’s specific distinct identity. They don’t want this identity to be lost, or suppressed.

In such a condition, the main objective of the political system of the Nation is not to eliminate diversity but rather to accommodate, reconcile, and manage socialdiversities in such a manner that they all feel important, being a part of the Nation, their interests are well taken care of, their cultural identity well secured, making them to develop a sense of belongingness, trust, and faith in the political system of the country. In other words, power sharing is the recommended remedy for such societies which are threatened by social conflicts.

Thus, power sharing arrangements of the Democratic countries aim to reduce the risk of civil conflict by guaranteeing potential land prospective warring groups as well as parties, a positive role in the country’s government and further reducing the chances of political competition and rivalry. It also reduces the risk of people’s resort to violence; in case they don’t succeed in attaining political recognition, acknowledgement and respect as a result of Democratic elections.

The major aim of powersharing is to assure that each of the serious claimants; stake holders and political parties get a significant, substantial benefit from cooperation and peaceful accommodation. Powersharing, thus helps in reducing the threat of a conflict by giving all potential parties (to any dispute), a share in peaceful cooperation, and a set of mutual agreements and assurances of social security, and the protection of their basic interests.

Such arrangements are planned, well calculated and constitutionalized specifically to limit the ability of the majority community, a larger social group, or a party to misuse the political power or to exercise it for sectional or divisive purposes. So, on the basis of this discussion, we can conclude that power-sharing is genuinely desirable and is primarily required for two main reasons – moral and prudential. CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL 9 Activity –IV INFER THE CARTOONS Source: www. ablueview. com These are the cartoons depicting a situation of deep concern in United States of America. Observe each one of them carefully. l Try to find out the problem and its relation with the idea of power sharing and accommodation. l What could be the reason behind urban violence and involvement of youth in it? l Can you think of any other examples with similar kind of a problem? Explain. Use: worksheet – 7, 10, and 11 Moral reasons Morally, power-sharing is the core essence of Democracy as Democracy cannot sustain in absence of power sharing. A Democratic rule is all about sharing power with all those people who are affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects.

It is for this profound reason that power-sharing is required. People of a country belonging to any of the regions, areas, communities, or ethnic groups of the country have a right to be informed and consulted, on how they are going to be administered and governed. A legitimate government is peoples own government and is whole heartedly accepted by them. It creates such arrangements, situations and opportunities where citizens, through active participation, acquire a stake in the political system. These moral reasons highlight the very deed of power-sharing as important and essential. They are sufficient enough to justify its requirement.

Prudential reasons The prudential reasons are based on careful calculation of gains and losses and are much more practical and logical. So, practically, power sharing is a good option because it reduces CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL 10 the possibility of civil strife and socio-political conflict. Since, civil conflict generally leads to violence, loss of life and property as well as political instability; power sharing is a good approach to maintain mutual trust and reliance among the claimants of political power as well as the stakeholders and guarantees stability of the political system.

Forcing upon the will of the majority community on rest of the minorities of the Nation and compelling them to abide by it may appear to be an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it creates tension, mistrust and unrest among the citizens and undermines the unity and integrity of the of the Nation. Domination and suppression by majority is not just unfair, exploitative and torturous to the minority but it also brings decline as well as deterioration to the majority and the Nation as well.

Hence, it is always judicious and sensible in a Democracy to embrace power sharing arrangement. Activity V COMPARE AND CONTRAST MATRIX SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES l Divide the class into two groups and ask them to research upon political situation in Belgium and Sri Lanka. l Ask group A to look for similarities in the political system of the two countries and group B to look for differences. l With the help of student response, prepare a compare and contrast matrix on the class board and explain the case studies in detail. USE: Worksheet Number – 5 CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRILANKA

BELGIUM Belgium is a small country located in the Western Europe, which has a small territory with a population little over one crore. Belgium has the Netherlands, France and Germany as its immediate neighbours, which also share a deep connection with the historical past of this country. This may be the reason which has made the ethnic composition of this country very complex. According to the demographic data, 59 percent of the Belgians speak Dutch and reside in the Fleming region in the North. Another 40 percent of them speak French and live in Walloonia region towards the south.

Rest 1 percent of the Belgians speak German. The state of affairs is just opposite in the capital region of Brussels which has 80 percent of its population as French speakers and 20 percent as Dutch speakers. The majority community of the Nation is a minority in the National capital. Language is a major political issue in Belgium. The Flemings did not enjoy equal rights and status as the French speakers in the 19th and early 20th century. Actually, when in 1830 the CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 11 Nation was established under a census voting system, only around 1 percent of he adult population, comprised of the nobility, rich middle class and higher clergy could vote. All of whom were French, living in South Belgium, in the Walloonia region. A Flemish movement struggled peacefully in order to attain equal rights and was successful in achieving most of these. The Industrial Revolution that occurred in the late 18th and the 19th century further increased the rift between the Northern and the Southern parts of Belgium. French Walloonia experienced quick industrial boom and became economically prosperous and politically dominant.

Dutch speaking people of the Flemish region remained limited to agriculture and other rural activities, hence did not develop industrially. Because of this they started getting economically and politically behind from the French speakers in Walloonia and Brussels, who were technologically much advanced, economically well off and politically stronger. This made minority French community relatively prosperous and influential, which was resented by the Dutch, the majority community of Belgium, who got the benefit of economic development quite late in the mid twentieth century after the Second World War.

It was in 1950s that the Flanders saw economic boom, while Walloonia at that time came to an economic standstill. As the Flemings became educated, aware and economically sound, they started demanding a reasonable and an equal share in the exercise of political power. This led to emergence of tensions between the two communities. Lots of violence and unrest prevailed during 1950s and early 1960s. The problem became more serious in Brussels where the majority community of the Dutch speakers was in minority and minority community of the French speakers was in majority. SRILANKA

Let us now compare this situation with the situation of another country, Sri Lanka, which is an island Nation situated in South Asia, just a few kilometres away from the southern coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in India. Its population is about two crore, which is quite varied and diverse in nature. The major communities of Sri Lanka are the Sinhala speakers known as the Sinhalese, who comprise 74 percent of the country’s total population, and the Tamil speakers, who form 18 percent of the population. Tamils are further divided into two sub groups; Sri Lankan Tamils or the native Tamils, 3percent and 5 percent Indian Tamils, whose forefathers were brought from India as plantation workers by the colonial British. Sri Lankan Tamils are concentrated in the North and the Eastern parts of the country and form majority in these areas, but on the other hand they are a minority in rest of the country. These Tamils are the followers of either Hinduism or Islam, whereas the majority community of the Sinhala follows Buddhism. There are about 7 percent Christians in Sri Lanka, who are both – Tamil and Sinhala. We can easily imagine what could happen in these two countries.

The Dutch community, taking advantage of its majority in the population and ignoring the interests of minorities, CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 12 could force its will on the French and the German people. It could grab the political power completely and use it for the promotion of its own interests and suppress the French and German speaking population. This would accentuate and aggravate the conflict among these communities further leading to bitter and painful disintegration of the country.

Both the communities would scramble for control over Brussels. The same situation could take place in Sri Lanka where Sinhala community has much greater majority and could easily enforce its will on the entire population of the country. SRI LANKAN policy of Majoritarianism Sri Lanka achieved its independence from British colonial rule in the year 1948. As per the constitution, Sinhala community got an upper hand in the governance of the country, Indian Tamils were not given the citizen rights and Sri Lankan Tamils were given the status of a minority.

Article 29(b) of the Sri Lankan constitution of 1948 gave special protection to them. For around seventeen centuries the Sinhala people continued to maintain historical awareness through various modes of transmission. The leaders of this community tried to secure domination over the government by advantage of their majority in the population. This resulted in the making of a popularly elected government which started following a chain of measures to establish supremacy and hegemony of the Sinhala over the Tamils.

All these measures amounted to majoritarianism, with a belief that if majority community will not rule in its own country then where else will it ever rules. All this started with an All Sinhala Act passed in 1956. This act recognized Sinhala as the only official language of Sri Lanka, thus ignoring and disregarding Tamil, which was the language of the minority. Preferential policies were followed by the successive governments towards Sinhala applicants and job seekers in the universities and government jobs respectively, making it difficult for the Tamils to enter university and government jobs.

Tamil population was totally ignored. The problem worsened when a new constitution adopted Buddhism as the official religion and directed the government to protect and foster it. Later in 1973, article 29(b) of the constitution that protected the rights of the minorities, was also scrapped off. All these steps taken by the Sri Lankan government, one after another came as a shock to the Tamil population and gradually strengthened the feeling of alienation amongst them.

They felt that no one was concerned about their interests. None of the major political parties that were led by Buddhist Sinhala leaders were sensitive to their language and culture. A kind of anxiety and distrust started entering their minds and made them feel insecure in their own country. They felt deceived and cheated by their own government and the constitution as they were denied equal political rights, equal education and job opportunities. Their basic interests were ignored and they were discriminated against.

All these actions and policies of the Sinhala government led to resentment among the Tamils and as a result, relations between the two communities soured and strained over the period of time. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 13 Sri Lankan Tamils started organizing themselves into political parties and associations to take up the cause of their lost identity. They started struggles for recognition of Tamil as the official language in the Tamil majority areas, for equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs and for regional autonomy.

Initially the demands were made peacefully, following the constitutional methods. But all of the demands, categorically the one seeking provincial autonomy for the Tamil majority areas were denied and rejected repeatedly. The agony and the discontent kept on growing among the Sri Lankan Tamils and led to the emergence of militant organisations like TULF and LTTE, significantly in 1980s, which started demanding a separate independent Tamil Eelam (state) in Northern and Eastern parts of the country. This led to the beginning of civil strife and Sri Lankan government responded to it with brutal suppression.

Hence, the distrust and enmity between the two communities reached that a point where it turned into a wide spread socio-political conflict and soon took the shape of a civil war. The separatist and militant nature of Tamil struggle since 1980s was termed as terrorism by the Sri Lankan government and by 32 other Nations. The civil war ended in the year 2009, but with the help of a full-fledged military offensive against the militant groups, specially the LTTE. Though the Sri Lankan military won this war, but both the sides faced severe casualties and losses in terms of human life and property.

In fact, during the 26 years of the civil war, thousands of the Tamils had been killed in the armed conflict, many more were forced to leave the country as refugees, many became homeless and many lost their livelihoods. This ethnic strife has not benefitted either of the communities. Neither majority community of the Sinhala nor minority Tamils have been able to enjoy the benefits of peaceful co-existence. Long civil strife caused a deep setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country and its excellent record of economic development, education and health has been badly shattered.

USE: Worksheet Number – 9 ACCOMODATION: The path taken by Belgium Today Belgium has a framework of a Federal, Parliamentary, and Representative Democratic, Constitutional Monarchy. The king is the constitutional head of the state and the Prime Minister of Belgium is the head of the government in a multi-party system. The federation is comprised of the cultural communities, political assemblies and territorial regions. Unlike Sri Lanka, Belgium took a different path to resolve its ethnic conflict. Its leaders recognized and accepted the existence of regional differences as well as cultural diversities.

The constitution of a country is the source of all political power and authority and lays the foundation of the political system of the Nation. All the laws, regulations or political arrangements made by the legislature of a country have to be in accordance with the constitution. Hence, the constitution of Belgium, which was enforced on February 7th, 1831has been changed several times. Between 1970 and 1993, it was amended by the political leaders at least four times so as to develop a system which was acceptable to all the citizens, CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL

CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 14 where there was no space for conflict, where all the lingual and cultural diversities were accommodated, which would enable everyone to live together in harmony within the boundaries of the country, where the differences were acknowledged, recognized and accepted as an integral part of the society and not turned into divisions. The plan which they worked out is however very complex, composite and different from other countries but at the same time is very original, creative and cooperative in essence.

Let us have a look at it. Establishment of Federal Government The executive power in Belgium is held by the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers along with the secretaries of the state. Members of this Federal government are appointed by the king from the political parties which form the government coalition. The number of ministers in the council, inclusive of the Prime Minister, is 15, which cannot exceed. As per the constitution, the total number of the Dutch and the French speaking ministers in the council must remain equal.

Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic community. For any change in the constitution, approval of two thirds majority from each of the linguistic group is required. Thus none of the communities can make any decision unilaterally. Formation of Regional/State Governments Belgium comprises of two main linguistic as well as political regions. They are – the Flemish and Walloonia. Both of these regions have their own elected governments, each headed by a Minister –President.

Many powers of the Central government have been delegated to these governments and they are not subordinate to the Central government in any case. These regional governments have authority over transportation, public works, housing, economic and industrial policy and environment etc. They depend on the system of revenue –sharing for funds and can levy a few taxes as well. Setting up Community Governments Other than the Central and the Regional/State government, there is a third kind of government elected by people belonging to each of the lingual ommunity – the Dutch, French and German regardless of where they live. This is the Community Government, which has jurisdiction over cultural, educational and language related issues. The following heads hold power in this regard: a) Minister-President of the Dutch community, b) MinisterPresident of the French community, c) Minister – President of the German community. Power sharing on the basis of community is an inclusive approach and creates a sense of security and belongingness among ethnic minorities. CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing

TEACHERS’ MANUAL 15 Government in the National Capital Brussels, the national capital region has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. Principle of accommodation allowed the French speaking people to accept equal representation in Brussels as the Dutch community has accepted equal representation in the central government. Besides this, Belgium is divided into 10 provinces and 589 municipalities which work under the competency of the two main regions. We may find the Belgian model of power sharing very complex, confusing and complicated.

It actually is, even for its own people. But this arrangement to accommodate cultural and lingual diversity, to make majority as well as minority communities equal share holders of political power has been successful till now. It has helped in protecting interests and the rights of people and has provided them with a sense of security. It has also helped in avoiding civil strife and a bitter struggle for power between the two major communities and has averted a possible partition of the country on the basis of language. Activity VI

CLASS DISCUSSION CANADA CHINA INDIA LIBYA UNITED KINGDOM l l l l l SOUDI ARABIA CONGO Pick up a country for discussion in the class and ask the students to research upon various social, ethnic and regional differences or divisions existing in that society. On the basis of the research, discuss the reasons responsible for such a conflict or the factors behind the establishment of social harmony. Identify the losses/destruction/unrest caused due to such a conflict or the Path of progress followed by the Nation due to its political harmony.

Analyze the attitude/ response of the government towards ethnic diversities or minority communities in the respective country. Share facts regarding any previous attempts to resolve the crisis or the possible solutions. USE: Worksheet Number – 11 CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL 16 Comparison and Contrast What do we understand from the study of these two Nations? Belgium and Sri Lanka, both are Democracies. But both of them handled the problem of power sharing with ethnic diversities and minorities in quite a different manner.

The people and their political leaders in Belgium realized that imposing the will of majority community on the entire Nation is actually exercising majoritarianism, the other version of internal colonialism. They understood that the only possible way to maintain unity and integrity of the Nation and to keep the country ahead on the path of prosperity was by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions, by accepting cultural and lingual differences and by accommodating them in the political system of the country.

Such a realization resulted in formation of innovative and practical power sharing arrangements which were acceptable to both the communities. Hence, the problem is somehow solved and peaceful co-existence prevails. On the other side Sri Lanka emerged as a totally different and opposite case. It shows that when the majority community enforces its will on the Nation at the cost of the minorities, tries to dominate over others by ignoring their needs as well as interests and refuses to share political power, it can weaken the unity and integrity of the Nation.

It not only hampers peace, violates human rights, results in the loss of hundreds and thousands of lives but also brings huge economic and socio-cultural loss to the country. Sri Lanka could have followed examples from various other countries of the world like Switzerland, Spain, Canada, India and Malaysia etc, which are multicultural as well as multi-ethnic and are all federations, which share real political power within the state at the National level and equitably between the constituting units at the regional level.

For instance Tamils in India have Tamil Nadu inside the Indian Union, which actually is a federation, and follows the principle of accommodation. The Sri Lankans should also try to work out on a solution which is acceptable to both the communities and leads to a peaceful settlement of the conflict while satisfying their political aspirations. It is just a matter of power sharing. Activity-VII SLIP PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION Students will be asked to prepare many numbers of slips by using papers. Different features of Sri Lankan Politics as well as Belgium politics will be written on these slips.

These slips will be exhibited on two separate Thermocol Boards one for Belgium and the other one for Sri Lanka, in a puzzled manner on the wall of the class room. Then the teacher would ask each student to note down the matching points in the slips between the Sri Lankan and Belgium political scenario. Later on the Teacher can ask one or two students to arrange the slips on the wall in a matching manner between two Countries. USE: Worksheet Number – 6 CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 17 Forms of Power Sharing

Power sharing is relatively a contemporary idea and has evolved in contrast to the notion of centralized, unified and undivided political power. For a long time it was believed that all political power or the ruling authority must reside in one person or a group, having seat of the governance at one place. People feared if decision making power was divided or delegated, it could lead to confusions and great delays in taking decisions and their implementation will not be easily possible. Enforcement of important, fundamental and crucial decisions would become a problem.

But these notions have changed with the emergence and growth of Democratic government in various countries of the world. Democracy rests on the basic principle that the people are the source of all political power. They rule themselves through the institutions of self -governance and are equal before law. Democracy cannot exist without the establishment of equality. Hence, in a true Democratic set up, due respect is given to all the ethnic and diverse groups, views and opinions, that exist in a society. Everyone has a right to participate in the making of the government decisions and shaping public policies.

Therefore it is imperative that the political power in a Democracy should be shared and distributed among as many citizens as possible. Concentration of power in one hand or a group of persons would lead to despotism, majoritarianism or internal colonialism. In modern times Democracy has become the preferred choice of people in most of the countries of the world, where political power is shared in a variety of forms. Let us have a looks at some of these arrangements. Horizontal Power Sharing It is the arrangement when political power is shared among various branches or organs of the government such as Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.

It allows Legislature to make laws, Executive to execute or implement them and Judiciary to check their legitimacy, validity and acceptance by people. All three of these organs of the government are placed at the same level but exercise different jurisdictions. So, this type of an arrangement can be called as the horizontal sharing or distribution of power. Political power in this system is separated in such a way that all three of the organs remain independent in their working but at the same time none of them can misuse or exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others.

It results in a maintaining an equilibrium or balance of power among these institutions. For example, in a Democracy, ministers take important decisions regarding their ministries and exercise political power but they are directly responsible and answerable to the Legislature, i. e. Parliament and the State Assemblies. In the same manner, although the judges of the Supreme Court or the High Court are appointed by the Executive, and their number is regulated by a bill passed in the Parliament but they can check the actions and functioning of the members of the Executive if a case has been filed against any of them.

Judges of the Supreme Court can also review the laws made by the Parliament under their special power of the judicial review and can declare those laws to be null if they CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 18 are not in accordance with the constitution. This is how each organ of the [Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Text Box Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box. ] e- Government exercises its own power and checks the others to strike a balance.

Hence, because of this reason the horizontal system of power sharing is also called as the system of checks and balances. Horizontal Power Sharing in USA Vertical system of Power Sharing Political power can be shared among the governments at different levels – a) The National government for the entire country which is called as the Federal Government, in India it is called as the Union or the Central government b) The state or the provincial government, c) In some countries, the local self-government. This arrangement of power sharing is called as Federalism.

In such a system certain powers of the central government are delegated to the state governments and jurisdiction of the government at each level is clearly defined by the constitution of the country. Separation of powers is done to prevent the over lapping of powers which may lead to any confusion, dispute or a conflict. In India these powers are separated in the form of three lists- union list, state list and the concurrent list. In such a system, the states or provinces are an integral part of the country but remain independent in their functioning and in any case are not subordinate to the central

CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL 19 government. At local level the governmental power is shared at both, the rural as well as the urban areas like villages, towns, cities and metropolises etc. the division of political power from higher to the lower level is called as the vertical distribution of power. This can be the best arrangement to accommodate regional and cultural diversities in the true sense. Activity VIII Instructions to be given to students: Imagine yourself as a future politician r bureaucrat and pen down the manner in which you would try to cater to the democratic aspirations and claims of the people in your country and attempt to bring about unity in diversity. Power sharing among social groups This is an arrangement where political power is shared among various social groups like religious, lingual and regional ethnic groups etc. Community government in Belgium is a good example of this kind of a government. Some countries extend legal and constitutional provisions to provide proportional representation and special privileges to the weaker sections of the society, like SC/ST/OBC and women in India.

Their interests and rights are secured in the form of reserved constituencies in the assemblies, and parliament of the country, and by reservations of seats in collages, and government jobs. Such a system is meant to give space to minorities, and diverse social groups in the government which were exploited in the past, or would feel alienated from the government. This arrangement is used to provide minority communities an equal, and a fair share in the exercise of political power. At times this kind of power sharing is also called as consociationalism.

Fig : Power sharing among political parties, pressure groups and movements Source www. guardian CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 20 This type of power-sharing arrangement happens when in a Democracy, citizens are allowed to form political parties in order to seek representation in the government at National, provincial, or local level. These political parties contest elections, and enter into a political competition. Citizens have a freedom to choose among these contenders for power, and elect their representatives.

This competition among political parties ensures that power does not remain concentrated in one hand, and is shared among different political parties that represent different regions, groups, and ideologies. These days, various parties share political power directly, when they go for an alliance with two or more parties to contest elections. When their alliance wins majority of seats in the elections, they form a coalition government, and thus share power. One can find many interest groups in a Democracy like those of the industrialists, traders, businessmen, industrial workers, farmers etc.

They also seek a share in the political power, either by participating in government committees or by influencing the decision making process. Common people also share political power, when they rise in to a popular movement like the movement for civil rights in the United States of America, and the movement for Democracy in Nepal. USE: Worksheet Numbers – 12, 13, 14 and 15 Activity IX RECIPROCAL TEACHING l Divide the class in the group of five for the purpose of holding reciprocal teaching. l

Appoint one leader for each group and ask him /her to delegate the following tasks to his/her group members like – research on the content, finding innovative and relevant methodology to teach the chapter, gather relevant pictures, cartoons and newspaper clipping, develop charts/wall magazine/ interactive bulletin board. l Provide options to different groups to teach the lesson through various techniques—— skit/ role play/PPT/ Interactive session. l Ask groups to emphasize on the benefits of power sharing and drawbacks of majoritarianism in their lesson plan. l

Each group to prepare an individual questionnaire and distribute it amongst the students for final recapitulation. The teacher is required to act as a facilitator in this entire activity. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 21 ANSWERS FOR MCQS 1. 2. Democracy is the possible solution for – 1. Youth problems 2. Social strife 3. Civil and criminal cases 4. Administrative problems (Answer) An effective strategy to settle all kinds of disputes can be – 1. Rule by one political leader 2. Rule by sharing political power 3. Rule by the elites/aristocrats 4.

Rule by the majority community (Answer) 3. Which of the following statements is NOT true? 1. Article 29(b)of the Constitution of 1948 protected Sri Lankan minorities 2. In 1956 an All Sinhala Act was passed in Sri Lanka supporting Sinhalas 3. Regional autonomy was given to the Sri Lankan Tamils in 1973 (Answer) 4. State protected and fostered Buddhism under the Act of 1956 4. Vertical division of political power refers to – 1. Power shared at one level of government 2. Power shared at different levels of government 3. Power shared at two levels of government 4. Power shared among different organs of the government . Power sharing results in which of the following? 1. Cross-cutting all differences 2. Overlapping social differences 3. Removing cultural differences 4. Diluting regional differences (Answer) (Answer) 6. In order to create political stability the political system of a country should – 1. Eliminate diversity 2. Ignore diversity 3. Promote diversity 4. Accommodate diversity (Answer) 7. Which of the following is the prudential reason to justify power sharing? 1. People have the right to be consulted for being ruled 2. People will be able to take political stands 3. People will increase participation in politics 4.

People will be able to reduce social conflict (Answer) CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 22 SOLUTIONS (KEY) – CROSSWORD Across 4. CIVIL WAR—Armed conflict among communities of a country. 6. MAJORITARIANISM—A belief that the majority community should rule. 11. FLANDERS—Residents of Flemish region 12. CHECKS AND BALANCES—Power Sharing among government organs at same level. 14. PRUDENTIAL—A decision made after proper calculation of losses, and gains. 15. CONSOCIATIONALISM—Power sharing among social groups and communities. 16. COMMUNITY GOVERNMENT—Third type of government in Belgium.

Down 1. INDIAN TAMILS—Did not get Citizenship rights in Sri Lanka. 2. ALIENATION—Feeling among the Sri Lankan Tamils as a result of Majoritarianism. CBSE-i 3. 5. 7. 8. 9. 10. 13. TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 23 WALLOONIA—French majority area in Belgium. ALL SRI LANKANS ACT—Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956. ACCOMMODATION—Principle of accepting ethnic diversities. BRUSSELS—Capital of Belgium FEDERALISM—Government at different levels. SINHALA—Majority community of Sri Lanka COALITION—Government formed by an alliance of two or more parties.

Eclipse Crossword will guide you through the entire process of creating your first puzzle. Just click Start, then Programs, and then Eclipse Crossword. For more information, visit: http://www. eclipsecrossword. com© 2000-2005 Green Eclipse. Eclipse Crossword is protected by international copyright treaties. For more information, please visit Their website. Answers for Crossword Across 2. Third type of government in Belgium 3. Did not get Citizenship rights in Sri Lanka. 5. Power Sharing among government organs at same level. 8. A decision made after proper calculation of losses, and gains. 10.

Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956. 12. Government at different levels. 14. Principle of accepting ethnic diversities. 15. A belief that the majority community should rule. 16. Power sharing among social groups and communities. Down 1. Capital of Belgium 4. Residents of Flemish region 6. Armed conflict among communities of a country. 7. Government formed by an alliance of two or more parties. 9. Feeling among the Sri Lankan Tamils as a result of Majoritarianism. 11. Majority community of Sri Lanka 13. French majority area in Belgium. Across 2. COMMUNITY GOVERNMENT—Third type of government in Belgium 3.

INDIAN TAMILS—Did not get Citizenship rights in Sri Lanka. 5. CHECKS AND BALANCES—Power Sharing among government organs at same level. 8. PRUDENTIAL—A decision made after proper calculation of losses, and gains. 10. ALL SRI LANKANS ACT—Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956. 12. FEDERALISM—Government at different levels. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 24 14. ACCOMMODATION—Principle of accepting ethnic diversities. 15. MAJORITARIANISM—A belief that the majority community should rule. 16. CONSOCIATIONALISM—Power sharing among social groups and communities. Down . BRUSSELS—Capital of Belgium 4. FLANDERS—Residents of Flemish region 6. CIVIL WAR—Armed conflict among communities of a country. 7. COALITION—Government formed by an alliance of two or more parties. 9. ALIENATION—Feeling among the Sril Lankan tamils as a result of Majoritarianism. 11. SINHALA—Majority community of Sri Lanka 13. WALLOONIA—French majority area in Belgium. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR WORKSHEETS NOTE: 5. All assessment with regard to the Worksheets shall be done in marks and then to be converted into Grades. 6. To be selected by the teacher as per the nature of the worksheet. GRADE

A B C D E 7. GRADE POINTS (out of Five) GRADE POINTS (out of 10) PERFORMANCE TO BE MARKED AS 4. 1-5. 0 3. 1- 4. 0 2. 1- 3. 0 1. 1-2. 0 0-1. 0 8. 1-10 6. 1-8. 0 4. 1-6. 0 2. 1-4. 0 1. 1-2. 0 EXCELLENT V. GOOD GOOD FAIR NEEDS IMPROVEMENT Following assessment criteria to be applied for the worksheets numbers – 1,3,8 GRADE PARAMETER – If the child ……… A/ Excellent Answers all the questions correctly with the required detail/explanation/ content with examples/ evidences/ illustrations. B/ V. Good Attempts all the questions and does not provide required explanation for any one of the answer. C/ Good

Fairly attempts all the questions and does not provide necessary explanation. D/ Fair Attempts very few questions and does not furnish with necessary and relevant information. E/ Needs ImprovementDoes not attempt any of the questions or answers all the questions incorrectly. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 25 Following assessment criteria to be followed for worksheets number – 2, 7 No. of points Parameter – If the child… 1 point Identifies the statement with the related topic of the concerned worksheet 2 points Develops well-reasoned arguments to support his interpretation and explanation. point Presents his view point / explanation with suitable illustration/examples. 1 point exhibits excellent writing skills with no grammatical skills 5 points Total 8. Total all the points and grade students’ performance as per the above mentioned assessment criteria. 9. The following assessment criteria to be used for work sheet no. – 6,12 No. of points Parameter – If the child is …. 2 Able to draw valid inferences and conclusions from the article 2 Able to correlate the situations and their outcomes 1

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