Power sharing

7 July 2016

Preface This International Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education – (CBSE) is a progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in imparting a curriculum which would restore the autonomy of the learner to pursue the learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos. The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic needs of the learners worldwide.

It has about 12500 schools affiliated to it and over 158 schools situated in more than 23 countries. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the learners and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i, has been visualized and developed with these requirements in view.

Power sharing Essay Example

The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective of the curriculum is to nurture learner autonomy, given the fact that every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations and additions wherever and whenever necessary. The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge at an astonishing pace.

The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many challenges to educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to incorporate those skills which will enable young learners to become’life long learners’. The ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners.

The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these requirements. The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all subject areas to cater to the different pace of learners. The CBSE introduced classes I and X in the session 2010-11 as a pilot project in schools.

It was further extended to classes II, VI and X in the session 2011-12. In the seesion 2012-13, CBSE-i is going to enter in third year with classes III, VII and XI. The focus of CBSE-i is to ensure that the learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the teacher and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE

UNIT-I • Power Sharing iii would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this ‘Core’. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner’s holistic growth and

learning curve. The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom are now global citizens. The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level.

The International Curriculum would evolve building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools’ administering this system strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board. I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training) CBSE, Dr.

Srijata Das, Education Officer CBSE along with all the Officers involved in the development and implementation of this material. The CBSE-i website enables all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for modifying any part of this document are welcome. Vineet Joshi Chairman, CBSE CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I POWER SHARING CONTENTS l INTRODUCTION l POWER-SHARING: CONCEPT OF ACCOMODATION l


Sharing is desired Moral and Prudential Reasons l Case Study Political Systems of Belgium and Sri Lanka l How social differences turn into divisions l How accommodation leads to innovation and national integration Application of the principle in other cases like – USA, CANADA, LEBENON, INDIA etc. Forms of Power Sharing Power Sharing Arrangements at different levels and of various types Observation and Analysis of power sharing in Horizontal and vertical systems, among social groups and political parties Searching examples from the country of origin/residence

Acceptance of diversity in real life l Aiming for national integration CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 1 SCOPE Democracy is the form of government which is essentially based on the principle of sharing political power among political parties of a Nation belonging to diverse ethnic as well as regional groups, majority community as well as minorities existing in the country. The purpose of this unit is to sensitize the students about the fact that all the Nations and societies have such diversities in their population.

Even the countries which follow one language and one religion are not completely homogeneous, and have some or the other kind of demographic diversity. All these diverse groups, if given recognition and acceptance, contribute positively towards the growth and progress of their Nation. If not, then they may lead to civil strife. Therefore, it is required that we accept and accommodate such diversities and extend equal rights to them The unit also intends to create an understanding and appreciation among students regarding benefits of power sharing for the society along with the Nation.

Students must realize that sharing political power is not an easy task as, whichever community is in majority in whichever country, it aspires to control political power and tends to impose its will on the entire population, many a times ignoring the interests of the minority communities. This is natural human behaviour which takes place even at the school, college, local and state level. Denial of acceptance and lack of accommodation of the diversity often results in disputes, conflicts and civil strife which are difficult to resolve.

Power sharing thus becomes an important component of all the true democratic systems for ethical as well as practical reasons. It is the possible remedy for almost all the socio-political conflicts and basically promotes the idea of team work, constructive collaboration and peaceful co-existence instead of individual endeavour of a person, group or a community for the common collective good. There are various ways and forms in which power sharing can be exercised in different countries. This unit discusses four main forms out of them. WHY TEACH THIS UNIT? Modern world today is full of civil conflict.

Except for a few countries almost every Nation is entangled in a conflict of one or the other kind among the majority and minority communities or varied ethnic and regional groups. Democracy is the possible solution to such problems, but only on the condition of sharing political power among the warring groups belonging to various regions and ethnic communities of the respective nations. Through the case study of Belgium and Sri Lanka, this unit will enable the students to not only understand the political systems of these countries but also to have an insight into their problems and ethnic conflicts.

This will make the learners realize that hatred, rigidity and lack of political will to share power with the minorities and people from diverse backgrounds results in even more hatred and even a bigger conflict that may lead to disastrous CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 2 consequences. Students will realize that a country is the motherland/fatherland to both – the majority as well as the minority communities.

Even if a community’s forefathers came from outside and were not the natives of the said country, the current generations have been born and brought up in the same country and live there permanently. They have their sentiments attached to this land and are culturally, historically and psychologically associated with it. Therefore, they have an equal right and claim over the Nation which should not be denied to them. Students will get to know various forms through which political power can be shared and peacefully exercised in a Democracy while accommodating various

ethnic as well as regional diversities and accepting them as an integral part of country’s population. Moreover, today’s children are going to be tomorrow’s political leaders, visionaries and statesmen. This unit will provide students with basic lessons in conflict management, problem solving and Nation building by power sharing; by involving all the stakeholders in the decision making who are also going to be affected by those decisions, not by appeasement, but by making them contribute constructively towards National policies and programs; by creating mutual trust, faith and harmony.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES The unit will enable learners to: l Acquaint themselves with the political systems of Belgium and Sri Lanka and understand the challenges faced by them. l Familiarize students with the problems that arise in a country due to lack of power sharing. l Recognize the need for sharing political power in a democratic setup. l Understand the significance of power sharing through the case studies. l Critically examine various forms of power sharing in different democratic countries. TEACHERS NOTES I. This Unit has been structured in the following manner:

Section 1 – This section deals with the idea and meaning of power sharing. It also discusses the need and requirement of power sharing for moral and prudential reasons. Section 2 – This part of the unit deals with the Case Study of Belgium and Sri Lanka, power sharing pattern in these countries, differences and similarities and CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 3 result of the policies followed in these countries with regard to accommodation of diversity. Section 3 – This section discusses four different forms of power sharing followed in various Democratic countries.

II. The activities given in the unit are of two types – a) Warming up and fun activities b) Methodology/Strategy based activities Assessment criteria given for the worksheets can be followed for the assessment of activities as well. III. Power sharing is not always successful in every situation and has its own limitations. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 4 INTRODUCTION In modern times, governing people with ethnic diversities, regional differences and a huge cultural variety is a challenging task.

It takes enormous effort, determined political will and serious understanding on the part of the government in order to come to an equation with all the diverse groups and minorities of the Nation so as to govern them effectively, to be accepted and respected by all of them. POWER SHARING: A CONCEPT WARMING UP ACTIVITY l Ask the students to observe the given pictures and try to understand the ideas/messages which are being promoted commonly by all of them. l Let the students discuss and brainstorm on these ideas l All these pictures represent diversity and its acceptance as well as accommodation by others.

The pictures also symbolize the ideas – unity/ integrity, collaboration and team spirit. l Talk about the significance of all these issues in daily life and the political system of a country and relate them to the concept of POWER SHARING. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 5 A Democratic system of governance is the possible solution to this problem, where the final political power rests in the hands of the people who elect their representatives from all the sections, classes, and categories of their society, and send them as representatives in the government to take important decisions on their behalf.

A little imbalance in this situation can lead to conflicts, disputes, and socio-political strife, hence, an intelligent power sharing amongst the organs of the government at various levels, in various forms is seriously required. It is actually essential to the basic design of a Democracy to have power sharing among all its stakeholders and claimants of political power. Activity- II POWERPOINT PRESENTATION l Introduce the concept of Democracy and power sharing in the class. l Describe the meaning of important terms like ethnic diversity, social conflict, civil war, etc. l

Prepare the room, if required, for showcasing the PowerPoint presentation, prepared beforehand l Play the presentation in parts, and pause in between to explain the important topics, one after another, with the help of brainstorming on power sharing as a concept and continue with class discussion. l In order of re-enforce the concept of power sharing, give examples from various countries (the ones mentioned in the student manual) and ask the students to note the important points in their notebooks as the presentation progresses. l Draw the attention of students towards the relation between power sharing and conflict resolution.

l Ask the student to brainstorm amongst them for 15 minutes on the situation in Belgium and Sri Lanka and come up with their own suggestions and solutions. USE: Worksheet Number – 1,2,3,4 CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 6 POWER-SHARING : A Concept of accommodation : Power-sharing is a method, a powerful strategy for settling all kinds of conflicts, disputes, claims, regarding control and use of political power in a Democratic system. It is the most potential way out for resolving disputes over the issue of holding most powerful position in the political hierarchy.

Instead of struggling and fighting over who should possess more political power and authority over the rest, power sharing depends and relies upon the joint exercise of political power. It promotes peaceful co-existence among diverse groups, ethnic Nationalities, and minority communities of a Democratic Nation and creates unity among them. Activity III l This picture is a game related to Indian Democracy. Observe it and try to find out what does it depict? l Does it relate to any kind of power sharing? Explain. USE: worksheet – 8 Source: www. johnbatchelorshow. com

Power-sharing also allows the cross-cutting of socio-economic or cultural differences among the people and convinces them to put forward their conflicts demands and grievances in such a way that they become positive and constructive for the community and the Nation. This can be done in a variety of ways. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 7 One possible approach is to grant autonomy to the diverse groups, regional or ethnic, over a few or all aspects of their own affairs. For instance, this freedom and autonomy can be restricted just to the cultural issues, i. e.

, religion and education or it can be extended to cover-up the socio-economic, and the political fields as well. At the extreme level, power sharing can result in granting self-determination, and complete independence, allowing a minority group to establish its own sovereign Nation state. In this case, power-sharing finally leads to peaceful power-dividing. Another approach to accommodation and power-sharing is much more inclusive and integrative in nature. According to this approach, the task and responsibility of governance is shared by elected leaders from regional, lingual, ethnic or minority group within the country.

They work jointly, cooperatively and more effectively for the making of better and acceptable decisions, for the resolution of even the most serious issues involving ethnic conflict, and socio-political strife. While exercising political power, taking important decisions and making public policies, they all are expected to be ethnically, and regionally neutral. This approach requires establishment of a well-structured free and fair electoral system which encourages multi-ethnic collaboration and coalition within the political system of the Nation.

This generally leads to the establishment of Federalism. Implementation of either of the methodologies on power-sharing is quite challenging as the ethnic or regional groups holding political-power are usually unwilling to give up or relinquish this power. On the other hand, the groups devoid of this power tend to demand a substantial and considerable change in the system and claim a share in the exercise of political power, which the dominant group usually does not accept. Here begins the conflict, which at times, may lead to serious consequences.

Rejection to power-sharing, and extension of autonomy, often creates social hatred, and civil discord, which is very difficult to deal with and resolve. However, if the ethnic or minority groups promote their demands, in such a way that they highlight joint benefit of all the communities, and focus on evolving a mutually acceptable method of achieving autonomy, and self-determination for all the groups, they are likely to be more successful in getting their demands fulfilled than they are, if they take a more aggressive or competitive approach.

Need for power-sharing Civil conflict is like a curse for most of the countries of the world today, specifically the developing ones, which have huge ethnic and regional diversity, where these groups are even entangled in bloody wars or use violence to resolve the civil strife. This shatters the economy of the country and destabilizes its political system. Even in the countries which are peaceful, demand for the share in the political power is often made by the people belonging to the potential ethnic groups and political parties.

Such demands, if ignored, can be fatal. CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 8 Besides this, globalization has added fuel to the problem as what happens in a Nation, in a particular part of the world, affects many other Nations – neighbouring or distant, that too at times in a drastic manner. Justified peaceful claims, violent uprisings, rebellions, and revolutions for a substantial share in the political hierarchy that emerge in one country are quick to be seen in many other countries, within a short span of time.

In the modern era of highly advanced technology, where anything is possible – mass destruction, or mass construction, the modern developments in transportation, communication, education, and industrial advancement have exerted great pressure on the political organizations of the Democratic countries. A desire for progress, and growth, a good respectable standard of living, social-justice, cultural recognition, economic equality, growing awareness among people, regarding interdependence have led to the demand for political autonomy and self-determination among diverse communities of a country.

People want governments to be more responsive to the citizens, and their needs, they desire even local and regional political units to give expression and recognition to their linguistic, religious, and cultural background, which provides the necessary basis and foundation for a community’s specific distinct identity. They don’t want this identity to be lost, or suppressed.

In such a condition, the main objective of the political system of the Nation is not to eliminate diversity but rather to accommodate, reconcile, and manage socialdiversities in such a manner that they all feel important, being a part of the Nation, their interests are well taken care of, their cultural identity well secured, making them to develop a sense of belongingness, trust, and faith in the political system of the country. In other words, power sharing is the recommended remedy for such societies which are threatened by social conflicts.

Thus, power sharing arrangements of the Democratic countries aim to reduce the risk of civil conflict by guaranteeing potential land prospective warring groups as well as parties, a positive role in the country’s government and further reducing the chances of political competition and rivalry. It also reduces the risk of people’s resort to violence; in case they don’t succeed in attaining political recognition, acknowledgement and respect as a result of Democratic elections.

The major aim of powersharing is to assure that each of the serious claimants; stake holders and political parties get a significant, substantial benefit from cooperation and peaceful accommodation. Powersharing, thus helps in reducing the threat of a conflict by giving all potential parties (to any dispute), a share in peaceful cooperation, and a set of mutual agreements and assurances of social security, and the protection of their basic interests.

Such arrangements are planned, well calculated and constitutionalized specifically to limit the ability of the majority community, a larger social group, or a party to misuse the political power or to exercise it for sectional or divisive purposes. So, on the basis of this discussion, we can conclude that power-sharing is genuinely desirable and is primarily required for two main reasons – moral and prudential. CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL 9 Activity –IV INFER THE CARTOONS Source: www. ablueview.

com These are the cartoons depicting a situation of deep concern in United States of America. l Observe each one of them carefully. l Try to find out the problem and its relation with the idea of power sharing and accommodation. l What could be the reason behind urban violence and involvement of youth in it? l Can you think of any other examples with similar kind of a problem? Explain. Use: worksheet – 7, 10, and 11 Moral reasons Morally, power-sharing is the core essence of Democracy as Democracy cannot sustain in absence of power sharing.

A Democratic rule is all about sharing power with all those people who are affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. It is for this profound reason that power-sharing is required. People of a country belonging to any of the regions, areas, communities, or ethnic groups of the country have a right to be informed and consulted, on how they are going to be administered and governed. A legitimate government is peoples own government and is whole heartedly accepted by them.

It creates such arrangements, situations and opportunities where citizens, through active participation, acquire a stake in the political system. These moral reasons highlight the very deed of power-sharing as important and essential. They are sufficient enough to justify its requirement. Prudential reasons The prudential reasons are based on careful calculation of gains and losses and are much more practical and logical. So, practically, power sharing is a good option because it reduces CBSE-i CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing TEACHERS’ MANUAL 10 the possibility of civil strife and socio-political conflict.

Since, civil conflict generally leads to violence, loss of life and property as well as political instability; power sharing is a good approach to maintain mutual trust and reliance among the claimants of political power as well as the stakeholders and guarantees stability of the political system. Forcing upon the will of the majority community on rest of the minorities of the Nation and compelling them to abide by it may appear to be an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it creates tension, mistrust and unrest among the citizens and undermines the unity and integrity of the of the Nation.

Domination and suppression by majority is not just unfair, exploitative and torturous to the minority but it also brings decline as well as deterioration to the majority and the Nation as well. Hence, it is always judicious and sensible in a Democracy to embrace power sharing arrangement. Activity V COMPARE AND CONTRAST MATRIX SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES l Divide the class into two groups and ask them to research upon political situation in Belgium and Sri Lanka. l Ask group A to look for similarities in the political system of the two countries and group B to look for differences.

l With the help of student response, prepare a compare and contrast matrix on the class board and explain the case studies in detail. USE: Worksheet Number – 5 CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRILANKA BELGIUM Belgium is a small country located in the Western Europe, which has a small territory with a population little over one crore. Belgium has the Netherlands, France and Germany as its immediate neighbours, which also share a deep connection with the historical past of this country. This may be the reason which has made the ethnic composition of this country very complex.

According to the demographic data, 59 percent of the Belgians speak Dutch and reside in the Fleming region in the North. Another 40 percent of them speak French and live in Walloonia region towards the south. Rest 1 percent of the Belgians speak German. The state of affairs is just opposite in the capital region of Brussels which has 80 percent of its population as French speakers and 20 percent as Dutch speakers. The majority community of the Nation is a minority in the National capital. Language is a major political issue in Belgium.

The Flemings did not enjoy equal rights and status as the French speakers in the 19th and early 20th century. Actually, when in 1830 the CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 11 Nation was established under a census voting system, only around 1 percent of the adult population, comprised of the nobility, rich middle class and higher clergy could vote. All of whom were French, living in South Belgium, in the Walloonia region. A Flemish movement struggled peacefully in order to attain equal rights and was successful in achieving most of these.

The Industrial Revolution that occurred in the late 18th and the 19th century further increased the rift between the Northern and the Southern parts of Belgium. French Walloonia experienced quick industrial boom and became economically prosperous and politically dominant. Dutch speaking people of the Flemish region remained limited to agriculture and other rural activities, hence did not develop industrially. Because of this they started getting economically and politically behind from the French speakers in Walloonia and Brussels, who were technologically much advanced, economically well off and politically stronger.

This made minority French community relatively prosperous and influential, which was resented by the Dutch, the majority community of Belgium, who got the benefit of economic development quite late in the mid twentieth century after the Second World War. It was in 1950s that the Flanders saw economic boom, while Walloonia at that time came to an economic standstill. As the Flemings became educated, aware and economically sound, they started demanding a reasonable and an equal share in the exercise of political power. This led to emergence of tensions between the two communities.

Lots of violence and unrest prevailed during 1950s and early 1960s. The problem became more serious in Brussels where the majority community of the Dutch speakers was in minority and minority community of the French speakers was in majority. SRILANKA Let us now compare this situation with the situation of another country, Sri Lanka, which is an island Nation situated in South Asia, just a few kilometres away from the southern coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in India. Its population is about two crore, which is quite varied and diverse in nature.

The major communities of Sri Lanka are the Sinhala speakers known as the Sinhalese, who comprise 74 percent of the country’s total population, and the Tamil speakers, who form 18 percent of the population. Tamils are further divided into two sub groups; Sri Lankan Tamils or the native Tamils, 13percent and 5 percent Indian Tamils, whose forefathers were brought from India as plantation workers by the colonial British. Sri Lankan Tamils are concentrated in the North and the Eastern parts of the country and form majority in these areas, but on the other hand they are a minority in rest of the country.

These Tamils are the followers of either Hinduism or Islam, whereas the majority community of the Sinhala follows Buddhism. There are about 7 percent Christians in Sri Lanka, who are both – Tamil and Sinhala. We can easily imagine what could happen in these two countries. The Dutch community, taking advantage of its majority in the population and ignoring the interests of minorities, CBSE-i TEACHERS’ MANUAL CLASS-X • POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I • Power Sharing 12 could force its will on the French and the German people.

It could grab the political power completely and use it for the promotion of its own interests and suppress the French and German speaking population. This would accentuate and aggravate the conflict among these communities further leading to bitter and painful disintegration of the country. Both the communities would scramble for control over Brussels. The same situation could take place in Sri Lanka where Sinhala community has much greater majority and could easily enforce its will on the entire population of the country. SRI LANKAN policy of Majoritarianism

Sri Lanka achieved its independence from British colonial rule in the year 1948. As per the constitution, Sinhala community got an upper hand in the governance of the country, Indian Tamils were not given the citizen rights and Sri Lankan Tamils were given the status of a minority. Article 29(b) of the Sri Lankan constitution of 1948 gave special protection to them. For around seventeen centuries the Sinhala people continued to maintain historical awareness through various modes of transmission. The leaders of this community tried to sec

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