Pragmatism, Analytic Philosophy
Philosophical tradition that emphasizes the logical analysis of concepts and the study of the language in which they are expressed. It has been the dominant approach in philosophy in the English speaking world from the early 20th century. With respect to its problems, methods, and style, it is often contrasted with Continental philosophy, though the significance of the opposition has been widely challenged. Analytic philosophers have differed regarding the nature of so-called “ordinary” language and the methodological value Of appeals to ordinary usage in the logical analysis of concepts.
Those known as formalists hold that, because ordinary language is potentially a source of conceptual confusion, philosophy and science should be conducted in a logically transparent formal language based on modern mathematical, or symbolic, logic. Those known as in formalists reject this view, arguing that attempts to “improve” ordinary language in this way inevitably oversimplify or falsify it, thereby creating conceptual confusion of just the sort that the formalists are concerned to avoid. Three figures conventionally recognized as founders of the tradition re Gotten Forge, G. E.Moore, and Bertrand Russell. Other major figures include Ludwig Wittgenstein, AS. Rarer, Rudolf Carnal, J.
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L. Austin, W. V. O. Equine, and David Lewis (1941 ” 2001). ; Some of the most interesting: Descartes, Huskers, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, GEM Ensconce, Donald Davidson, Saul Grippe, Hillary Putnam, Daniel Detente. Principle Issues The pragmatist proceeds from the basic premise that the human capability of theorizing is integral to intelligent practice.
Theory and practice are not separate spheres; rather, theories and distinctions are tools r maps for finding our way in the world.As John Dewey put it, there is no question of theory versus practice but rather of intelligent practice Versus uninformed, stupid practice and noted in a conversation with William Peppered Montague that “[h]is effort had not been to practicality intelligence but to intellectualized practice”. (Quoted in Eliding 1998, p. 5) Theory is an abstraction from direct experience and ultimately must return to inform experience in turn. Thus an organism navigating his or her environment is the grounds for pragmatist inquiry’. Acceptance of “ordinary language,” (as distinct from the continental tradition, where philosophers develop their own technical vocabularies), defense of the “common sense” view of the world said to be implicit in ordinary language, and a preference for arguing over micro rather than macro issues.