Pre-Ib Geography Exam Review
Angular Bearing: measured in degrees in a clockwise direction from the north; written as 3 figures (i. e. 90) * Military Grid (4 & 6 digit) * System of numbered lines; position stated by quoting numbers of the lines that intersect at the point in question * Easting Northing ; EAST TENTH NORTH TENTH * Contour line: a way of showing elevation; usually brown lines * Steep areas – very close contour lines, gentle areas – very wide contour lines * Latitude/Longitude * Latitude – 0°: Equator|23. 5°N: Tropic of Cancer | 23. ° S: Tropic of Capricorn * Longitude – 0°: Prime Meridian | 180°: International Date Line * Scale – different types; conversions Linear Scale| Representative Fraction Scale| Direct Statement Scale| * | * 1:50 000| * 1 cm to 10 km| * 1 km = 100 000 cm * Time Zones – know them & how to calculate time zone from one zone to another * From west – east: Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern, Atlantic, Newfoundland * Plus 1 hour, as you travel from west to east Global Positioning System (GPS) – what is it? How do you use it? * Revolutionary navigation system; provide location with metres or less anywhere on the globe * Canada Map: Unit 3 * Geologic time-line (eras & major developments in each) * Precambrian Era: the earth is formed; Canadian shield is formed; bacteria & algae – only life forms * Paleozoic Era: the continents straddle the equator; first insects appear; Pangaea is formed * Mesozoic
Era: Dinosaurs rule the earth; first bird & mammals appear * Cenozoic Era: Dinosaurs go extinct; first Hominids appear; first humans reach North America * Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics * Continental drift (Alfred Wegener): 300 million years ago, all of the earth’s land masses, which were in constant motion, collided to form one supercontinent: Pangaea; could not explain how continents moved * Evidence: shape of the continents; Fossil Evidence; Rock Evidence; Glacial Deposits; Location of Coal Deposits * Plate tectonics (Canadian J. Tuzo.
Pre-Ib Geography Exam Review Essay Example
Wilson): the earth’s crust is divided into 12 major plates which moved in various directions by the underlaying hot mantle convection cells (mid-atlantic ridge) * Types of precipitations – Relief/Orographic precipitation; Cyclonic/Frontal precipitation; Convectional precipitation * Relief/Orographic precipitation: only in mountainous regions * Moist air rise up the windward slope & condenses as it rises & cools * Cool air descends on the leeward slope, warms up, drier climate because the clouds evaporate * Cyclonic/Frontal precipitation: only in places with hot summers +20°C (continental areas) * The sun heats up the ground, warm air rises; condensing & forming clouds & precipitation. * As the storm persists, the air cools & drags down, bringing the storm to an end. * Convectional precipitation: happens in most places * Air masses of different pressure & temperatures don’t mix. * The warmer air will rise above the colder, dense one, creating precipitation. Gradual upward movement=mild precipitation; Sharp upward movement=thunderstorm, hail * Landforms: the natural features on the surface of the Earth (Canadian Shield, lowlands, highlands) What are they? | Development of landforms|
How do they or will they contribute to Canada| Canadian Shield (largest & oldest landform region)PRECAMBRIAN| * Pressure inside Earth folded & crumpled the Metamorphic rock * Minerals in shield rock cooled & separated into layers according to their density * Intense heat & pressure changed the rocks * Erosion worn down mountains = flat * Ice age eroded & created lakes, depressions & valleys| * Not much farming thin layer of soil; little fertile land * Vast deposits of lead, gold, nickel, copper, zinc, etc. Mining communities drawn here; communities rely on the mining industry for jobs * Rich diamond deposits; Water for hydroelectric energy * Recreation, tourism, “get back to nature”, canoe| Appalachian Mountains (oldest highland region)PALEOZOIC| * End Paleozoic Era, North America collided with europe & northern Africa during the formation of Pangaea * Raised & folded layers of sedimentary, Igneous/metamorphic created from volcanoes & earthquakes * Erosion reduced jagged peaks to rounded hills & mountains * Glaciers smoothed peaks & separated hills with wide glacial valleys | * Sedimentary rich in non-metallic materials, i. e. coal * Igneous/Metamorphic rich in metallic minerals, i. e. iron & zinc created by volcanic activity & faulting * Long bays created from ice age, for deep harbours for ocean freighters & became site of major cities * Settlement along fertile river valleys & along seacoast| Innuitian Mountains (most northern region)MESOZOIC| *
Formed in Mesozoic era; North American plate moved northward. Continental-continental convergence * Contain some igneous & metamorphic, but mainly sedimentary * Younger than Appalachians, not worn down as much| * Barren; trees can’t survive extremely cold winter temperatures; can’t grow during short summer * Covered by ice & permanent snow * Minerals not exploited because if remote location| Western CordilleraLATE MESOZOICEARLYCENOZOICCoast mountainsInterior plateausEastern Mountains| * Range after range of mountains separated by plateaus & valleys * Pacific plate & North American plate collided * Uplifting region into several mountain regions * Convergent; pacific plate subducted under North American causing folding, faulting, & volcanic activity *
Great height + rugged appearance = geologically young| * North-south mountains & valleys = obstacle for transportation since main routes are west=south * Farming & mining towns in river valleys * Tourism(beautiful scenery); winter sports * Fishing(salmon); gold rush; energy resources * Copper, forestry, rocks, coal, fossil fuels| Interior PlainsPALEOZOIC + MESOZOICAlberta PlainsSaskatchewan PlainsManitoba Plains| * 545 million years ago; during formation, covered by inland seas, sediments deposited & compressed into sedimentary * Thick layers of mineral deposits left in dried-out sea beds * Composed of rolling hills & deep, wide river valleys * Differential erosion separated by escarpment * Glaciations created large lakes covered by sediments = flat| * Reafs from inland seas form oil & gas found today * Potash mined & used as fertilizer * Swamps at edge of ancient seas changed into coal * Soil developed on sediments of lake bottom deep fertile, good for growing grains & oil seeds * Agricultural & beef products | Great Lakes / St.
Lawrence Lowlands(most southerly region)PALEOZOIC| * During Paleozoic era, glacier retreated which left 5 great lakes * Bedrock formed from sedimentary rock; several escarpments * Glaciations created rolling landscape, carried huge amounts of soil, sand & gravel from Canadian shield, dumped throughout region * Flat plains, glacial hills, & deep river valleys * Rift valley formed by faulting; flooded during end of ice age| * Good for agriculture; excellent soils & warm climate * Flat lands; ideal for transportation routes & development of cities (50% of canadians live in small) * 70% of country’s manufacturing industries * Maple syrup, forestry, mining, fishery, water supply, * Sheep, poultry, dairy, logging – lumber, paper| Hudson Bay – Arctic LowlandsPALEOZOIC + PRECAMBRIAN + MESOZOIC PALEOZOIC + CENOZOIC| * Layers of sedimentary rock rest on top of ancient rock of Shield * Waters of Hudson Bay covered lowland & deposited sand, silt, & clay that became layer of sedimentary rock * A series of islands located in far north, gently rolling landscape * Bodies of water continues to deposit deep basins of sedimentary along east & west coasts (Paleozoic era) *
Receding glaciers left sedimentary rock (Cenozoic)| * HB- mining, march, wetlands, plains * AL-Not good for farming, harsh climate * Rich in furs due to abundance of wildlife * Water resources provide hydro power for Ontario * Contain lignite, coal, oil, & natural deposits * Game, fishing| * Climate: weather conditions of a place averaged over a long period of time * Factors affecting Climate (LOWERN) * Latitude: Significant differences in average annual temperatures; distance from the equator a key factor. * The same amount of energy from the sun that hits Earth is spread over a large areas at northerly ocation because of th earth’s curve; the same amount of energy is more concentrated at the equator * Most southerly pointPelee Island; Most northerly pointAlert * Ocean Currents: The temperature of an ocean current affects the temperature of the air passing over it. * Warm– warm air – the mild climate of B. C. ; Cold– cold air – Labrador & northern Newfoundland * Where air above two currents meet, conditions are often damp & foggy. * Winds & Air Masses * Air Masses: large volume of air with the climate conditions of the area where it is formed. * Over ocean moist; as air masses pass over land=in precipitation; over continental area will generally be dry. * Winds & Pressure Systems * Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, this causes wind. Prevailing Winds: around the earth, there are pressure belts which cause wind patterns. * Westerlies: over Canada, the winds tends to move from the west to east . * Polar Front: the boundary between the cold, dry, polar air & warm, wet, tropical air. * Jet Stream: high in the atmosphere above the polar front is a current of fast-moving air. * In winter=moves southward, cold arctic air into the U. S. *
In summer=moves northward, warm air from the Gulf of Mexico to flow farther northward into Canada’s interior. * Cold air masses & warm air masses that meet at the polar front often create storms. * Elevation: height of land above sea level Air mass moves up a mountain= expands since there is less pressure; as it expands=loses heat & becomes cooler. * Relief: the affect that mountain ranges act as barriers to climate systems * Result in greatly differing temperatures in different cities that are close to each other but separated by mountains. * Windward side of rocky mountains=more precipitation; leeward side of rocky mountains= precipitation. * Nearness to body of water: Bodies of water have a moderating effect on land temperatures. * Oceans & large lakes heat up & cool down more slowly than land masses. * Results in cooler summers & warmer winters. * Maritime vs. Continental climate * Maritime| * Continental| Total annual precipitation of over 1000 mm| * Total annual precipitation of less than 1000 mm| * A temperature range of less than 25C°| * A temperature range of more than 25C°| * Winter: Season of Maximum Precipitation| * Summer: Season of Maximum Precipitation| * Soil make-up (MOMA) *
Minerals; Organic material & bacteria; Moisture; Air * Vegetation * Tree line: boundary between the Tundra & the Boreal Forest zone; North of this line, it is too cold for trees to grow. * Permafrost: permanently frozen ground that does not completely thaw in the summer. * Active layer: upper layer of permafrost that thaws only briefly in summertime Unit 4 Demography: study of human population dynamics, population numbers, distribution, trends, & issues that looks at how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration & ageing. * Push/pull factors – what are they? Be able to identify them * Push factors: factors that causes people to emigrate from their country (i. e. war, absence of human rights, poor economic/educational opportunities, religious persecution, terrorism, & natural disasters) * Pull factors: factors that draws immigrants to a country (i. e. job opportunities, freedom of speech & religion, lower taxes, better education & healthcare, better climate, join friends/relatives living in another country ) * Immigration – benefits & drawbacks Benefits| Drawbacks| Declining fertility & population=severe labour shortages; * Fiscal burden of aging population; scarce staff-nursing homes & retirement facilities *
Replace baby boomers jobs; fill jobs Canadians don’t want; temporary jobs during harvest time * High-skilled-innovate higher rate than canadians; low-skilled- meet crucial service sector gaps * More global prosperity than foreign aid/international trade; revolutionize Canada’s foreign aid policy| * Short term expediency; political gain * Stress on schools to take in new students * Little cultural communities formed * Lack of culture belonging * Competition for jobs of Canadians| * Types of immigrants (3 types) * Economic Immigrants Skilled Worker/ Professional: 67 points (government adjust; make sure immigrants meet Canada’s economic needs) * Business Immigrant: 37 points (show willingness/ability-make significant financial contributions to economy) * Family Immigrants (Allows Canadian residents to reunite with family members) * Every family immigrant must be sponsored by relative in Canada (provide housing & other needs for 3-10 years, if immigrant runs into financial difficulty, they need to help them) * Refugee (Apply for refugee status while in Canada as visitors/living in home country) * Fears cruel or inhumane treatment in their home country ( persecution-race, religion, nationality, political opinion) * Special category includes victims of natural disasters (storms, earthquakes), & human disasters (war, famine) * Points system – what are points given for? Who does it apply to? Education: High School, University/college (diploma, bachelor, doctorate, master’s degree)_______________Economic * Language ability: English/French (high/moderate/basic/no