Project Management Library Renovation
Levy (2002) says, rather than blindly following a methodology, the project manager must be able to adapt procedures to meet the demands of the work in hand. How the manager plan on a two-week project is likely to be very different from how they plan on a two-year project. Understand the customer’s requirements and put them under version control. Thoroughly understand and document the customer’s requirements, obtain customer agreement in writing, and put requirements documents under version identification and change control.
Requirements management is the leading success factor for systems development projects. Business justification: every project should lead to a worthwhile return on investment. In other words, we need to understand the benefits that a particular project will bring, before committing ourselves to any significant expenditure. During the lifecycle of a project, however, circumstances can change quickly. If at any point it becomes clear that a return on investment is no longer feasible, then the project should be scrapped and no more money wasted.
Manage by exception: project sponsors should avoid getting too bogged down in the day-to-day running of projects and instead allow the project manager to concentrate on this area. Levy (2002) goes on to say Micro-management by a project sponsor is a hindrance, not a help. Project sponsors should set clear boundaries for cost and time, with which the project manager should work. If he/she cannot provide the agreed deliverables within these constraints, concerns must be escalated to the sponsor for a decision. Manage by stages: break the project up into smaller chunks, or stages.
Each stage marks a point at which the project sponsor will make key decisions. For example, is the project still worthwhile? Are the risks still acceptable? Dividing a project into stages, and only committing to one stage at a time, is a low risk approach that enables the sponsor to manage by exception. Focus on products: it is vital that clients and customers think carefully about the products, or deliverables, they require, before the project begins. The clearer they can be about their requirements, the more realistic and achievable the plans that can be produced.
This makes managing the project much easier and less risky. Learn from experience: don’t risk making the same mistakes on every project; consider why certain aspects went well or badly, then incorporate the lessons learned into your approach to your next project. Humans have an amazing capacity to learn, but when it comes to repeating errors made during previous projects, we all too often fail to learn the lessons. Business justification: every project should lead to a worthwhile return on investment.
In other words, we need to understand the benefits that a particular project will bring, before committing ourselves to any significant expenditure. During the lifecycle of a project, however, circumstances can change quickly. If at any point it becomes clear that a return on investment is no longer feasible, then the project should be scrapped and no more money wasted. Defined roles and responsibilities: everybody working on the project needs to understand the nature of their involvement: for what is each person responsible, and to whom are they accountable?
Without clear roles and responsibilities, nobody will know precisely what he or she is supposed to be doing (and everybody will pass the buck at the first sign of trouble). In such a chaotic environment, the progress of the project will be seriously jeopardised. Quality issues that must be addressed by the project manager Chris Jones (2011) points that Poor quality management can stand in the way of a successful project. The two keys to avoiding lapsing into substandard quality management are to remember, first, that the project sponsor and your client determine quality—the project manager and project team do not.
The library building design concerns of the senior residents was a quality criteria be considered when building instead of increasing space for children and teen’s activities. Secondly the project manager as O. Levy (1995) suggested had to resist the urge to think that quality means the best material, the best equipment, and absolutely zero defects. While the project out more space for computers, and less space for books also more entertainment features the local senior group was displeased and thought the quality of the library had reduced. The library had changed from the traditional, quiet library they once knew.
There was nobody on staff and no feature or design that made the library a special place senior-related services. In most cases, the client does not expect, and cannot afford, a perfect solution. If there are just a few bumps in the project, the client can still say that the project delivered to a high level of quality. Spinner (2007) said, however a flawlessly designed, defect-free solution that does not meet the client’s needs will not be considered high quality. Due to less involvement of the client the project had to be reworked on giving higher maintenance costs and client dissatisfaction.
The purpose of quality management is to first understand the expectations of the client in terms of quality, and then put a proactive plan and process in place to meet or exceed those expectations. Quality control refers to the ongoing activities that the project team will perform to ensure that the deliverables are of high quality (Stephen Glaister, 1994). This can include deliverable walk-thorough, testing of subcomponents, completeness checklists, and so on. As the project manager, to ensure quality and satisfaction of the clients information is to be gathered from them on what the need and expect from the library.
Rework has to ensure that the library features accommodate the local citizens needs and the best way to achieve this notion is to consult with them while building. Recruitment of a senior client service specialist will add to the quality assurance of the project. Evaluation of Existing Systems for Appropriate Decision Making Project Management Institute (2008) denotes that good monitoring and evaluation design during project preparation is a much broader exercise than just the development of indicators. A good evaluation design should have the following five components: 1.
There has to be clear and concise statements of measurable objectives and targets for the building project such as the design needs of the local users such as better facilities for senior citizens of which their indicators could be clearly defined. 2. There is need for a structured indicator set that is simple to use foe all project stakeholders at any instant which can allow estimation of output state which include the services that were likely to be generated by the project and the impact they would have on the beneficiaries. 3.
There should be an easy mechanism for collecting data that impacts the project and data that can be used to manage the project such as client needs to reduce dissatisfaction of the end product and to enable communication of impediments. The indicators are required to be interlinked with statistics available and should also be affordable for the project budget. 4. There has to be devised arrangements for collecting the data, analysing it and reporting for further investment proposals to sponsor during the project or before and for the client’s to improvise their needs according to the possible respective of resources and expertise. 5.
Evaluation should have mechanism for which the results of the project can be effectively reported back to decision making and other stakeholders. There can be use and implementation of outsource skill to monitor projects or acquisition of automated evaluation tools such as a logical framework. A Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) constitutes a central element of the project management system (Kathy, 2008). It defines project’s objectives and describes the approach taken to implement it. The Logical Framework is accompanied and complemented by other monitoring and evaluation tools. A full set of LFM instruments is presented in the diagram below.
Main sources of data / information are listed in the first column. They are addressed and utilized in the LFM system via specific tools that are provided in a logically and relevantly designed table or any other format that can be easily read or documented. System approach, Project lifecycle and Product development lifecycle and Evaluation The Systems Approach Most elements within a project were dependent on each other and each one of them would have their own special needs or characteristics except the client need element which is however the most important aspect of a project.
The project manager worked on the goals of tackling the project stage by stage with quality results in all stages but however they overlooked the importance of the end result was to satisfy the client rather than themselves. However from a technical point of view all aspects of the project were interlinked and led to the achievement of the project as required by the project manager. Table : Systems Approach •All inputs into a project were have determined and kept constant or added to whenever necessary.
The external element of client need was however overlooked to the project and impacted on the end result in terms of quality, money and time. •The feedback from clients which is part of effective monitoring led to conflicts and thus the project did not run smoothly. •The project manager did not have alternative methods as required in a systems approach so as to improvise when conflict rose between the project executors and the initiators or clients. Using a systems approach to project management enables a project manager to keep the objectives and end results constantly in mind so that the end results are as desired by the client.
Project Life Cycle The project life cycle was defined by Snyder (2009) as the phases identified and documented by the project team’s management style. Dividing the project into different phases allowed increased control by the organisation as a whole and in the building phase conflict arose due to design while the completion stage the end product was not satisfactory as the library was deemed more noisy with too much space for the kids and teenagers and more noisy. Product Development life Cycle
The product life cycle which develops from the business plan, through idea, to product, ongoing operations and product divestment was not well developed in the planning phase and also through to the operations. The product had to be redesigned which is the design and end service for the library. Critical appraisal of the project from a technical and team working perspective Technical appraisal is an in-depth study to ensure that a project is soundly designed, appropriately engineered and follows accepted standards.
There has to be concentration on the inputs needed for the project and the resulting outputs of goods & services when a project is being appraised technically (Wysocki, 1999). The pre-requisites for this project were not all essentially covered as the wrong choices were made in terms of design of the project . The space put after the project for children and teen activities was rather more than required by the consumers or clients and the entertainment facilities installed rather made the library users unsatisfied as they required the library to serve senior citizens better rather than entertain teens.
The library became much more noisy than what the frequent users wanted and there was no specialist serving the senior citizens after the project as they required. While the work done was perfect , it was not done according to requirements of the clients which led to client dissatisfaction The project team was well skilled and worked cooperatively but however an important element of the team which are the consumer representatives was ignored which led to the project accomplishing the wrong needs.