Project Ms Excel
Ms-Excel is a full-featured window based spread sheet program developed by Microsoft Corporation is used by millions of people around the world. Excel includes all standard features of a spread sheet package like automatic recalculation, graphs and functions. It includes several advanced utilities like facility to include other objects within a spreadsheet, table and form designing. Ms-Excel is developed on the GUI concept. A spreadsheet is a highly interactive computer program that consists of a collection of rows and columns that are displayed on the screen in a scrollable window.
The intersection of each row and column is called a cell. A cell can hold a number of text string or a formula that performs a calculation using one or other cells. Excel is used for a variety of applications. It is commonly used to automatic financial statements, business forecasts, transition registers inventory control, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The package provides statistical, analytical and scientific functions. Therefore, Excel is used in many scientific and engineering environments to analyze numerical data and present findings.
Project Ms Excel Essay Example
Excel comes across as a powerful and flexible graphical presentation tool. Excel is also able to access data stored in Database formats. Excel may also used as a powerful application development tool. FEATURES OF MS-EXCEL – Ms-Excel is application software based on electronic spreadsheet made by Microsoft. This software allows us to retrieve data from external data sources and use it in worksheet. Ms-Excel has a number of features. Some of the features of Ms-Excel are as follows- 1. Excel has 65536 rows and 256 columns in it.
It supports what if analysis to help predict the future values if there is a change in the cell content which is referred to in the formula. 3. Based on the data, graphs or charts can be created for quick assessment of a situation. 4. Excel provides facility of manipulation of string data. 5. Excel support data and time related function. 6. Huge amount of information is stored. 7. Excel take advantage of windows environment.
The excel application window includes the standard title bar and command bars. Below the command bars is a strip that contains the name box and the formula bar. The excel status bar displays information about current selection. Commands or operations. The right end of the status bar displays NUM if the keyboard num lock is on. MS-Excel uses personal tool bar, so the command bars appear side by side or one above the other. We can drag and drop command bars to rearrange them , we can also click the tool bar drag it to the left to along at its display and make more button visible.
The excel application window contains following main components: Title Bar: Top bar of excel window, a horizontal bar contain the name of the workbook. Whenever you open a new file in MS-Excel, it automatically assigns a name “BOOK” to untitled file. Menu Bar: Below to the bar, again a horizontal bar contains the different menus that contain different Excel commands. The name of the menus itself define the type of commands they are containing. Standard Tool Bar: A horizontal bar below menu bar containing the different tools, by clicking these tools we can perform excel commands.
This toolbar contain some standard commands like copy, paste, saving, opening and creating new files etc. Formatting bar : Below to the Standard tool bar, contains commands related to formatting of text without the cells, commands basically from FORMAT menu. Formula bar : Horizontal bar located below to the Formatting bar, used for applying formulas or functions in Excel. Name Box : A rectangular box actuated left to the formula bar. It shows the cell address of selected cell. Status bar : The last horizontal bar at the bottom of the excel window show the status of active sheet.
This information is available immediately with a few keystrokes, giving businesses the ability to analyze data and make quick adjustments. Excel helps personal users create budgets or list obligations. We can analyze the information to decide if we should adjust our spending or determine how much money we need to accomplish a financial goal. Excel even offers budgeting templates. Importance of Ms-Excel to business- As one of the most used computer software programs for businesses today, mastering Microsoft Excel is an important skill that workers should have. It is no wonder that companies and businesses demand that their staff learn MS Excel so that they can stay competitive.
Looking at it from the employer’s point of view, especially for those in the field of information technology system, Microsoft Excel is an essential end-user computing tool that can help perform a wide range of tasks. From making some of the mundane tasks more bearable through automation, to everyday functional tasks. Microsoft Excel is also used as a decision-making support for employers. It isn’t surprising how Excel has been dominating the spreadsheet product industry with a share of more than 90 percent. Thanks to clever programming, businesses have relied on Excel to improve the productivity level of employees. Apart from that, Excel can also be used outside the corporate world. For example, if we have a home office – we can use the program to calculate various costs, from sales tax to daily expenditures and more.
Tracking our assets, income, debt and net worth can be done easier using excel Aside from the program’s obvious business uses, these personal uses tell us how flexible Excel is. Some more uses of Microsoft Excel: create graph and chart, import data from the web, data converter, data analysis and visualization tools, and a host of other purposes to support financial decision and business transaction for end users and business professionals. Microsoft Excel is highly customizable to perform a wide array of functions essential to business. Some companies have made it mandatory for employees to undergo Excel training as a way to keep up with technology and increasingly demanding business world.
To prepare the payroll of the employees the following details are required. Employees name, Employees number, Basic pay, Allowances Deductions like Income Tax, Provident Fund etc. Bank employees are relatively permanent and do not change such as changes in the employees’ pay or increment etc. Such items are updated using the master update module of the payroll system. The computer reads details from master file and calculates net pay. The program also prints out pay slip for each employee to be handed over to him. A pay slip shows the employees number, name basic pay, various allowances, various deductions and net pay.
The payroll system also generates a number of statements, starting employee numbers, name, bank account, number and new pay, This statement is sent to the bank, which transfers the net pay from the company’s account to the individual employee’s account in the bank. The payroll system also generates a provident fund deduction statement. This statement show the employee number, name and amount deducted. Another statement stating the name, number and the amount of tax deducted is also prepared. It is sent to Income Tax Office. In this way, various statements can be prepared from the data so created. 2. Inventory Management: In each and every business organization inventory management and control is the main determining factor of the profitability of the concern.
If the inventory is not properly administered and controlled, the firm cannot achieve its target profit. Inventories include raw materials, spare parts, components, etc. The set of programs used to keep track of the purchase and issue of those inventories constitute the inventory control system. In the business concerns, various items of raw materials are needed in different quantities. They are to be stocked optimally i. e. , neither more nor less. Too less a stock would result in non-availability of these items, when the firm wants to exploit the new orders. If they are over stocked, more money is invested in buying the excess stock which results into more interest on loan, etc. which is a loss to the business.
Hence, the firm has to maintain the optimum level of materials. The inventory control system maintains a file with party number, name, quantity on stock, a level of stock at which the company orders for fresh quantities and the supplier’s address. This file is the inventory master. When an item is issued, the inventory update program updated the Inventory master reducing the stock by the quantity issued. If the resultant stock falls below the reorder level, the inventory control program prints out an order to the supplier. When the supplier supplies the item, the inventory control program updated the stock on hand.
The Inventory Control System keeps track of the Purchases and issues, so that, the firm can easily know the usages of these items over a period of time. Excel Graphics – Introduction Excel charts are graphical representations of numeric data. Graphs make it easier for users to compare and understand numbers, so charts have become a popular way to present numerical data. Every chart tells a story. Stories can be simple: ‘See how our sales have increased’ or complex: ‘This is how our overhead costs relate to the price of our product’ whether simple or complex, the story should be readily understandable. If we can’t immediately understand what a chart means, then it isn’t a good chart.
Graphs are constructed with data points, which are the individual number in a worksheet, and data series, which are the groups of related data points within a column or row. Understanding Graph type (2D and 3D) Excel comes with a wide variety of charts capable of graphically representing most standard types of data analysis, and even some more exotic numeric interpolations. The type of data you are using and presenting determines the type of chart you will plot the data on. This chapter discusses some of the most frequently used chart types. Excel has graphs in the following categories: Pie charts : These work best for displaying how much each part contributes to a total value.
Pie charts can be exploded for greater visual clarity, or turned into doughnut charts, which can represent more than just one set of data. Line and area charts : These show data points connected with lines, indicating upward or trends in value. Area charts show the area below a line filled in. Both types can be combined with column charts to show more data. Column and bar charts : These compare values across categories. With results presented vertically in column charts and horizontally in bar charts. The composition of the column or bar con be stacked in more than one color to represent the contribution of each portion a category’s data to the total for the category. Inserting Rows and columns.
To insert a row or column in the worksheet follow the steps given below: Select the cell below which the row has to be inserted or the cell to the right of which the column has to be inserted * To insert multiple rows or columns, select the number of rows or columns equal to the number to be inserted by clicking and dragging the mouse over the worksheet. * Select Rows or columns from the Insert menu. Excel inserts row below the selection or columns to the left of the selection. A row or column can also be inserted by right clicking the row number or column header and by clicking the Insert from the pop-up menu. Alternately, to insert a row or column, right –click a cell and from the pop-up menu, choose Insert option.
Select the Entire row or Entire column option to insert a row or column in the worksheet. Deleting rows and columns When rows are deleted in the worksheet the rows below the deleted row move up to fill the space, when columns are deleted, the columns to the right are shifted to the left. To delete a row or column, click the row number or column letter on the row or column to be deleted and then select the Delete option from the Edit menu to delete more than one row or column drag over the row numbers or column letters for selecting them. Alternately, right- click the selection and choose Delete from the popup menu. The rows and columns are renumbered automatically (deleted) Merging Cells
MS-Excel allows merging data in one cell with adjacent cells (that are blank) to form a big cell. Merging cells is useful especially while creating a decorative title for the worksheet. To create a title with merged cells. Follow the steps given below: ¬¬¬¬* Enter the title in the upper-left cell of the range. To enter multi-line title, press ALT+ENTER to insert each new line. * Select the range in which the title has to be placed. * Click Cells from the Format menu. The Format Cells dialog box appears. * Click the Alignment tab. * Click the Merge Cells check box and click ok. We can merge and center the data in the cell quickly by clicking the Merge and Center button on the Formatting toolbar. Inserting and deleting Cells
Inserting Cells will cause the data in the existing Cells to shift down a row or over a column for creating space for the new cells. Follow the steps given below to insert a single cell or group of cells. * Select the area where the new cell(s) are to be inserted. Excel will insert the same number of cells as selected. * Choose Cells from Insert menu. The Insert dialog box appears. * Select Shift Cells Right or Shift Cells Down and Click Ok. To delete the cells completely, follow the steps given below: * Select the cell or range of cells to be deleted. * Choose Delete from the Edit menu. The Delete dialog box appears. * Select Shift Cells Left or shift Cells up and click Ok. Clearing contents of cells
When cells are deleted, they are removed from the worksheet and surrounding cells are shifted to fill in the space. But when a cell is cleared, the cell remains in the worksheet while the contents, format or notes of the cells are cleared. The clear a cell, select the range of cells to be cleared and choose clear from the Edit menu. EXCEL TEMPLATES – A template is like a preprinted paper. Every time a template is opened a copy of template is created. Templates can be extremely helpful when working with workbooks with identical formatting tables, formulas and so on. To save workbooks as template follow the steps given below:- -Set up workbook to desired format. Choose save as from the file menu. The save as dialog box appears. -Click template in Save as Type box. Excel automatically opens the templates location. -Specify a filename to the template and click save. Excel gives a xlt extension to the file. To open a copy of the template, choose New from the File menu. In the New dialog box click the icon to open the template. Editing a Template To make changes to a template, follow the given below:- -Click the open button in the standard tool bar. -Navigate to the template folder. -Double click the template to be edited. -Make the necessary changes and click save button on the standard tool bar. -Close the template.
MS-Excel allows many commands or actions or operations to be reversed or roll back i. e. an action can be undone by selecting the undo option from edit menu or by pressing the Ctrl+Z key combination from the keyboard. It can deselect or undo previous action or operations. The undo option can be selected by clicking the undo button having anti clockwise arrow on standard toolbar. Excel also provides a command to repeat the action by selecting redo option from the edit menu or by pressing the Ctrl + Y key combination as shortcut key. The redo option can be selected by clicking the redo button having clockwise arrow on the standard toolbar. PRINTNG – This section describes the printing process of MS-Excel.
MS-Excel provides a number of options to improve the appearance of printouts of worksheets and charts. The File menu has four options related to printing. These are page Setup, print Area. Print preview and Print. These are explained as under: Page Set Up-Page Setup displays a four-part dialog that is used to lay out page. Click the appropriate tab to display the corresponding dialog. Page: This dialog box is used to set page orientation, Scaling and paper size. Margins: This dialog box is used to set the left, right, top and bottom margins, the distance from the distance from the edge of the page to headers or footers, and page centering. Click options to select paper, print quality, fonts, and device options.
Header and Footer: – If one wish to use headers or footers, use this dialog to create and position the text. The Custom buttons provide the ability to insert the page number, data, time, filename, tab name. One can also arrange the header/footer information at the left, center or right. Sheet :- It is used to set the print area, repeating row and column title, and page printing order i. e. down then over or over then down. User can enter a print area by clicking the button in the print area box and then dragging the desired cell range. Rows and columns print titles can also be entered by picking the desired cells. User can also print gridlines, column and row headings, comments, and set black and set black and white and draft quality printing.
Print Area: – It is used to select or to clear the current range of selected cells. Print preview: – Print Preview is used to display an image of the printed page before send it to printer. It is noted that print Preview gives you direct access to the print and page setup dialog boxes. The other buttons let you page through a large worksheet, zoom (enlarge or reduce the display), display and adjust margin guidelines, close the preview, and display Help. Print: – This dialog is used to specify the pages to print use the printer to print your work. One can also access the print preview dialog box here. One can start with this selection, perform all necessary preview and setup operations.