Promote communication in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings

8 August 2016

Promote communication in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings Outcome 1 Understand why effective communication is important in the work setting 1. 1 Identify the different reasons people communicate People communicate to: Make, develop, build and maintain relationships Express feelings, wishes, needs and preferences Express and share thoughts and ideas Give and receive support Express, share, give and gain information Obtain and share information.

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Gain reassurance and acknowledgment Express needs and feeling Communication can be carried in many ways and also both a formal and informal manner. Within a social care environment it is most important that the information is recorded as the communication may be required by law as evidence or for other legal reasons. Communication between a client and member of staff is confidential and released to other party’s involved in the care of that client on a need to know basis.

Within the setting which I work, it is important the young people express themselves to enable staff and their peers to know how they are feelings and thoughts, their concerns and joys to ensure that the best possible care and support is given to them. Communication between staff members is essential to ensure that there is a continuity of care for the client and that all staff members are aware of the current needs of the client. 1. 2 Explain how communication affects relationships in the workplace Communication has a major impact on the workplace.

Good communication provides positive relationships with both staff and the service users. Ineffective communication can result in problems occurring within relationships and in the workplace, which could result in lack of trust and confidence between both staff and the client alike. The wrong type of care may be given to a person as a result of this. Good communication promotes more healthier working relationships and aids to ensure a good quality of care to the service user, that staff know exactly what is happening and when.

Outcome 2 Be able to meet the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of the individuals 2. 1Demonstrate how to establish the communication and language needs, wishes and preference of individuals I use a variety of methods to establish individual young people’s preferred communication method, this includes asking the young person themselves, looking at their care plan, talking with other care staff and relatives of the young person if required. My own observational skills are my best tool. I ensure that the communication needs are reflective of the young persons, belief’s, culture and their needs.

Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication Body language and eye contact, a person needs to take into account the age of the child and to go down to their level and keep. Eye to eye contact. Adequate environment – such as quiet, well lit, confidential area, appropriate furniture, temperature Adapting the communication – level of voice (speaker louder or quieter), sign language, lip reading, body language hand and facial gestures (non verbal) which usually shows emotions and feelings, PECS Is English the person first language or their native language / do they understand English, an interpreter may be required.

Response to the communication, people will respond to what they have been told in different ways. Individuals person space, ensure that this is not being invaded. The ability to understand what has been said. People who have dementia, learning difficulties, deafness, mental health issues may not fully understand what they are being told, and may need an interrupter or family member/ carer present as well. It is often helpful to have any questions written down and given to the person. Visual clues can also be useful Ensure that any facts are correct when communicating with people.

Understand the person’s culture, as some cultures don’t like to be touched or may find gestures with the hand frightening or threatening. 2. 3 Demonstrate a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs. There are numerous different methods and styles to communicate. When communicating all of our five senses are used to receive information: The five senses and methods being: Visual – seeing Auditory – hearing Olfactory – smelling Kinaesthetic – feeling Gustatory – tasting Communication methods can be split into two categories: Verbal and Non-verbal.

Verbal communication: Vocabulary, words and different languages Tone of voice Pitch (for example, high or low) Verbal methods of communication such as face to face & telephone conversations Auditory methods – recordings, videos Non-verbal communication: Eye contact Signs, symbols or pictures. Visual clues (now and next chart, timetable. PECS (picture exchange communication)). Writing (Written methods – letters, notes, reports, posters, leaflets) Using objects Touch Physical gestures (Hand and facial gestures (non verbal) which usually shows emotions and feelings).

Body language and emotions Lip reading Electronic/digital – emails, websites, text messages, video Sign language – baby sign, Makaton, British sign language Tactile methods – braille At certain times one must adopt their style of communication to meet individual needs and use various aids to help them embrace their communication. Autism – People with autism have difficulties with both verbal and non-verbal language. Always use the person’s name at the beginning, when you are saying something, so that they know you are talking to them. Speak clearly and precisely using short sentences.

A child with autism can find it difficult to filter out the less important information. If there is too much information, it can lead to ‘overload’, where no further information can be processed. Be aware of the environment (noisy/crowded etc? ) that you are in. It may be affecting how much your child can process. Instructions and common phrases are taken as literal meaning. Use visual supports (eg symbols, timetables, PECS, Makaton sign language) to help them to process the information more easily. Loss of hearing – Hearing loss can be a big communication barrier, due to it being an invisible disability.

People who have hearing impairment have to concentrate extremely hard to pick up information in stages. Background noise is a major distraction and should be avoided or limited. The speaker should always try to ensure that they are face on enabling the other person to see them clearly and lip read. Aids that can assist people with hearing loss include: hearing aids, sign language, lip reading, loop systems, interpreters. Loss of sight- The importance of verbal communication increases immensely when supporting a person who has loss of sight or is blind.

The speaker must talk clearly, explain things in detail also using tone of their voice to try and relay expressions. Background noise is a hindrance. Ensure that Loss os sight can make a person extremely disorientated, especially if they are in a strange place. Aids that can assist people include: Tactile methods – braille, touch to reassure the person of your presence. Dementia / confusion – Basis forms of communication may be difficult for people with dementia to understand or interpret. When supporting someone with dementia /confusion short sentences should be used.

Use the person / people’s names rather than saying he or she and avoid open ended, which may cause further confusion to the person. Dyshasic – people who suffer from Dyshasic have usually had a stroke and often become frustrated when trying to communicate and talk. Speech therapists maybe able to help by giving exercises. Electronic communication devices may aid the person Learning difficulties / language difficulties – It may be necessary to use picture boards to communicate with a person who does not speak English. Body language and sign language such as Makaton will also act as an aid.

Cutural differences – People need to be aware of commonly used gestures, these can mean something entirely different in different cultures. Also the aid of and communicating with someone of the opposite sex may not be allowed to people of certain cultures. The Environment – The environment in which a person is working in should be considered, this can be noise level and also the immediate setting, which could be lighting, furnishings and temperature etc. It is always advantageous to check the individual is comfortable.

Demonstrate how to respond to an individual’s reactions when communicating I respond to individual’s reactions when communicating with them in various ways through using non-verbal and verbal responses. Non-verbal methods can be: gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, sign that the information has been understood, touch and gestures. Verbal methods used can are: pitch, tone or silence. Outcome 3 Be able to overcome barriers to communications 3. 1 Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and or/interpret communication methods in different ways

Communication can be interpreted in different ways by different people, this could be if they come from different countries or the same country but different regions or different backgrounds, two people from different regions of the same country may use the same word with a total different meaning. A person from a different country may not understand you or have a different understanding of the word and use the word in a different context. The English language is a complicated language to learn, and even use by some native speakers.

Within the English language there are homonym words, such as ‘fair’ (county fair) and ‘fair’ (reasonable), also homophone words, such as ‘pear’ (fruit) and ‘pair’ (couple) fro example. The speed at which a person talks can lead to misinterpretation and cause confusion. Accents can also cause confusion and misunderstanding when try to understand and interpret what someone is saying. Intonations, such as body language, hand signs and gesture enable the audience to know whether a person is being friendly towards them etc. Facial expressions and body language will also aid people to understand if others understand what they are communicating.

Children often use non-verbal communication, such as body language and facial expressions to between themselves, especially if they are from different backgrounds. People from different backgrounds and people whom are familiar with each other may use various methods of communication, such as body language, gestures and phrases in different ways. This may show their personality and familiarity, in a way in which they would not do with other people. When speaking to a person from another culture, a person may speak more slowly, emphasis words and use a different tone than speaking to someone from the same culture.

Whilst the native speaker may be doing this, thinking that it aiding the other person it may in fact make the person feel they are being treated differently due to their culture, class or ethnicity. It is important that when communicating with others that that everyone is treated equally, fairly and without bias. 3. 2 Identify barriers to effective communication Sensory deprivation: Hearing impairment, visual impairment, foreign language Foreign language Cultural differences e. g. what is common and acceptable gestures in one country may not be in another, such as eye contact in Western and Eastern countries differs.

Jargon – technical language used by professional may not be understood by the service user. Slang – e. g. people may use slang language that not everyone uses and understands. Slang words may be misunderstood or misinterpreted or might cause offence. Teenagers often use and write in slang which may not be known by older people. Emotional difficulties: e. g. people may be experiencing emotional difficulties at times and become upset, with the resulting effect that they may not hear or understand what people are saying to them, which can lead to misunderstandings.

Health issues e. g. someone may be suffering from an illness which may affect the ability to concentrate. Environment issues: Noise level, lighting, temperature e. g. in a dimly lit room people will find it hard to read written information Seating arrangements e. g. If people are not able to see each other and other communicating it will make it harder to see body language, hand gestures, and the projection of voice may become distorted. Age of and relationship of persons communicating 3. 3 Demonstrate ways to overcome barriers to communication

Personal experiences Adapt communication skills, to medical condition Explain things using simple language, may use images if appropriate Check in needed and offer the YP glasses or hearing aid Maintain a professional approach Do not make assumptions about beliefs, values and culture Reduce noise, this may mean moving to a quieter location Turn lights on, dim lights, close curtains Adjust room temperature Reposition chairs/ seating 3. 4 Demonstrate strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstandings. Speak slowly, repeat things Write things down

Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively This can be done through: Local authority Line manager GP There are organisations who offer specialized appropriate support for those experiencing difficulties, feeling depressed, harm themselves or are in danger of being sexually exploited All relevant contact details are readily available for managers and staff to access. Staff should be aware of sources of information and support or services to enable more effective communication.

There will be lots of different types of support and services that can help staff and the individuals they support to improve communication skills. Some of these services are: Translators Interpreters, sign language and lip speakers Speech and language specialists Advocacy services There is also a range of specialist equipment. These include: Induction loops Braille embossers and printers Makaton Support can also be found on the internet through various specialist websites, including: The British Deaf Society The National Blind Children’s Society

Staff and other person’s should not under estimate the support that they can provide by using good communication skills, genuine empathy and care for the people you support. Encourage them to express how they feel about what is causing them worry, anxiety or distress. Empathy is a skill developed from good active listening, characteristic of a caring attitude, where a person can see beyond their own assumptions about the world and can imagine the thoughts and feelings of someone, who is quite different. Outcome 4 Be able to apply principles and practices relating to confidentiality

Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality. Confidentiality means not sharing information about people without their knowledge and agreement, and ensuring that written and electronic information cannot be accessed or read by people who have no reason to see it. It is a set of rules or a promise that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information. Confidentiality is important because: Clients may not trust a support worker who does not keep information confidential Clients may not feel valued or able to keep their self-esteem if their private details are shared with others.

Client’s safety may be put at risk if details of their property and habits are shared publicly. 4. 2 Demonstrate ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication 4. 3 Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns. Sometimes confidential information disclosed by a client/YP may need to be passed on to others. You may have to breach confidentiality; sometimes confidential information disclosed by a client/YP may need to be passed on to others.

If an individual tells you something that puts them, you or someone else at the risk of harm, if abuse is suspected, or if there is suspected misconduct of a colleague in respect of a client/YP. A person must inform the client why the information needs to be passed on to others, and that it is your responsibility to do so. You should consult with the policies of your organisation regarding sharing of information and Safeguarding Young People and adults before you are in that position.

There are other situations whether information can be shared, for example, if it is requested for a court case, or if there is a threat to public safety, or the police have requested information relating to a criminal investigation. You should always refer these requests to your supervisor / manager. If a staff member has to pass on information that a young person has confided in you, it may cause tension in your relationship. The service user may lose trust in the person and be upset you have told someone else.

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