The two polynucleotide chains run in opposite directions. The sugar- phosphate backbones of the two DNA strands wind around the helix axis like the railing of a spiral staircase. The Backbone DNA is in the form of a double helix. This means that two helices, or sides, twist around a center. The sides of the double helix are referred to as the backbone of the DNA strand. They are made up of molecules of phosphate and sugar.

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Scientists use complementary base pairing to help identify the genes on a particular chromosome and to develop methods used In genetic engineering (material to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce desirable new ones). .How is the structure of DNA Related to its function The structure of DNA Is a double helix, which can most efficiently be split Into two new strands when the DNA is getting ready to copy the DNA, because it “unwinds. ” Another important part of the structure is the hydrogen bond that connects the complimentary bases.

When DNA splits Into Individual strands, these bonds are broken, and you now have two strands with complimentary bases. RNA can then be created by using these individual bases, which is how DNA gets its message out of the nucleus (since It’s too large in size to flt through the pores In the nuclear envelope). Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. The building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group. components 1 . Phosphate group :- Composed of one atom of phosphorus surrounded by four oxygen atoms. 2. Sugar (deoxyribose) 3. Nitrogen base=A nitrogen base is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen: -adenine (A) -guanine (G) -cytosine (C) -thymine (T) DNA carries the Information for making all of the cell’s proteins. These pro telns implement all of the functions of a living organism and determine the organism’ s characteristics. When the cell reproduces, it has to pass allof this information on to the daughter cells.

Page 2 Protein Essay

Different types of cells replicated their DNA at different rates. Some cells constantly divide. Other cells go through several rounds of cell division and stop. Finally, some cells stop dividing, but can be Induced to divide to repair Injury. In cells thatdo not constantly divide, the cues for DNA replication,’cell division come in the form of chemicals. These chemicals can come from other parts of the body (hormones) or from the environment Process of DNA Replication 1) The first major step for the DNA Replication to take place Is the breaking of hydrogen bonds between bases of the two antiparallel strands.

The splitting appens in places of the chains which are rich in A-T. Helicase is the enzyme that of replication”. 2) The binding of RNA Primase in the the initiation point of the 3′-5′ parent chain. RNA Primase can attract RNA nucleotides which bind to the DNA nucleotides of the 3′-5′ strand due to the hydrogen bonds between the bases. 3) The elongation process is different for the 5′-3′ and 3′-5′ template. a)5′-3′ Template: The 3′-5′ proceeding daughter strand -that uses a 5′-3′ template- is called leading strand because DNA Polymerase ¤ can “read” the template and continuously adds nucleotides. 3′-5’Template: The 3′-5′ template cannot be “read” by DNA Polymerase. The replication of this template is complicated and the new strand is called lagging strand. In the lagging strand the RNA Primase adds more RNA Primers. DNA polymerase reads the template and lengthens the bursts. The gap between two RNA primers is called “Okazaki Fragments”. 4) In the lagging strand the DNA POI I – exonuclease- reads the fragments and removes the RNA Primers. The gaps are closed with the action of DNA Polymerase and DNA Ligase. Each new double helix is consisted of one old and one new chain.

This is what we call semiconservative replication. 5) The DNA Replication is not completed before a mechanism of repair fixes possible errors caused during the replication. Enzymes like nucleases remove the wrong nucleotides and the DNA Polymerase fills the gaps. HISTORY Gregor Mendel And Heredity’= At 1866 he experimented of pea plants and this led to his idea of inheritance. Though this is very far from what DNA actually is, without this information about inheritance, the idea of heredity would never have developed and without the idea of heredity, nobody would know about DNA. ”The Father of Genetics Friedrich Miescher= In 1869 Swiss physiological chemist Friedrich Miescher first identified what he called “nuclein” inside the nuclei of human white blood cells. (The term “nuclein” was later changed to “nucleic acid” and eventually to “deoxyribonucleic acid,” or “DNA. “) Laying the Groundwork: Investigation on the Structure of the DNA Phoebus Levene= He characterized the different forms of nucleic acid, DNA from RNA. a biochemist who analyzed DNA and found that it contained adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.

Oswald Avery Oswald Avery, an early molecular biologist and immunochemist, is best known for his discovery in 1944 (with his co-workers Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty) that DNA is the material of which genes and chromosomes are made. Strengthening the Foundation: Chargaff Formulates His “Rules” Erwin Chargaff -Chargaff discovered two rules that helped lead to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA in 1952. These two rules paved the way for Watson and Crick Discovery.

Chargaffs Rules 1) The first and best known achievement was to show that in natural DNA the umber of guanine units equals the number of cytosine units and the number of adenine units equals the number of thymine music 2) The second of Chargaffs rules is that the composition of DNA varies from one species to another, in particular in the relative amounts of A, G, T, and C bases. Such evidence of molecular diversity, which had been presumed absent from DNA, made First to propose that DNA was a helix. However, he proposed it was a triple helix rather than the accepted double helix.

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase= They were the ones that proved DNA, not proteins, were what formed genetic material in 1952. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin= In 1952 at King’s College in London, this British scientists used X-ray diffraction to learn DNA structure. Thy aimed a powerful X-ray at concentrated DNA samples and recorded the scattering pattern on film. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of the DNA in 1953. first scientists to formulate an accurate description of this molecule’s complex. Which was Double Helix.

Protein synthesis ”Proteins are large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. =proteins are large, complex molecules that play any critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the bodys tissues and organs. Function of proteins 1 . Help fight disease 2. Build new body tissue 3. Enzymes used for digestion and other chemical reactions Protein synthesis involves two types of nucleic acids: 1 .

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 2. RNA (ribonucleic acid) =RNA, like DNA, is a polymer formed by a sequence of nucleotides Three Types of RNA: 1 . messenger RNA (mRNA)-carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 2. ransfer RNA (tRNA)-brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis 3. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- guides the translation of mRNA into a protein Protein Synthesis involves two processes: 1 . Transcription: the copying of the genetic message (DNA) into a molecule of mRNA 2.

Translation: mRNA is used to assemble an amino acid sequence into a polypeptide Outline the DNA Transcription in terms of RNA strand complimentary to DNA strand by RNA polymerase. Transcription= DNA transcription is a process that involves transcribing genetic information from DNA to RNA. The transcribed DNA message, is sed to produce proteins. = occurs in the nucleus of the cell Steps of transcription 1 . The DNA helix is opened at the position of the gene. 2. The helix is unwound by RNA polymerase 3. RNA nucleotides are found in the nucleus space. 4.

One of the polynucleotide chains act as a template for mRNA 5. Free nucleotides base pair with DNA nucleotides 6. The phosphodiester bonds on the mRNA chain are formed by RNA polymerase 7. mRNA is a single polynucleotide chain but the base thymine is replaced by Uracil. nucleus for the cytoplasm ribosomes. 9. The DNA helix reforms Why? DNA has the genetic code for the protein that needs to be made, but proteins are made by the ribosomes”ribosomes are outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. DNA is too large to leave the nucleus (double stranded), but RNA can leave the nucleus (single stranded)reforms.

Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases. 1 . Translation is carried out in the cytoplasm by ribosomes, molecules of another type of RNA called transfer RNA (tRNA) 2. tRNA is a single strand of RNA that is folded into a “clover leaf” shape. It’s bonded together by complementary base pairings but one rea is exposed to correspond to the codons found on the mRNA molecule, this area is the anticodon.

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