Psychology Assignment Final Essay Sample

Describe and discourse how each psychological position explains smoking utilizing empirical grounds A position or attack in psychological science is a specific apprehension as to why and how persons think. feel and behave. The perspectives/approaches are indispensable to the survey of psychological science ; they reinforce all psychological idea and probe. The intent of this assignment is to measure the psychological positions in order to explicate smoke. The psychodynamic attack

Psychodynamic psychologists assume an individual’s behavior is determined by their unconscious ideas and memories. doing it a deterministic attack. They believe that each manifest ( surface ) thought or behaviour fells a latent ( hidden ) motivation or purpose. This reflects our natural biological thrusts and early experiences. preponderantly before the age of five. Chiefly. how a kid is treated by their parents. reflects their grownup behavior. This attack is regarded as a reductionist attack to psychology instead than a holistic 1. Sigmund Freud ( 1896-1939 ) believed that one of the cardinal influences to his psychodynamic attack was the premise was that the early childhood was peculiarly of import in the development of an adults personality traits. Harmonizing to ( Gross. 2005 ) Freud claimed that development took topographic point through three phases of psychosexual development. the unwritten. anal and the phallic. However. if a injury occurs at any phase of development it could ensue in the kid acquiring fixated ( stuck ) at that phase. if this does go on. so hints of that phase will stay in their behavior as an grownup.

For illustration. smoke in grownups can be explained through the unwritten phase of the psychosexual phases. where as a kid a struggle occurs at the unwritten phase. where the beginnings of pleasance would be in the oral cavity. with the influences at this phase being breast eating and ablactating onto solid nutrient. Therefore. the consequence of arrested development is smoking. nail biting. dependence and aggression. An illustration of psychodynamic research is Freud’s ( 1909 ) instance survey of ‘Little Hans’ . where Freud believed Hans was traveling through the phallic phase of the psychosexual phases of development. ( Gross 2005. p. 507-509 ) However. no independent grounds was provided to back up Freud. The information he gathered was through matching with Hans’s male parent. who was a protagonist of Freud and his theories. Therefore. the instance survey was seen as research worker prejudice. Freud’s rating of the grounds suited his ain theories and beliefs. In add-on. it was really controversial as there was excessively much accent on sex. One of the restrictions repeatedly made towards Freud’s theories where that they were unscientific. sorting them as unfalsifiable. ( Not able to disapprove them ) . Behaviorist

“Psychology. as the behaviorist views it. is a strictly nonsubjective. experimental subdivision of natural scientific discipline which needs self-contemplation every bit small as do scientific disciplines of chemical science and natural philosophies. It is granted that the behavior of animate beings can be investigated without entreaty to consciousness. ” ( Watson 1919 ) Watson ( 1913 ) was the establishing male parent of behaviorism and developed a extremist behaviorist attack. However. non all behaviorist psychologists adopt such an utmost place. Behavioristic psychologists assume an individual’s behavior is wholly controlled by their environment and their anterior acquisition. Behaviorists believe that the environmental factors ( called stimulation ) affect apparent behavior ( called the response ) . This attack is deterministic as they believe that persons have no free will. Behaviorists believe that all acquisition can be accounted for in footings of law-governed procedures like classical and operant conditioning. The behaviourists’ position that all behavior. regardless of how many-sided. it can be broken down into the indispensable procedures of conditioning doing it a extremely reductionist attack to psychological science.

They besides assume that the procedures of larning are common to all species. Therefore. worlds learn in the same manner as other animate beings. ( Billingham. M et Al ( 2008 ) Harmonizing to ( Gross. 2005 ) behaviorists use two processs to explicate how an individual’s learn – Classical Conditioning ( CC ) and Operant Conditioning ( OC ) . In Classical Conditioning. an single learns to tie in two stimulations when they occur together ; such that the response originally elicited by one stimulation is transferred to another. The single learns to bring forth an bing response to a new stimulation. Therefore. within the behaviorist attack smoke can be explained through Classical Conditioning. For illustration. an person is experiencing stressed due to an statement and removes themselves from the state of affairs by traveling outside ( UCS ) to alleviate the emphasis ( UCR ) . By adding smoke ( CS ) to the equation. allows the person to tie in smoke ( CS ) to the alleviation of emphasis ( UCR ) . Show in fig. 1 UCS_____ Outside| | UCR____ Reduces Stress|

UCS_____ Outside| CS______ Smoking| UCR____ Reduces Stress| | CS______ Smoking| UCR____ Reduces Stress|

Fig. 1
The grounds for Classical Conditioning ( CC ) was from an experiment by Ivan Pavlov ( 1890-1930 ) . By looking into natural physiological reactions and impersonal stimulation he was able to condition Canis familiariss to salivate to the sound of a bell through repeated association of the bell to nutrient. ( Gross 2005. p. 123 ) The behaviorist surveies carried out tend to be really dependable. and can be credited with showing the scientific method into psychological science. It is methodical and nonsubjective due to the research lab proving on animate beings ; the conditions are controlled to the exact conditions larning occurs for illustration the nature and handiness of support and penalty. However. a restriction to the behaviorist attack is that they merely test on animate beings. non worlds which mean it does non efficaciously associate to a human being. Humanist

“A instrumentalist must do music. an creative person must paint. a poet must compose. if he is to be finally at peace with himself. What a adult male can be. he must be. ” ( Maslow. 1968 ) Humanist psychologists such as Carl Rogers ( 1951-1961 ) and Abraham Maslow ( 1962-1970 ) . presume that each person is alone and have their ain manner of perceiving and understanding the universe. ( Ideographic attack ) They focus on an individual’s subjectiveness. Therefore. they reject the nonsubjective scientific method as a manner of analyzing people. A humanistic attack is based upon the belief that every person individual has free will and that they are able to command and find their ain development. even though they may non ever gain this. Rather. than it being down to the environment or familial factors. As Humanist psychologists do non try to cut down individual’s behavior into smaller procedures. their attack tends to be doubtless holistic instead than reductionist. Harmonizing to ( Pennington et al. 2003 ) Maslow ( 1970 ) believed that worlds are motivated through the demand of fulfillment and alteration through personal growing. Maslow conceptualised these demands into a hierarchy of five demands. which are normally. represented as a pyramid ; patterned advance to the top of the pyramid can merely be achieved with fulfilment of the lower demands. Show in fig. 2

Fig. 2 Maslow’s hierarchy of demands ( based on Maslow. 1954 )
By utilizing Maslow’s theory of hierarchical demands. smoke can be explained ; for illustration. Maslow believed that we need to accomplish each degree of these demands to go Self-Actualised. ( Fulfilled and content ) Therefore. associating smoking to the hierarchy of demands situates it on the degree of love and belonging as an person who smoked would experience that they belonged to a peculiar equal group. Showing how peer force per unit areas can be persuasive to an person. giving them a sense of belonging and being loved. Some of the restrictions to the humanistic attack is it lacks scientific grounds to back up the theories. the construct is obscure and unfastened to bias. In add-on. Maslow was criticised at the fact that the humanistic attack looks upon the positive position of human nature ( healthy people ) and non adequate attending on those who have psychological upsets. ( Pennington et al. 2003 p. 180-191 )

Cognitive psychologists assume that behaviour consequences from information processing. ( Thinking ) The Cognitive attack equates a human to a computing machine. such as. the head is the package and the encephalon is the hardware. For illustration. they both encode. shop and recover information. supplying an end product. or behavior. However. there are certain differences between worlds and computing machines. doing this attack reductionist. as it ignores emotional. motivational and societal factors in human behavior.

Fig. 3 The information processing theoretical account which represents our internal mental procedure. The cognitive attack focuses on the internal mental procedures of an person. which lies between the stimulations and the response. The Cognitive attack believes that each individual’s encephalon goes through three phases of information processing. ( Billingham. 2008 ) Show in fig. 3 Therefore. smoke can be explained through the cognitive attack by the fact that each single perceives information in a different manner. For illustration. most tobacco users throughout their life will in fact ignore people in their lives who have died at a immature age or suffered with serious smoking related diseases and merely recognize the people who have smoked all their lives and who have non gained any sick effects from the consequences of smoke. ( Misattribution ) Therefore. an single processes the information in a manner that justifies them smoking. A instance survey to endorse this theory would be Dutton and Aron ( 1974 ) who had an attractive adult female ask for interviews of immature work forces both on a rocking rope span and on terra firma. After a while the attractive adult females gave the work forces her telephone figure.

Over 60 % from the rope span called her back. compared to 30 % from terra firma. They had misattributed their fright on the span as an attractive force to the adult female. However. the grounds for this was really subjective as they did non take into history that some of the work forces may non hold been attracted to the adult females or were possibly homophiles. In add-on. the persons who took portion in the survey were truly interested in the survey. The cognitive attack emphasises the scientific methods which is a immense strength to this attack as it is based on controlled research. However. cognitive psychologists have been criticised as being over-simplistic as they ignore the complexnesss of the head. Cognitive psychologists are divided on the topic of free will. some say persons can take their actions whereas. others are more deterministic and suggest that a human can no more decide on their ain behavior than a computing machine can. Biological

Psychologists from the biological attack presume behavior and idea procedures have a distinctive. biological footing and that an individual’s behavior is caused by an action within the nervous system. They believe that the head and the encephalon are the same and every idea or experiencing an single experiences are caused by an electrochemical happening between the neurones that make up our nervous system. in peculiar those contained in the encephalon. The biological attack is important to psychology with respects to three countries of survey. foremost. physiology – how the nervous system and endocrines ( neurotransmitters ) work. how the encephalon maps and how alterations in construction and map can impact behavior. Second. – comparative method intending different species of animate beings can be studied and compared. helping in the hunt to understanding human behavior. Third. – heritage ( the probe of ) what an carnal inherits from its parents. mechanisms of heritage ( genetic sciences ) . ( World Wide Web. simplypsychology. org 27/11/12 )

Therefore. to explicate smoke within the biological attack. utilizing the chemical processes as an of import influence over an individual’s behavior. nicotine is able to adhere to some of the receptors moving like a neurotransmitter. which lead to many of the alterations that are responsible for the of import feelings a tobacco user may depict. including heightened activity. improved reaction clip and a sense of wages and satisfaction. The receptors activate many different parts of the encephalon therefore by triping the Dopastat degrees within the encephalon allows the chemicals to bring forth feelings of pleasance and wages when an single fume. This consequences in high degrees of Dopastat. which means an person has more opportunity of going addicted to smoking in the same manner an nut may go addicted to drugs. Harmonizing to ( www. New Hampshire. uk/news. 23/11/12 ) A research lab survey ( Scripps Research Institute in Florida ) of normal and genetically modified mice and rats investigated the effects of nicotine on receptors of the encephalon.

They theorised that the cause of smoking in worlds is due to a debatable cistron in the encephalon which is normally responsible for stamp downing the demand for more nicotine one time critical degrees are reached. However. the decisions were based on a survey of animate beings. which means it may non be valid to worlds. Coincidentally. it has non been established as to whether worlds even carry this cistron. Making it is really subjective. However. the overall attack is by and large deterministic but biological psychologists believe that persons do hold a certain sum of free will. Although. the biological attack uses scientific and investigational processs. the attack is reductionist as it describes all behaviors and ideas in footings of chemical procedures. The restrictions of the biological attack are that it is over-simplistic as it fails to ruminate the influence environmental factors can hold on an individual’s behavior. In add-on. the attack raises ethical issues for illustration familial function. In add-on. it fails to clear up why persons start smoke and continue until dependence occurs. due to the dependence non being an immediate constituent. Decision

In decision to measuring smoking with respects to each psychological attack. all attacks are able to explicate why people start smoking. However. they are unable to explicate why persons are unable to halt smoke and it seems that within these attacks placing a manner for surcease for the persons who smoke is non evident.


Billingham. M et Al ( 2008 ) . AQA Psychology B. 4th erectile dysfunction. Cheltenham: Nelson Thomas p. 12-13 Dutton. D. G. and Aron. A. P. ( 1974 ) Some grounds for heightened sexual attractive force under conditions of high anxiousness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology p. 510-517 Gary Kuhlman and Mika Ono. ( 2007 ) . Study Reveals Mechanism Behind Nicotine Dependency. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Scripps. edu/newsandviews/e_20071008/george. hypertext markup language. Last accessed 23/11/12. Gross. R ( 2005 ) . Psychology The Science Of The Mind And Behaviour. 4th erectile dysfunction. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 123. 507-509 Hock. R. R. ( 2002 ) . Forty surveies that changed psychological science: Explorations into the history of psychological research. ( 4th ed. ) . New Jersey: Pearson Education. 22/11/12 McLeod. S. A. ( 2007 ) . Biological Psychology. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/biological-psychology. hypertext markup language Last accessed 23/11/12 McLeod. S. A. ( 2008 ) . Small Hans – Freudian Case Study. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/little-hans. html 22/11/12 McLeod. S. A. ( 2007 ) . Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/maslow. ht 22/11/12 McLeod. S. A. ( 2007 ) . Pavlov’s Dogs. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. simplypsychology. org/pavlov. html 22/11/12 NHS Choices. ( 2011 ) . Nicotine dependence: all in the caput? Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. New Hampshire. uk/news/2011/01January/Pages/nicotine-addiction-tested-in-rodents. aspx. Last accessed 23/11/12 Pavlov. I. P. ( 1927 ) . Conditioned physiological reactions. London: Oxford University Press. 22/11/12 Pennington. D et Al ( 2003 ) . Advanced Psychology. 7th erectile dysfunction. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p122-128

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