First of all, I would said Alhamdullilah all the thanks to Allah S. W. T, which is from His willingness that give me the strength and health to do my Individual assignment: Next I would like to express my thankful feeling to our lecture for the course , which helps in giving valuable and reliable advice and play roles as communication and information consultant about this assignment as much as she could until we understand about the assignment which is the main reason where this assignment can be more informative and more structural.
All the basic to deepest knowledge of the existence of Effective Speaking that been teach by her, make life more easier to me and my friend. Then I would like to thanks to my beloved parents which provide all the physical things that may lead to a difficulties and barriers for me if is it not been provided such as money to buy anything that are related to this assignment work and their lovely and motivation advise, which lead for me to have the best spirit and ways to complete this assignment.
Public Speaking Essay Example
Last but not least, my friends who help me a lot giving their honourable opinion which helps me to identify my mistake that lead me to construct it more better in many ways. They had been a good help that makes my work become easier. Thanks a lot, it is so meaningful. TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENT Page 2 INTRODUCTION Page 3 MY VIEW AND SUMMARY – Persuasion (Based on book “Speaking With A Purpose” By Arthur Koch) *Book/ Article 1 – The Speech to Persuade (Based on the book “Basic Public Speaking” By Patricia Bradley Andrews) *Book/ Article 2
– Persuasive Purposes (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Principle into Practice” by James R. Andrews) * Book/ Article 3 -Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking” by George Rodman * Book/ Article 4 – Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe) * Book/ Article 5 – Persuasive Speaking: Types and Design (Based on the book “Confident Public Speaking” By Deanna D. Sellnow) * Book/ Article 6 – Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: The Evolving Art” By Stephanie J Coopman) * Book/ Article 7
– Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Concept And Skills For A Diverse Society” By Clella Jaffe)’ * Book/ Article 8 – Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centred Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe) *Book/ Article 9 -Article: I speak because There’s a need by Frances James (On the book “The Challenge of Effective Speaking”) * Book/ Article 10 Page 4-5 Page 6-7 Page 8-9 Page 10-11 Page 12-14 Page 15-17 Page 18-19 Page 20-22 Page 23-24 Page 25-26 CONCLUSION Page 27 REFERENCES Page 28 INTRODUCTION
In this modernity era, communication involvement has been one of the important part of human life’s today, it is been the device for us as a human to interact between one another from all type of community starting from family, friends and etc which lead us to understand each other more better. According to John Dolman (1992) stated that communication can be defined as “means the act of sharing something with others” which come from the Latin word “con” (with) and “munus” (a business), through “communis” (common) and “communico” (to confer or consult with one another).
This explains that communication in our life is the main ingredient to send important message which benefits both sender and receiver example like sharing the news of the world with your friends about the current issues that is happening is a definite of communication conversation. In order a person to communicate well with others human being, ones need to have all kind of communication skills and ways to deliver it in order to ensure the receiver understand, connected and educated about the information that been send to them.
The process of communication will run smoothly with the sender of the information which is the speaker know how to apply effective speaking in their communication. Effective speaking consists of informative speech which is a speech that been delivered to educate and inform the audience about their topic whereas persuasive speech is a speech deliver by the speaker to the audience to attract, persuade, convince them with certain topics and issues that can be serious or marketable things.
So what is Persuasive Speaking? In this portfolio assignment, 10 book that have related chapter will be explain and summarize to suitable conclusion. MY VIEW AND SUMMARY My view: Persuasion (Based on book “Speaking With A Purpose” By Arthur Koch) Persuasion is one of the way of life which play the main roles in life of both speaker and audience example importance of politician persuasion towards the audience for their both beneficial.
Persuasion have been defined as attempt to influence by always be conscious with ensuring the speaker knows what he or she trying to persuade in order to unsure the attempt is worth it by manage to attract the audience attention in all way. One of the way persuader uses to persuade effectively is by a speaker itself have the competence to win to audience heart with great and good will attitude which is the personal proof.
Secondly, Psychological proof that appeals according to attitudes from our experience such as the experience ones gained from religious practice has been use to explained it in a speech and appeals according to motives that encourage a person to stimulates behaviour such as being positive, motivated which lead to ones developing their creativity which leads to a good persuasive speech success. Lastly the appeal of logical proof where the speaker need to have an evidence in order to convince the audience with proper and reliable reasoning such as statistics, laws, rules and regulation and etc.
In persuasive speaking there are three type of speech which is speech to convince is a speech to attract the audience to accept and agree with the speaker statement, in other hand is the speeches to reinforce is to remind the audience about important things example by giving a speech about history of a country during their independence day and speeches to actuate usually use by professional speaker that use persuasion for business purpose to fulfil their individual purposes such as salesman persuade their customer to buy their product to ensure that he or she reach the target sale that they want. Summary
Persuasion speech is a way to influence with effective technique of personal proof, psychological proof and logical proof using three type of speech which is speech to convince, speech to attract and speeches to reinforce that will organize the persuasive speaking speech to have “Speaking with a purpose” excellent values. My View: The Speech to Persuade (Based on the book “Basic Public Speaking” By Patricia Bradley Andrews) All speeches have its persuasive element in their speeches, example you might give speech in giving tips on how to study smart but it also shows the action from the speaker to encourage the students to study.
Speaker need to know how to make the audience to accept and agree with his or her point view by knowing what is the speech intended for such as speech to stimulate individual listener such as persuading the listener by informing the importance of doing charity even the speech has been presented in front of group but the information send directly to each individual who is listening to the speech, speech to convince is by persuading a new group of people and which is the audience by delivering speech to gained the audience trust first that will help the speaker to convince them.
. In addition persuasive speech that uses action which is speech to incite action to gain the support of the audience example ask the help of the audience to donate their blood which the speaker needs to ensure their speech have the positive element. Persuasive speeches have the intention to make the audience to act positively after hearing one speech. Summary
Speeches is a persuasive tools but it depends on how the speaker present uses the basic public speaking three type of persuasive speeches such as speech to stimulate, speech to convince and speech to incite action where it will leave a positive impact to the audience that will change the surrounding. My View: Persuasive Purposes (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Principle into Practice” by James R. Andrews) Persuasive speaking is by getting the connection with the audience involving feelings, behaviour and action.
Persuasive purposes can be speech that designed to stimulate which is to give speech to the audience who already have an agreement with the speaker speech by reinforces their faith and belief, speech designed to convince which is a speech to attract with the audience in order to get them agree with the speech such as convincing the audience to always support the government action because it will lead to lots of advantages to them and speeches designed to actuate with the speaker having the objectives “ I want my audience to feel what I’m saying and react to it ” in order the speaker can secure the agreement of his or her listeners.
Summary Persuasive speaking have its persuasive purposes categories that has it principle to practice with speech to stimulate that reinforce faith and belief, speech to convince is to attract and speech to actuate that sets objectivity which to ensure the speaker and his or her listener to reach an agreements. My view: Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking” by George Rodman Persuasion is an act of motivating someone through communication process which involves us to take a side and defend it.
Persuasion can be worthwhile because it convince people on something example if a person persuade his parents to stop argue and they listen to it, it will be a worthwhile effort for the family institution. It also can be ethical, not every persuasive attempt related with lies because as a speaker we must always be honest if we construct a speech that lies to the audience sooner or later they will find it, and then it will lead to bad impression towards the speaker this show good ethics are needed in one speech.
Types of persuasion based on its approach it can be direct which speech that inform straight to the point without having any filter such as doing a speech about “You Smoke, You Die if to be compared with indirect persuasion “Is smoking bad? ” but still the message is proved to it is bad which both of this approach need to be inserted with element of convincing by changing the way they think and actuating to get their immediate intention and action which is the main strategy of persuasive speaking.
In order put persuasive strategy into an effect it needs credibility based appeals which the characteristic of the speaker play the main role in delivery the speech of authoritativeness and trustworthiness which mean all the information given are an honest information. Furthermore are the logical appeals that have good reasoning and emotional appeals by have the feeling of believe to the information given.
Lastly is about the techniques use for effective persuasive speaking such as knowing your audience by analyze and adapt to it, have a clear speech that is understandable, establish common ground by presenting the new update issues, organize it accordingly in ensuring the speech done smoothly and use variety of tools involving technology and creativity. Summary
Persuasive speaking is a motivation element that been applied with good ethics using direct or indirect persuasion on approaches and outcomes on in convincing and actuating by the speaker using all the credibility, logical and emotional appeals as strategy to an excellent speech with effective speaking technique that uses creativity My View: Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J.
Beebe) Persuasion is defined based on process of changing that involves reinforcing attitudes by the speaker to know the attitude of the audience before giving speech in order to know what they dislike and likes such as the audience dislikes topic about sports but likes about cooking. Next process is reinforcing beliefs by knowing the audience beliefs example if the audience are religiously educated, speaker need to insert some of the religious element on their speech to get the acceptance from the audience
and last process is reinforcing value by the speaker have the good attitude when they deliver their speech. In order the speaker need to reinforce the entire importance element above they need to be consistent of their speech according to dissonance theory so cognitive dissonance will not occur in your speech that will to discomfort both to the audience and speaker that can block all the good values on ones speech.
When it comes to persuading our audience speaker also need to understand the audience needs by using Abraham Maslow theory to understand their needs such as know their physiological needs like politician provide food and drinks to the audience before and after the speech to ensure that the audience will not distract their speech because they are hungry and thirsty, next is safety needs example politician provide security service with all the police securing the occasion place to be safe, social needs to make the audience feel the sense of belonging of the speaker example politician stated the importance of people is their responsibility, self-esteem needs can be explained as the cliche’s action can be explained by the politician telling the audience they are an important asset of the nation and self actualization needs which the speaker persuade the audience to realising their full potential.
Persuasive speaking can be informed my inserted the fear appeal to a speaker speech is by threaten or frightened the audience up such as “If you don’t stop smoking, you going to die horrifically”. When it comes to choose your topics for your speech a speaker need to choose topics the speaker and the audience comfortable to it which mean is a current issues or related issues to the audience which will develop your persuasive speech purpose. Summary Persuasive speaking is a process of reinforcing of attitudes, beliefs and values that will lead to a consistent speech under the dissonance theory to avoid cognitive dissonance by understanding the Abraham Maslow theory in order to understand the audience needs so the speaker can choose appropriate topics for their persuasive speech.
My View: Persuasive Speaking: Types and Design (Based on the book “Confident Public Speaking” By Deanna D. Sellnow) Persuasive speakers develop an argument in support if a position on a topic. Both informative and persuasive speaker seeks to create mutual understanding about a topic but persuasive speaker influence the audience instead of the informative speaker who just only inform the audience but the importance part is that can the speaker leave a good impact to the audience. In order for a speaker to avoid from public speaking anxiety, the speaker needs to make sure he is fully prepared mentally and physically and the most important part is to understand the speech he or she want to talk about.
To shape your speech, speaker needs to know about the audience analysis such as when the audience agrees with you the speaker need to seek action such as the audience know that smoking is bad but the speaker explained it more deeply why is it bad, when your audience looks undecided speaker need to seek agreement such as when the audience do not agree smoking is bad but the speaker try as he or she can to convince the audience and when your audience opposes your position speaker need to seek incremental change by requiring their feedback with provide answer and question section, ask their opinion during a speech asking them yes or no. Dispositional persuasive speeches is to influence the audience by concentrating belief which is acceptance of true or false, attitude respond to favourably or unfavourably to something and value all the positive element been inserted in a speaker speech. Actuation persuasive speeches are designed to influence behaviour, this can be done by the speaker explain the nature of the topics and seek for their agreement such as explaining about demonstration then focus on the effects.
In effective speaking there are three type of claim that can be use in your thesis statement such as claim of fact by stating factual information example explaining history of a country, claim of value by judges a concept or action is it bad or good example Smoking is bad or Natural beauty is better than Fixing beauty and claim of policy which is by telling or asking the audience of the action that need to be taken such as “What should be done to have a free smoking environment in Malaysia”. Things that one speaker need to know when organizing your main points which is for Dispositional Persuasive speeches are topical, causal, narrative, refutative , comparative advantages, invitational problem and for Actuation speeches problem, solution, modified comparative advantages and Monroe’s motivated sequence. Summary
Persuasive speaking needs to influence audience, where speaker need to analyze the audience before choosing the speech topic to avoid from public speaking anxiety by using dispositional and actuation persuasive speech with the support of three kinds of claim fact, value and policy that lead to good main point arrangement based on Monroe’s motivated sequence. My View: Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: The Evolving Art” By Stephanie J Coopman) Persuasion relies on language in term official language use, images in term position or level, and others means of communication to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. There three type of question when it comes to address ones persuasive speech.
Firstly are speeches on question fact in asking either is wrong or right and facts and inferences example when defendant did commit a murder, while the defence argues the defendant did not, second are the speeches on questions of value where shows the quality of a speech and lastly is speeches on questions of policy by asking what course of action should be taken or how a problem should be solved and all of this question have their organizational patterns for speeches by the standard knowing the topic, general purposes, specific purposes, thesis and main points which the speaker need to identified before delivering their speech and they need to use Monroe’s Motivated Sequence to focus on audience outcome when organizing ideas by following it step by step starting from attention, need, satisfaction, visualization and action in order to know the speakers action and audience response.
There is five type of audience in public speaking, first is the negative audience which disagree on your topics and here where the speaker responsible in changing their perspective, secondly is the positive audience which an open audience that eager in accepting and know new thing, thirdly is the divided audience which half will favour your speech and the other half not because of their different perspectives, furthermore is the uninformed audience are unfamiliar with your topic and have no opinion about such as explaining religious information to a non religious believer group and lastly the apathetic audience which they know about the topic but doesn’t want it to be applied to them example they know smoking is bad but they want to know what it can cause a person who smoke. As a speaker you must have good ethics when delivering your public speaking such as honesty, trustworthy ethics. Summary Persuasive speech use to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions with question of facts, values and policies using the Monroe’s Motivated Sequence to focus on audience outcome to faces the five type of audiences that is negative, positive, divided, uniformed and apathetic which help the speaker to develop their persuasive strategies.
My View: Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Concept And Skills For A Diverse Society” By Clella Jaffe) Persuasion is consider a democracy act where is have been defined as the freedom of speech. When it comes to deliver your persuasive speech, a speaker need find their subject which selecting a topic that you assume that you know more better than anyone with categorizing it to the speaker strong beliefs example you beliefs that homosexuality community is not a good culture and it should be illegal, next speaker strong feelings such as what did the topic make you feel example mad, speaker social ideas such as what you want to change example by having only human nature relationship not homosexuality and speaker personal ideas such as way to handle a situation example by educating and provide religion classes for them to change.
Then a speaker can make a persuasive claims also known as a challenge with four types of claims, firstly are factual claims the claims to know either is it true or false which involve debatable points example question the existence of aliens, causal relationship evidence that a particular phenomenon that leads to it example from the father smoking and pass through it to his son or daughter and predictions either things going to happened or not example speaker persuade to prepare of the world end, secondly are value claims which is arguments about right or wrong, moral or immoral example is it good eating vegetables, and lastly policy claims is an argument about the need or the plan for taking action. Speaker also need to focus on beliefs and action when it comes to deliver their speech to the audience, this can be show when what we believe to be true affects how we act, if we look unconvinced and unfocused when we delivering a speech it shows that we know nothing or do not stand for the speech that we speak, as speaker we also need to ensure the element of consistency are in our speech so it will keep the audience and speaker to get going but if inconsistency happened the level of beliefs of the audience will slowly decrease by time to time.
The use of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is to focus on audience outcome when organizing ideas by following it step by step starting from attention, need by gaining audience attention from the starting of the speech till the end of it, then the need step by inserted element of statement, illustration, ramifications and testimony, also satisfaction, visualization step and action in order to know the speakers action and audience response. There are four type of pattern first is direct method pattern where you make a claim, then directly state your reason to support it, secondly is comparative advantages pattern is a pattern use to compare its advantages to those of the competition, furthermore criteria satisfaction which is form a basis for judgements and lastly negative method pattern use to shows other proposal is wrong and you’re is right. Summary
Persuasive speech topics selection needs to have a subject that the speaker well known to ensure it have the claim of fact, value, definition or policy to use as a shield to argue with beliefs, actions, values and attitudes in understanding types of audiences using the appropriate pattern with the Monroe’s motivated sequence as a solution. My View: Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centred Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe) Persuasion is the process involves attitude, beliefs and value. As a speaker must always motivate their listener by using dissonance the consistent way of speaking rather the discomfort way of cognitive dissonance which an inconsistent speech.
Furthermore speaker need to fulfil the needs of its audience based on physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self esteem needs and self actualization needs based on the Abraham Maslow theory. There is a way speaker can motivate the audience by using positive motivation appeal such as a politician promise if he won the election he will granted all the people with money or by using negative motivation appeal which is by politician telling the audience if they don’t vote for him you will see the last of him in protecting his country. When developing your speech a speaker needs to choose a topic that he believes he can carry it and know the purpose by developing it then the speaker can put the persuasive principles into practice. Summary
Persuasive speech use to involve identify people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions with speaker dissonance not cognitive dissonance by understanding needs based on The Abraham Maslow theory using positive and negative motivation appeals to attract audience and it will help the speaker to choose the topic that will present in their speech. My View: Article: I speak because There’s a need by Frances James (On the book “The Challenge of Effective Speaking”) People when the time comes, that need us to do something, we will stand by it and let people hear our voices out loud where Frances James find herself in the situation where she need to speak the truth to the public in order to save her community that involving lots of moral issues problem such as gang bangers and drugs, high murdered activities and many more brutalize activities.
From her public speaking experience that she gained in her school have help her a lot in making the speech she talk as a successful event where she nailed it by answering all the press question and counter them with question such as lack of security level in her community where she throw a statement where she said police are busy out looking for stolen Mercedes but our kids been shot were never a serious issue to be concern. Because of her amazing speech people gathered with her with the number of 200 people when to the police department and handed the report to them. From here we can see that public speaking is important and persuasive speaking that she use have win her lots of audience and convince the community to open their eyes. Summary
Persuasive speaking is a medium of your voices and opinions to wins any type of audience hear which you stand for to save and protect them in order it can be heard hope that action will be taken to open their eyes and improve one’s life to become better. CONCLUSION Persuasive speaking talks a lot of the speaker trying to attract, convince and persuade the audience to agree with his or her word for their importance but what persuasive speaking contribute to the community have much more impact to this world without one realizing that it helps to develop the speaker in term of speaking which leads to creation and development of new ability, attribute and speciality, whereas for the speaker it will help them to retrieve new things and to be repeatable inform about things that they know which can help them to develop them become a well educated person.