Railway Disaster Prevention System Using Gis and Gps Essay Sample
Railway industry has a valuable function in economic development of each state. India’s monolithic rail web is hit by an norm of 300 accidents a twelvemonth. Accident direction in railroad determination devising has to see the undermentioned two issues to avoid or extenuate the amendss: ( I ) accident bar and development of an dismaying system to foretell and dismay before the happening of accidents. ( two ) decrease of negative effects of accidents after its happening through proper exigency and direction services. To accomplish the above-named aims. necessary stairss have been taken to imitate train motion. accidents and inveigh accident direction system. The major jobs in the simulation include. ( I ) the deficiency of appropriate information. ( two ) the job of doing existent accident scene environment due to human and cost issues and ( three ) jobs in executing a comprehensive trial on the system.
CURRENT TRAIN ACCIDENT SENARIO IN INDIA: 150 old ages after it foremost chugged on class of a glorious ongoing journey. Indian Railways bears a instead double differentiation today. It is the 2nd largest rail web under one direction but with a record figure of accidents. From a ‘Puffing Dragon’ to ‘Electrical Giant on rail’ and so a line of life to the state. Indian Railways has come a long manner but its substructure and the system has non. It has been killing people on a regular basis. thanks to antediluvian substructure. sick care. and worst of all — HUMAN ERROR. blamed for two-thirds of about an estimated 400 “consequential” rail accidents that take topographic point in a twelvemonth. Last twelvemonth accounted for 460 accidents. Twenty-five of them were hits. No admiration. the slow modernization of Indian Railways has made foreign media frequently dubs it as a turn overing railroad museum pulling nostalgic train fans from all over the universe. says MK Mishra. former member of Indian railroad board. © GIS Development
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But the Secretary Railway Board R K Singh differs. “The Accident Collision Device and Railways Vision 2050 undertakings besides a host of new safety commissariats will shortly give adequate replies to the skeptics. ” he said. A Railway Ministry study has found alcohol addiction among field staff to be a major cause of human mistake taking to mishaps. and suggested breathalyzer trials and random cheques for the staff among other steps. says CM Khosla. another ex-member of the Board. Statisticss show that 76 per cent of the accidents take topographic point because of derailments following human mistake. track jobs or adverse weather conditions. Collisions lead to about eight per cent of the bad lucks. In 1968 the Railway Board in response to the Railway Accidents Inquiry Committee set a mark of 0. 36 as the figure of hits per MTK. But the figure remains for the books. Railway Ministry. after all. has now woken up to the pressing demand to stem the putrefaction in the 66. 800-miles long web that transports over 13 million people and dozenss of goods each twenty-four hours through over 13. 000 trains across India. The Railway Budget 2002-2003 has made particular commissariats for safety of the riders.
It has planned Rs 17. 000 crore Particular Railway Safety Fund ( SRSF ) to replace antique assets in following six old ages. Under the move. about 17. 000 kilometer of path will be renewed. over 3. 000 Bridgess rebuilt and signal cogwheels will be replaced at about 1000 Stationss. There are over 120. 000 steel Bridgess. a batch of which are ageing and accident-prone. The ever-surging traffic makes the railroads all the more vulnerable to accidents. The Railway Minister Nitish Kumar has farther announced debut of 25 new trains and 16 inter-city train services to be called as Jan Shatabdi Express. The ruddy tape has added to job. Railway safety recommendations are rarely implemented to the full. if at all. Statutory investigation by Commissioner of Railway Safety is ordered after about every bad luck but action is normally taken against low-level functionaries. most of them whipping boies. Sometimes. eccentric theories are expounded for the accidents. When the Trivandrumbound Island Express from Bangalore plunged into Quilon river in 1989. killing 107 people. the investigation concluded that the accident was due to a ‘freak typhoon’ that hit in the split-seconds when the train crossed the river span.
Experts say that though most of the rail accidents in India were evitable. the bad lucks will necessarily happen in such a mammoth and old system. built by the Britishers during the Raj. Intelligent investing in engineering and equipment is the key to safe rail travel. they say
Introduction TO GIS & A ; GPS SYSTEM:
A figure of turn uping and positioning scientific disciplines and engineerings have been employed to expeditiously manage railroad accidents. Among them geospatial information system ( GIS ) as a placement and planetary placement system ( GPS ) as a placement system have been extremely considered as extremely efficient.
“A geographic information system ( GIS ) is a computer-based tool for function and analysing things that exist and events that happen on Earth. GIS engineering integrates common database operations such as question and statistical analysis with the alone visual image and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. ” ESRI Components of GIS Hardware: Hardware comprises the equipment needed to back up the many activities of GIS runing from informations aggregation to data analysis. eg. web-enabled GIS. web waiters. digitiser. GPS informations lumberman to roll up informations in the field. Software: package is indispensable for making. redacting and analysing spacial and attribute informations. therefore these bundles contain a myriad of GIS maps inherent to them. eg. ArcView. ArcInfo. Erdas. ILWIS. Geomatica. etc. Datas: Data is the nucleus of any GIS. There are two primary types of informations that are used in GIS. A geodatabase is a database that is in some manner referenced to locations on the Earth. Geodatabases are grouped into two different types: vector and raster. Coupled with this information is normally informations known as property informations. Documentation of GIS datasets is known as metadata.
Peoples: Well-trained people knowing in spacial analysis and skilled in utilizing GIS package are indispensable to the GIS procedure.
GIS is the scientific discipline and engineering of spacial and attribute information integrating and can be expeditiously used to supervise and pull off railroad accidents.
The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is a satellite-based pilotage system made up of a web of 24 orbiters placed into orbit by the U. S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications. but in the 1980s. the authorities made the system available for civilian usage. GPS works in any conditions conditions. anyplace in the universe. 24 hours a twenty-four hours. There are no subscription fees or apparatus charges to utilize GPS.
How it works GPS orbiters circle the Earth twice a twenty-four hours in a really precise orbit and transmit signal information to Earth. GPS receiving systems take this information and usage triangulation to cipher the user’s exact location. Basically. the GPS receiving system compares the clip a signal was transmitted by a orbiter with the clip it was received. The clip difference tells the GPS receiver how far off the orbiter is. Now. with distance measurings from a few more orbiters. the receiving system can find the user’s place and show it on the unit’s electronic map A GPS receiving system must be locked on to the signal of at least three orbiters to cipher a 2D place ( latitude and longitude ) and track motion. With four or more orbiters in position. the receiving system can find the user’s 3D place ( latitude. longitude and height ) . Once the user’s place has been determined. the GPS unit can cipher other information. such as velocity. bearing. path. trip distance. distance to finish. dawn and sundown clip and more.
The GPS orbiter system The 24 orbiters that make up the GPS infinite section are revolving the Earth about 12. 000 stat mis above us. They are invariably traveling. doing two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. These orbiters are going at velocities of approximately 7. 000 stat mis an hr. Here are some other interesting facts about the GPS orbiters ( besides called NAVSTAR. the official U. S. Department of Defense name for GPS ) : © GIS Development
The first GPS orbiter was launched in 1978. A full configuration of 24 orbiters was achieved in 1994. Each orbiter is built to last about 10 old ages. Replacements are invariably being built and launched into orbit. A GPS orbiter weighs about 2. 000 lbs and is about 17 pess across with the solar panels extended. Transmitter power is merely 50 Wattss or less.
What’s the signal? GPS satellites transmit two low power wireless signals. designated L1 and L2. Civilian GPS uses the L1 frequence of 1575. 42 MHz in the UHF set. The signals travel by line of sight. intending they will go through through clouds. glass and plastic but will non travel through most solid objects such as edifices and mountains. A GPS signal contains three different spots of information — a pseudorandom codification. ephemeris informations and farmer’s calendar informations. The pseudorandom codification is merely an I. D. codification that identifies which satellite is conveying information. You can see this figure on your Garmin GPS unit’s orbiter page. as it identifies which satellites it’s having. Ephemeris information tells the GPS receiving system where each GPS orbiter should be at any clip throughout the twenty-four hours. Each orbiter transmits ephemeris informations demoing the orbital information for that orbiter and for every other orbiter in the system. Almanac information. which is invariably transmitted by each orbiter. contains of import information about the position of the orbiter ( healthy or unhealthy ) . current day of the month and clip. This portion of the signal is indispensable for finding a place. Beginnings of GPS signal mistakes: Factors that can degrade the GPS signal and therefore affect truth include the followers:
Ionosphere and troposphere holds — The satellite signal slows as it passes through the ambiance. The GPS system uses a constitutional theoretical account that calculates an mean sum of hold to partly rectify for this type of mistake. Signal multipath — This occurs when the GPS signal is reflected off objects such as tall edifices or big stone surfaces before it reaches the receiving system. This increases the travel clip of the signal. thereby doing mistakes. Orbital mistakes — Besides known as ephemeris mistakes. these are inaccuracies of the satellite’s reported location. Number of orbiters seeable — The more satellites a GPS receiving system can “see. ” the better the truth. Buildings. terrain. electronic intervention. or sometimes even heavy leaf can barricade signal response. doing place mistakes or perchance no place reading at all. GPS units typically will non work indoors. underwater or resistance. Satellite geometry/shading — This refers to the comparative place of the orbiters at any given clip. Ideal satellite geometry exists when the orbiters are located at broad angles relative to each other. Poor geometry consequences when the orbiters are located in a line or in a tight grouping
EXISTING TECHONOLGY IN INDIA: The bing conventional signaling system most of the times relay on the unwritten communicating through telephonic and telegraphic conversations as input for the determination devising in path allotment for trains. There is big range for miscommunication of the information or communicating spread due to the higher human intervention in the system. This miscommunication may take to incorrect allotment of the path for trains. which finally leads to the train hit. The statistics in the development states demoing that 80 % of worst hits occurred so far is due to either human mistake or wrong determination doing through miscommunication in signaling and its execution.
The existent clip screening of existent current places of the trains at assorted locations is possible with the uninterrupted trailing of rail traffic with the Geographic Positional System equipment installed in the trains. The latest developments in the GPS engineering will give the positional truth of about 2m. Practically talking these truth degrees may non do to turn up the train on exact peculiar path on which the train is really going. But the existent clip dynamic location information provided by GPS equipment can be utilized as the input for the signaling system to assistance as the polish tool for determination devising in allocation of the path for trains. The range for the human mistake can be eliminated by effectual use of incorporate system as a cross cheque step against the determination of signal and besides can be continuously supervise the system even after implementing the determination with mention to the dynamic screening of the existent clip motion of the trains on the path.
The proposed system contains two major constituents of Geographic Information system. The inactive information contains detailed function of the rail net work as a spacial database in GIS platform. The Dynamic informations sing the motion of rail traffic collected through the GPS equipment installed in train. signaling cabin and station supervisor’s cabin. The GIS enabled “Rail following system” takes the input signals from the close by GPS installed in trains and continuously displays the places of the trains in the locality of the interested country to enable the determination shapers of signaling to see the realistic state of affairs. The existent clip informations can be obtained by utilizing cyberspace services and centralized through which all the station are linked. Control Room
Railway Traffic Monitoring utilizing GIS and GPS.
This dynamic screening of realistic place of the trains avoids dependence of the signaling crew merely on the unwritten communicating. Thus the human mistake in communicating can be minimized. For farther sweetening of the system the signaling determinations taken by the crew can be crosschecked with the uninterrupted monitoring of existent clip informations available with in the system by any superior prior to implement the determination. This can be done by digitising the paths which will assist us in turn uping the existent clip place of the train. utilizing Arc View Gis package.
ROLE OF GIS IN RESCUE MANAGEMENT:
Locating the site of accident becomes really simpler as inputting the approximative Latitude and Longitude can make it. or the site can be searched by the names of the locations nearby.
The handiness can be analyzed more realistically with assistance of the route cyberspace work maps in the locality of site of accident. Finding out the needed resources becomes simpler. speedy and accurate as the information base contains the information about about all the resources available like Police. Administration. gross governments. medical installations with inside informations about the figure of beds. specialisation etc. fire contending installations with available substructure. and other resources like voluntary organisations and particular constabulary forces etc. Finding out optimal paths between different resource locations to accident site. The system besides helpful in topographic and demographic analysis to better the effectivity in the planning and execution activities. The system besides provides buffer analysis to ease effectual planning and use of the available resources in the needed buffer zones of the affected countries. The system besides provides really easy agencies to add and update the records of the database so that the regular updating can be simpler undertaking.
The system provides uninterrupted supervising on deliverance activities and facilitates dynamic planning of schemes to run into the altering demands of the deliverance activities with regard to the electric resistance of the execution of planned schemes.
Cost EFFECTIVE: Any engineering in the universe if it is non cost effectual. it has got no relevancy. So this engineering can be cost if implemented decently. Although this engineering have high installing cost ab initio but: • • • Will cut down the work force required. Will decidedly cut down train accident. And one train accident leads to loss of nucleuss of rupees. which can be saved and be used by authorities for modernisation of railroads. Late running of trains can be prevented to big extend. © GIS Development
Decision: Railway has long been considered as the safest transit media. Acknowledging the demand to better the efficiency of the transit systems. it is necessary to look into the accidents and happen out velocity. lading tunnage. It is necessary to look into the accidents and happen out the indispensable methodological analysiss for optimal direction of information and resources available in railroad deliverance operations. The statistics show a immense figure of accidents are due to human mistakes. Therefore. holding a systematic manner for railroad operation direction and decrease of human intercession or commanding activities and public presentations could play a important function in cut downing the figure and impact of accidents. Reliable. accurate. precise. up-to-date and structured geospatial information is the key for determination devising. Integration of GIS as a system for optimal acquisition and direction of geospatial informations and GPS as a dependable agencies of positioning and pilotage could pave the manner for an intelligent determination devising in railroad organisations to forestall or extenuate immense sum of homo and economic losingss. The developed system has proved to be successful in a figure of issues like finding of the best way to acquire to the accident location and perform exigency services. The system could be installed on a Personal computer or laptop with minimal 64 Mbyte RAM with an AutoCad system which is used as a graphical media. The system has been implemented in a existent traffic environment with the ability to reply a figure of spacial. non spacial and incorporate questions.
ACKNOWLEGMENT: The writers are like to take this chance to show their profound gratitude to Mr. Anuj Kumar Singh. Lecturer. Symbiosis Institute Of Geoinformatics for supplying support and encouragement to fix this paper. We are besides highly indebted to Mr Brigadier K. K. V. Khanzode. VSM. Director. Symbiosis Institute Of Geoinformatics. for his sort cooperation and suggestions and perennial beginning of encouragement. Last but non least we are really much thankful to the Dr. Hrishikesh Samant. Member. Technical Committee. Map World Forum for accepting this paper.
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