Congress to provide a system of initiative and referendum. 36 Reserve legislative power of the people36 References37 Section 1: Legislative Department The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum. Legislative Power Legislative power is essentially the authority under the Constitution to make laws and subsequently, when the need arises, to alter and repeal them.Law The term law refers to statutes which are written enactments of the legislature governing the relations of the people among themselves or between them and the government and its agencies. * Functions of Law Through the laws, the legislature defines the right s and duties of citizens, imposes taxes, appropriates funds, defines crimes and provides for their punishment, creates and abolishes government offices and determines their jurisdictions and functions.
Congress of the Philippines The Congress of the Philippines is the national legislature of the Philippines.It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate (upper chamber), and the House of Representatives (lower chamber). Bicameralism In the government, it is the practice of having two legislative parliamentary chambers. Bicameralism is an essential and defining feature of the classical notion of mixed government. Bicameral legislatures tend to require a concurrent majority to pass legislation. TYPES 1. Federal- The bicameral system is a method of combining the principle of democratic equality with the principle of federalism—all citizens are equal in the lower houses, while all states are equal in the upper houses.
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. Aristocratic- Bicameralism involves juxtaposition of democratic and aristocratic elements. 3. Unitary States- In this type of bicameralism, the upper house generally exists solely for the purpose of scrutinizing and possibly vetoing the decisions of the lower house. Advantages 1. A second chamber (Senate) is necessary to serve as a check to hasty and ill-considered legislation. 2.
It serves as a training ground for future leaders. 3. It provides a representation for both regional and national interests. 4. It is the traditional form of legislative body. Disadvantages 1.The bicameral set-up has not worked out as an effective fiscalizing machinery.
2. It is no assurance of better considered and better deliberated legislation. 3. It produces duplication of efforts and serious deadlocks in the enactment of important measures with the Conference Committee of both houses. 4. It is more expensive to maintain. 5.
There is possibility that only wealthy individuals make it to the Senate. Scope of Legislative Power of Congress 1. Plenary or general – A grant of legislative power means the grant of all legislative powers for all purposes of civil government. . Legislative powers not expressly delegated deemed granted – Powers that cannot be reasonably implied from the granted powers are denied. Classification of Powers 1. General legislative power – It is the power to enact laws intended as rules of conduct to govern the relations among individuals or between the individuals and the State.
2. Specific powers – They are powers which the Constitution expressly and specifically directs to perform or execute. 3. Implied powers – It is the essential to the effective exercise of other powers expressly granted to the assembly. 4.