Phenomenon Causal Context Clarifying Describe the here and now experience What essential factors contributed to this experience? What are the significant background factors to this experience? What are the key processes for Reflection in this experience? 2. Reflection 2. 1. What was I trying to achieve? 2. 2. Why did I intervene as I did? 2. 3. What were the consequences of my actions for: • myself? • the patient/family? • the people I work with? . 4. How did I feel about this experience when it was happening? 2. 5. How did the patient feel about it? 2. 6. How do I know how the patient felt about it? 3. Influencing factors 3. 1. What internal factors influenced my decision making? 3. 2. What external factors influenced my decision making? 3. 3. What sources of knowledge did/should have influenced my decision making? 4. Could I have dealt better with the situation? 4. 1. What other choices did I have? 4. 2. What would be the consequences of these choices? 5. Learning 5. 1. How do I now feel about this experience? 5. 2.
How have I made sense of this experience in the light of past experience and future practice? 5. 3. How has this experience changed my ways of knowing: • • • • empirics? aesthetics? ethics? personal? (Taken from “Centre for Health Education” info RD+E(H) April 02) The Reflective Process — Analysing & Learning from Experience 1. Gather the Information • • • Describe the incident Explain the context Take any relevant clarifying statements from others involved 2. The Reflection • • • • • • What was I trying to achieve? What were the consequences of my action for the patient, for my colleagues, for me? What do I feel about it?
What has been the effect on my colleagues? What factors/previous knowledge may have influenced me? What alternative action could I have taken? 3. The Learning Process • • • • • • How do I feel now? Could I have acted differently? What have I learnt? How will that influence my future practice? What has the incident taught me about my values and/or my belief system? What ethical principles were involved? Once you have completed the process, it would be valuable to evaluate it again, with a colleague or with a professional mentor to clarify the main issues, the learning involved and the impact on your practice.
CHIRS WHITEHEAD Professional Development Co-ordinator February 1994 (Taken from “Centre for Health Education” info RD+E(H) April 02) (More examples of reflective writing formats) Reflection on Practice Date: 3rd Feb 1995 A 50 year old man with CA lung who was not expected to live much longer was smoking in his room with oxygen. The Consultant had just visited him and told him that he could continue to smoke in his room. The gentleman was unsafe to be left as every time he took a puff on the cigarette he collapsed and he still had the oxygen running through a nasal cannulae. Description of the experience
I expressed my concerns to the Consultant, my concerns being: • There was piped oxygen in the room and there was a high risk that it may ignite. • There was a risk to the patient that he may set light to himself or the bed when he collapsed. • There were babies below. • There was not enough staff on duty to free someone up to sit with him whilst he smoked. Once the Consultant had left the ward I took away the cigarettes and lighter and said that we would be back every hour to allow him to smoke. The gentleman did not like this and started calling out and shouting continuously for a lighted cigarette.
My decision was to only allow one cigarette an hour as I could only free up a Nurse to sit with him for this period of time. To turn the oxygen supply off whilst the gentleman had the cigarette and to keep the cigarettes in case he tried to light up whilst there was no one around. What other actions could I have taken? • Allowed him to smoke with the oxygen on and without a Nurse present and allowed him to get on with it. The consequence would have been that he may have collapsed without my knowledge and died/caught light to himself. • Not to have allowed him to smoke at all taking the cigarettes away from him.
The consequence would have been an angry uptight man shouting at the top of his voice until I relented or he wore himself out, causing distress to himself and the other patients on the ward. How did I feel at the time? • Frustrated that the Consultant put me in such a position and did not seem to think of the consequences. • Annoyed that my concerns were washed over when I was accountable for that shift. • Powerless to do much about this situation. • Determined that whatever I did, I was doing it for the right reasons and had thought about every possible avenue. What I have learnt from this experience? That you have to act as you see fit when faced with a situation as this one. • That you have to take the welfare of the gentleman and others into consideration. • That you cannot always expect backing from your Consultant or Nurse in charge. • That you, have to take a holistic view point and weigh up all the pros and cons. • That you have to stick to your decision if you believe it to be right. Three months later After reflecting on this incident I still believe today that I made the correct decision of only allowing this man to smoke when the oxygen was turned off and a Nurse was present.
It caused him some distress and myself a lot of distress but I feel I had an obligation to safeguard the safety of the other patients and babies in the ward and the ward below. The gentleman has since died and I wonder sometimes whether I was too hard, but as they say you can only do what you believe in and work within the confines of the situation, which on reflection I believe I did. (Taken from “Centre for Health Education” info RD+E(H) April 02) Reflective Log from Teignbridge District Model Name: Date of learning event: Me My experience of the subject prior to the learning experience. Facts
How the knowledge was acquired? What was the nature of the experience or event? Explain the subject. An account of what happened without specifying what was learnt. Select the part that is significant and/or important. Feelings What aspect of the event went well? What was not so good? What were my feelings about what happened? What were the feelings of others? Learning What were my desired learning outcomes? Where does it link in or combine with my existing knowledge? What have I learnt from the experience? Conclusions What do I need to do next? How can I put my learning into practice in another situation?