Related Literature

2 February 2017

This chapter presents the reviews of literature, which are related and relevant to the study. To obtain information for this study, the researcher used books and websites on the internet and copies of different theses. Documentary films a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another, to “document” reality. Although “documentary film” originally referred to movies shot on film stock, it has subsequently expanded to include video and digital productions that can be either direct-to-video or made for a television series.

Documentary, works to identify a “filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, and mode of audience reception” that is continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. (http://www. wikipedia. org, 26,September 2012) The word “documentary” was first applied to films of this nature in a review of Robert Flaherty’s film Moana (1926), published in the New York Sun on February 1926 and written by “The Moviegoer,” a pen name for documentarian John Grierson.

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In 1930’s, Grierson further argued in his essay First Principles of Documentary that Moanahad “documentary value. Grierson’s principles of documentary were that cinema’s potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form; that the “original” actor and “original” scene are better guides than their fiction counterparts to interpreting the modern world; and that materials “thus taken from the raw” can be more real than the acted article. In this regard, Grierson’s views align with Vertov’s contempt for dramatic fiction as “bourgeois excess,” though with considerably more subtlety.

Grierson’s definition of documentary as “creative treatment of actuality” has gained some acceptance, though it presents philosophical questions about documentaries containing staging and reenactments. Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content, form, and production strategies in order to address the creative, ethical, and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. (http://www. wikipedia. org) Environmental awareness

It is having knowledge of the surroundings, or world, beyond ones immediate place. Often educators and parents assume that children notice what they, the parents, see or understand what they know about their surroundings. This, however, is often not the case. Children are not naturally aware of their changing environment and often do not have the background that adults have to understand their environment. Environmental awareness needs to be taught. According to Eblen (1994) the word environment became a part of everyday language in the 1960’s and its meaning is far from clear.

In fact, it has evolved and continues to evolve, in part due to an increase in specific knowledge but even more as a result of changes in the mood of the general public. For Gore (1993), the term “environment” has to be defined since we cannot know the level of environmental awareness without first determining the structures, functions and dynamics of the environmental. Operationally, environment means the “circumstances, objects and conditions by which one is surrounded.

It is the complex of physical, chemical factors that act upon an ecological community that ultimately determine its form and survival”. Holbert, R. Lance Kwak, Nojin Shah, Dhavan V. Undertook a study entitled “Environmental concern, patterns of television viewing, and pro-environmental behaviors: integrating models of media consumption and effects”. The study of media and the environment is long standing within the field of mass communication, with researchers examining media treatment of the environment from a wide range of epistemological and theoretical perspectives.

Empirical studies typically focus on the influence of public affairs content on individual-level environmental knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors (Atwater, Salwen, & Anderson, 1985; Brother, Fortner, & Mayer, 1991; Mcleod, Glynn, & Griffin, 1987). Other scholars focus on media and the environment from a cultural perspective, considering a broad range of communication content and consequences (Daley &O’neill, 1991; Farrell & Goodnight, 1981; Meister, 2001).

To date, the most exhaustive empirical work completed on the relationship between television use and environmental orientations comes from McComas & Shanahan, Morgan, & Stenbjerre (1997). Their effects studies examine television’s portrayal of the environment and the effects of these portrayals on individuals’ environmental beliefs and feelings. Their effects studies are typical of cultivation research (Signorielli& Morgan, 1990), focusing on total television use and its relationship to environmental beliefs.

Although Shanahan et al. 1997) provide a convincing argument for the utility of a cultivation approach for studying the effects of television use on environmental knowledge and attitudes, empirical support for this perspective in this context is generally mixed. Indeed, Shanahan and Morgan (1999) detail the assumptions about television made by cultivation theory and state that any insights provide by this line of research are in part of a function of those assumptions. In short, cultivation is but one approach to the study of television influence. (http://www. enterpreneur. com/tradejournals/article/104971985. html, 26, September 2012)

In Nicolas study (1996) entitled “The Effects of Environmental Education Enrichment Activities on Environmental Awareness and Science Achievement of Vocational Technical Students,” she tried to a. ) Determine the difference in environmental awareness between the experimental and control groups in the pretest and posttest, and b. ) Determine difference in science achievement and between the experimental and control groups in the pretest and posttest, and c. ) Evaluate the significant relationship between environmental awareness and science achievement for both the experimental and control group.

The instruments used in the study were the environmental test and science achievement test which were developed and validated for the study. The pretest for the environmental awareness and science achievement were given at the end of the study. The study concludes that the environmental awareness level of the second year technical students of the Bulacan State University in Bustos Campus was on the level of sensitivity. Tiffany Holmes wrote an essay entitled “Environmental Awareness through Eco-visualization: Combining Art and Technology to Promote Sustainability”.

The study found the eco-visualization technology made by media artists offers a new way to dynamically visualize invisible environmental data. Eco-visualize involve animating information typically concealed in building monitoring systems, such as kilowatts or gallons of water used. A public display with real time visual feedback promotes awareness of resource consumption and offers a practical alternative to remote meter concealed in utility closets. The long term goal of most eco-visualization of practitioners is to encourage good environmental stewardship using hybrid practices of art and design.

This essay contextualizes the emerging field of eco-visualization and its interdisciplinary trajectories. (http://neme. org/main/548/environmenatal-awareness, 26, September 2012) According to Rachel Steffan, in her study entitled “Disposal of Non-Biodegradable Waste”. The study found that in order to lessen non-biodegradable waste everyone should separate glass, plastic and metal from other non-biodegradable waste for recycling. Many urban and suburban areas have curbside recycling programs; if such a program is not available, take recyclable materials to the nearest collection facility for processing.

Recycling saves space in landfills and reduces the amount of virgin materials that must be mined or manufactured to make new products, saving energy and reducing global climate change in the process. Steffan also pointed out that some non-biodegradable waste like used rubber tires and plastic can be burned at combustion facilities. Most of these facilities use the heat generated by incineration to make energy in the form of steam or electricity, which reduces their demand for other nonrenewable resources, including coal and petroleum. In 2009, combustion facilities burned 3. million tons of solid waste, mostly used tires. Combustion of municipal waste also reduces the volume of trash that ends up in landfills.

Landfills provide long-term storage for non-biodegradable waste. Ideally, landfills are carefully situated to prevent contamination from entering surrounding soil and water, and managed to reduce odor and pests as much as possible. Federal regulations require careful monitoring in and around the site. Some products like motor oil, pesticides, batteries and paint are potentially hazardous to sanitation workers and the general population as a whole.

They are also more dangerous to the environment than inert materials like plastic or rubber. Many communities offer special collection and disposal programs to deal with household hazardous waste as safely as possible. In areas with no such programs, it’s legal to dispose of household hazardous waste in the trash. Follow any special disposal instructions listed on the original container. Before doing so, however, contact the manufacturer or retailer of the material you need to dispose of to ask if they accept old materials for reuse or recycling.

An article from the internet (http://www. ehow. com/info_8452725_differences-between-biodegradable-nonbiodegradable. html, 26, September 2012) entitled Differences Between Biodegradable and Non-Biodegradable. The article pointed out the different environmental impacts of biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials, where in biodegradable dictates that any material that decomposes naturally is less harmful to the environment than one that lingers indefinitely. While this is a significant benefit, it is not always the case.

FuturEnergia points out that though these substances do eventually break down, some can take a long time. A banana peel, for example, takes up to three years to fully break down. Biodegradable plastics are a recent advancement. On the surface, plastics made of renewable substances sounds like a good idea, and they are. However, without the right temperature, micro-organisms and humidity, biodegradable plastics could do more harm than good. In a landfill, the plastics emit greenhouse gases as they break down, harming the ozone layer.

Overall, biodegradable materials are beneficial only if they are dealt with properly. While biodegradable materials provide some environmental benefits, there are no advantages to non-biodegradable products. Those that cannot be recycled stay in landfills indefinitely or require special treatment, such as incineration. Their impact is not limited to land. The Korea Coast Guard explains that when non-biodegradable waste reaches the ocean, it travels all over the globe. Marine life is constantly killed from accidentally consuming these products.

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