Previous research has proven that there is little difference between the professional values of nurses. Researchers Hansen, Huyer-Eatwell, & Kubsch, state that there is a difference in nursing values which is evident by difference nursing practice, and questions whether a nurses perception of what professional values are could explain the conclusion of previous studies. The research paper titled, Professional Values: The Case for RN-BSN Completion Education, conducted by Kubsch, Hansen, Huyer-Eatwell (2008), question whether the perception of professional values in nursing is different depending on the education background of the nurse.
A Critique of the Research Article: Professional Values: The Case for RN-BSN Completion Education According to the Collins English Dictionary (n. d. ), the definition of a profession is a body of people requiring special training in the liberal arts or sciences. Nursing, as a whole, continues to have difficulty meeting the criteria of a profession, due to the differences in educational programs required to sit for licensure to practice as a registered nurse (RN). Previous research concludes that there is little difference between the professional values of RN’s based on educational level.
The research article, “Professional Values: The Case for RN-BSN Completion Education” (Kubsch et al. , 2008), states that there are differences in nursing values, as evidenced by a difference in nursing practice among nurses. Kubsch et al. , considers if the educational level of the practicing nurse, defines their perception of what professional nursing values are. If so, perception is the factor manipulating the outcomes of previous studies concluding there is little difference in professional values of RN’s from different educational backgrounds.
This paper will critique the qualitative research article, Professional Values: The Case for EN-BSN Completion Education. Critique Problem and Purpose of the study Kubsch et al. , analyzes the difficulty of nursing to define itself as a profession, as the practice among RN’s vary, indicating a difference in perception of nursing values among nurses. To obtain the title of professionals, nurses must practice with the same practice guidelines. The article suggests inconsistency in perceived professional values is due to the difference in educational level of practicing RN’s.
The problem statement, “do differences in the perception of professional values exist among practicing RNs? If so, is the difference related to educational background or is it due to other factors? ” (Kubsch et al. , 2008), clearly identifies a concern in defining is important as it discusses the educational differences that influence the practice of RNs. The researchers utilize a phenomenological research approach to examine the phenomena of perception in professional values in nursing learned in nursing education.
Concepts The theory of the three C’s developed by Lydia Hall is used to guide the study. Hall’s theory separates nursing practice into three categories, care, cure, and core. Care includes the physical tasks nurses complete to assist with activities of daily living, cure involves the interdisciplinary function the provides as a member of the health care team, and core addresses the patient’s social, emotional, and spiritual needs that need to be met for the patient to heal self.
It is the therapeutic relationship, or Hall’s core aspect of nursing practice that a nurse develops with the patient that provides the conceptualization of professional values (Care, cure, and core: The three C’s of Lydia Hall, n. d. ). The research concept of the perception of professional values was conceptually defined in the Core aspect of Hall’s three C’s theory. The article defines the independent variable as level of nursing education on the dependent variable of professional values. Literature
The literature review, comprised of secondary sources, concluded there are only slight differences in differences in professional values between ADN and BSN students, but there is a significant difference between faculty and graduating BSN students. Other works cited argues that professionalism correlates with the socialization process of nurses and is acquired through practice, and that nurses practicing in a nonhospital setting have higher professionalism scores, which may be connected to autonomy of practice.
There were no cited works examining the level of education and the perceived values of nursing thus guiding the researchers to question if perception would help identify the difficulty in evaluating the level of professional values of nurses of different educational background. Method A survey of fifty questions ranking professional values on a scale from one to five was utilized to operationalize of the concept professional values.
The Professional Value Survey (PVS) was developed to define professional values, utilizing the Core aspect from Hall’s Care, Cure, and Core theory, the American Nurses Association (ANA) code of ethics, the ANA standards of professional performance, the ANA social policy statement, characteristics of professions (Bixler, & Bixler, 1945) and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) essentials of baccalaureate nursing education. The PVS required respondents to rank fifty statements on a scale of one to five, with one indicate to low professional value, and five ranking high in professional value.
Verification of the statements within the PVS towards professional values was provided by a panel of nursing faculty with the minimum of a master degree, who originally graduated from nursing school with a diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate degree. Sample The rankings of the professional value statements were analyzed of 198 respondents of different educational backgrounds. The survey was conducted online consisting of employees at one Midwestern hospital and one university, after consent was obtained from the facility and the university. There were no human rights violated throughout the data analysis process.
The educational level of respondents range from associate degree, diploma in nursing, baccalaureate degree, RN-BSN graduated, RN-BSN in progress, Master’s and with one respondent not responding to education level. Because of the use of the convenience sampling method used to collect data, the majority of the sample we aged 41 -50, white, female, worked in the hospital as a staff nurse, and with over fifteen years of experience in nursing. The internal consistency of the statements within the PVS to professional values was verified using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha of 0. 946 (Kubsch et al. , 2008, p. 377). Limitations The researchers did not account for the classes already taken for respondents currently enrolled in a RN-BSN program, therefore results of the PVS may be skewed, and as courses pertaining to nursing practice and theory may have already been completed. The convenience method of data collection was appropriate as a set number of nurses from different educational backgrounds were not required. Survey does not account for cultural differences not just for the respondents, but also for the hospital or the university involved in data collection.