Research on hormone growth paper
There are several point of views as to whether or not resistance exercise can manipulate or increase serum concentrations such as testosterone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and growth hormones. In turn, it was thought that resistance hormones would increase hypertrophy and an increase in anabolic hormones. To get a full understanding of what hypertrophy stood for, I researched the meaning and it was defined as a cross-sectional area of the muscle cell.
The myofibril has an increase in the number of units of actin and myosin, and in turn, have more contractile units to be packed in a single muscle cell leading to an increase of cross ridging. This will increase the amount of force a muscle produces with high intensity and low volume training for strength and power. The Sarcoplasmic is an increase in non-contractile units from moderate to low intensity training with decreased times between sets. An anabolic hormone means to “build up” and therefore, anabolic steroids are hormones.
So, the articles that we have researched are questioning as to whether the anabolic hormones enhance muscle tone following a low hormone intensity resistance exercise and rest or a high intensity hormone resistance training exercise with no rest and additional intensity in another area uch as the leg or upper body for example. The first article is called “Elevated endogenous testosterone concentrations potentiate muscle androgen receptor responses to resistance exercise”.
The authors of the article are Spiering, Kramer, Vingren, Ratamess, Anderson, Armstron, Nindl, Volek, Hakkinen, and Maresh and it was published in “the Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in 2009”. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of circulating testosterone on muscle androgen receptor responses on acute resistance exercise. The patient type was male. The average age as plus or minus 4 years of 26. All participants were healthy men. The protocol was knee extensions on two occasions separated by 1-3 weeks.
The first trial provided rest after the exercises and this was called the control group. The second trial provided a high intensity upper body workout designed to increase circulating T preceding the other trial with no rest. Serial blood samples and biopsies were obtained pre rest; 10 minutes post rest, and 180 min post rest to determine the androgen receptor content. The results showed that in the control group the circulating t concentrations emained stable. However, during the High Trial, there was a significant difference of 16% above resting values.
Testosterone levels during the High Intensity Trial were significantly great than the Control Trial. The end result was that the combination of muscle contraction and elevated T Concentrations increases AR content in the high intensity trial by overloading muscle intensity and at 180 minutes exceeding the Control value. In conclusion, there was an increase in acute elevations in circulating T muscle AR content following RE. The Control group did heavy load knee extensions nd long rest periods which did not produce a major hormonal response.
However, the High Trial performed upper body exercises on the bench press, bench row, and overhead press exercise prior to the knee extension. This high volume, short rest results that were significantly different when comparing both trials the authors believe that the small patient population of 6 men was not a large enough trial to detect a statistical difference in some instances. It is also believed that in the future, there should be not only larger sample groups but also broader assays of circulating T concentrations.
In article two, which is called “Resistance exercise-induced in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signaling in young men”. The article was written by West, KuJbida, Moore, Atherton, Burd, Padzik, De Lisio, Tang, Parise, Rennie, Baker and Phillips in Journal compilation. It was published in “J Physiol” in 2009. The aim of this particular article was to test the hypothesis that if a greater exercise resistance program would increase a hormonal response and enhance MPS and intracellular signaling proteins following acute esistance exercise.
There were 8 men in total around 20 years old. The men were not in any type of weight lift program. There were two trials on two separate days. In one trial the participants performed a single arm cable curl exercise to work on the biceps. In the other trial, the participants performed the same single arm exercise with their contralateral arm, followed by high volume, high intensity leg exercises using short rest intervals. A baseline blood sample was performed prior to exercising on the arm that was not going to exercise.
The participants in one group began xercising immediately following the start of their infusion and the other group sat at rest for 20 minutes while being infused and then began to exercise. In the low hormone group the men performed unilateral resistance exercise with the elbow flexors. In the high hormone protocol the subjects used the same elbow flexor exercise with the contralateral arm followed by high volume and intense leg resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken.
There were no changes in testosterone, GH or IGF-I after the low hormone protocol, whereas there were increased elevations after the high hormone protocol. The exercise stimulated a rise in muscle protein synthesis in the biceps with no effect of elevated hormones. This article in summary, is saying that transient resistance exercised does increase anabolic hormones but did not enhance anabolic signaling post exercise in the muscle protein synthesis state. In this study the arm exercise preceded the leg exercises.
The authors can only believe that possibly the result could have changed if the leg exercises were conducted first, however, they do not think that the data would have been skewed in a different direction by that much. However, if possibly the leg xercise preceded the arm unless the muscle was more responsive to hormones at some threshold of contraction. In the third article called “elevations in ostensibly anabolic hormones with resistance exercise enhance neither training-induced muscle hypertrophy nor strength of the elbow flexors” the authors that compiled this article are West, Burd, Tankg, Moore, Staples, Holwerda, Baker and Phillips.
The article was published in “The American Physiological Society’ in 2010. In this article, the aim of the study was to see whether resistance exercise induced elevation of hormones and enhances muscle strength and hypertrophy with training. There were twelve men. All were very healthy and around 21 years old. They trained independently for a 15-week period on curl exercises designed to maintain low hormone concentration. The other group exercised the same arm and then followed the exercise immediately by a high volume of leg resistance exercise to increase hormones.
There were no significant changes in the low hormone group; however, there were significant elevations immediately after 15 to 30 minutes in the high hormone group. Strength increased in both arms, however, interestingly, the increase in strength was not different from each group. The authors then summarize to say that exercise-induced changes in the concentrations of hormones do not enhance anabolic hormone or “build-up”. There is no question about it. Strength training builds muscle and makes you stronger. I weight lift several times a week for my lacrosse program.
My muscles are tighter and stronger. However, there is controversy over the fact that the hormone response promotes muscle building. The research shows that a low hormone condition in which one arm performed bicep curls only verse a high hormone condition where they trained the contralateral arm with the same exercise followed y high intense leg exercises produced a significant elevation in testosterone, GH, and IGF-I and the low hormone did not. However, there was no difference in protein synthesis, muscle growth and strength gains between the two conditions.
The researchers are suggesting that the post exercise response has no effect on hypertrophy. The only thing that I can take away from these conflicting views is that there is a hormone response to certain training programs. Assuming that it would be relevant to muscle building. However, the researchers are saying that according to he data that hypertrophy and strength development and growth will occur whether the anabolic response is there or not. The articles aren’t suggesting that a male does not need testosterone levels to be healthy.