The implications for higher education of doing this are then examined. It is argued that there is a need to reconciliation the role Of higher education and to renegotiate relationships between teachers and students.
Introduction A number of articles on the relationship between teaching and research, pointing to the failure to demonstrate statistically a connection between them, have indicated that efforts should be made to actively bring research and teaching together.Shore, Pinker and Bates (1 990), for example, suggest that research may serve as a model for teaching, while Barnett (1997) calls for teaching to become more research-like. Hattie and Marsh (1996) suggest that marrying teaching and research by enhancing the relationship between them is a desirable aim of universities. The suggestion that teaching and research should be more firmly drawn together should not be seen as an argument for educating all students to become academics, nor is it merely an academic exercise to prop up arguments that all academics should engage in research.
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Rather, it is a response to a number of changes in higher education which have challenged the relationship. These include: the move to a mass higher education system (Elton, 1 992; Westward, 1991 he amount of time available both for teaching and for research (Hattie & Marsh, 1996), as well as changes in the nature of research and in the nature of teaching in higher education (Rowland, 1996) and changes in the nature of knowledge (Brew, AAA). Also of relevance is a changed policy context, which Elton (1992) argues has given urgency to questions about the relationship between teaching and research.
A. Brew This work is matched by a concomitant and growing interest in bringing research and teaching together within higher education institutions themselves. The motivation for doing this can be seen as a response to quiet in the academic community concerning the effects of particular funding models on the nature of academic work. In countries where there is a dual funding model, with teaching and research each being funded separately, such as in the 1. K or Australia, this is particularly acute. The motivations, however, appear to be different in different kinds of institution.On the one hand, there are the research universities who are seeing “research-led teaching’ by active researchers as part of their competitive advantage.
The idea is that students enjoy being taught by active researchers Ramadan, 2000), researched institutions are full of these, and therefore the link should be exploited. On the other hand, motivations for bringing research and teaching together in institutions not strong in research can be viewed as a bid to ensure that a wedge is not drawn between teaching institutions and research institutions.A problem we have is that these calls to bring teaching and research together come at a time when many are critically questioning the role of universities, their status and function in society and the role of academic research in this; indeed, when academic research is in crisis (Brew, 2001 a). This comes from such factors as growing interference from outside the academy in the setting of research agendas, increased interest in research findings by an educated public and changes in higher education which are having effects on the amount of time available for research.In addition, velocity in accessing information across the globe is making heavy demands on academics and changing the character of research. At the same time, there are intellectual crises which have thrown ideas about knowledge and methods of investigation right into the melting pot. Academic research occupies contested space, intellectually, socially and literally (Brew, 2001 a).
The idea that teaching and research should be brought together underpins much of the IIS literature on the nature of scholarship, for the changing context and climate of universities and their changed relationship to society is also of concern there. Unease about universities’ roles and missions has been reflected in calls to redefine or to expand this concept (see for example Borer, 1990; Rice, 1992; Scott & Aubrey, 1993). Concern about the status of teaching visa a visa research has provided an additional rationale (Letterman, 1 990; Mooney, 1 990; Rustic, 1987).Research in the twentieth century, it has been argued, has been conceptualized too narrowly as the publication of fundamental knowledge based on technical rationality (Scott & Aubrey, 1993; Rice, 1992; Chon, 1995). Not only do our institutions have diverse missions?commitments to serving a wide range of scholarly needs within region, states and action? but also there is the special commitment to the education of an increasingly diverse population, to the intellectual preparation of the educated citizenry necessary for making a genuinely democratic society possible.Scholarship in his context takes on broader meaning. (Rice, 1 992) The need for academic work to result in a greater connection between the university and outside and the need for a greater sense of connectivity within the Teaching and Research: New Relationships university community have also been noted (Scott & Aubrey, 1993).
Chon (1995) ” argues that new definitions of scholarship point to the need to change institutional epistemology to take account of the requirements of professional practice.One of the problems we have in interpreting the American literature on scholarship, however, is that in Australia and in the KICK, or example, the terms “research” and “scholarship” are used rather differently to the way that they are used in the LISA. In order to bring teaching and research together, we need greater clarity about precisely which aspects of research and scholarship academics are focusing on. It is important to be clear what we mean by research, what we understand by scholarship and how these ideas are related to conceptions of knowledge and approaches to teaching for as Robertson and Bond (2001, p. 6) argue: “fundamental questions persist about the definitions and shared understandings of such ERM as knowledge, research, teaching and learning”. Different ideas about the nature of research, scholarship, teaching and knowledge have different consequences for how we bring teaching and research together. A model is needed which explains the relationship beјen teaching and research in a changing higher education context and which takes account Of these different understandings.
Such a model can be used to understand and to guide how we can bring research and teaching closer together to enhance both. In the next section of this article, the variation in how academic researchers unacceptable research and scholarship is discussed and different understandings of the nature of knowledge and different approaches to teaching are outlined. Then, two models for conceptualizing the relationship between teaching and research are presented. These provide the basis for examining suggestions for how teaching and research should be brought together.By recognizing the variation in conceptions of these phenomena and taking account of the idea of communities of practice, we are led to a fuller understanding of what we are trying to achieve in bringing research and caching together and why. Finally, the article examines the implications of this model for teaching and learning in higher education for the future. Understanding Variation in Conceptions In this section, draw on research to understand the variation in conceptions of research, conceptions of scholarship, conceptions of knowledge and approaches to teaching.
This provides the groundwork for developing the two alternative models of the relationship between teaching and research to follow. Conceptions of Research In delineating variation in academics’ conceptions of research, I eave earlier made a distinction between, on the one hand, conceptions of research which are atomistic and synthetic with an orientation towards external products and where the intention is to produce an outcome, and on the Other, conceptions which are holistic and analytical with an orientation towards internal processes and where the intention is to understand (Brew, AAA; Brew, 2001 b).The latter may more readily be 6 A. Brew FIG. 1. Relationships between conceptions of research. Subsumed under the notion of inquiry and result in curricula designs focusing on engaging students in various forms of investigation.
However, the former opens up ideas of research as a social phenomenon and may suggest engagement in a wide range of social networks and outputs. The work on which these findings were based was an investigation of conceptions of research of fifty-seven senior Australian academics.Four qualitatively different conceptions of research were identified (Brew, 1 998; AAA). The structure of the variation in conceptions has already been published (Brew, 2001 b). This is summarized in Figure 1 and an explanation is provided below, together with unpublished quotations from the interview data. In the domino IEEE, the researcher’s focus is on the solutions to problems and the answering of questions, i. E.
It is external to the activities Of doing the research. It looks outside the immediate context of the research.For example: “you are trying to basically come up with a solution to the problem that you or others have identified for your and you’re hoping at the end of finding this solution you’re able to push the frontiers of knowledge”. In the trading view of research, in the foreground are the products of research: the end points, publications, grants and social networks, i. E. Aspects external to he process of doing the research. These are viewed as being linked together in relationships of recognition and reward.
For example: “l know a fair number of the people And I’m also writing papers, lye done a few papers on [the subject] and I gave one at Cambridge and one in London in July, and I’m also interested in editing’. In contrast, in the layer way of conceptualizing research the focus looks inward. It is internal because in the focus of awareness are the data containing ideas together with (linked to) hidden meanings For example: “Research is very purposive, systematic attempt to enervate reliable, systematic information.