Juveniles may well be the most maligned age around in our society myths abound about their contribution to crime and the extent of damage for which they are responsible. The ones who are involved in delinquent behavior are young youths between the ages of 18 – 21 years. According to the study done by the Citizen Television (TV) on June 2012, young boys between the age of 15 yrs to 18 yrs are spending their life behind bars in Borstal Institutions (BI) i. e. Shikusa BI in Kakamega and Shimo la Tewa BI in Mombasa.
Many nations are not productive because these youths who are expected to work and eradicate poverty lose their life at an early stage and others turnout to become adult criminals hence becoming a threat to the country and the world at large. Juvenile delinquency is an imprecise social and legal label for a wide variety of law and non-violating behavior. Delinquency is a behavior against the criminal code committed by an individual who has not reached adulthood. Legally, a juvenile delinquent is one who commits an act defined by law as illegal and who is adjudicated delinquent by an appropriate court.
Research project Essay Example
According to William Blackstone, one of the earliest England lawyers who influenced the England law on Juvenile Justice System; he grouped people into two; i. e. “Infant” and “Adult. ” Children under the age of seven were as a rule classified as infants who could not be guilty of a felony. Children over 14 yrs were liable to suffer as adults if found guilty of a crime. The delinquent behavior has several consequences ranging from physical, social, economic and education. Delinquent boys face death, school dropout, assault, influence in drug and substance abuse and sexual harassment.
The most victims of delinquency behavior are the youths specifically ranging between 15 yrs – 18 yrs of age on survey from Kenya Prisons Service according to the report from Borstal Institutions and YCTC. 1. 1: BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE STUDY AREA: King’orani sub-location is found within Mombasa District. It’s along Indian Ocean to the East. The sub-location is in the Coast Province Mombasa County and more than 500 km squares away from the capital city of Kenya, Nairobi. King’orani sub-location has a total number of ten thousand, eight hundred and ninety five (10,895) households. It covers an area of 16. 2 km2. The total population of women is twenty one thousand, nine hundred and fifty seven (21,957) while that of men is twenty one thousand, four hundred and seventy seven (21,477); giving a total of forty three thousand four hundred and thirty four (43,434) people in the sub-location. The whole district has a total of 27333, households. It covers an area of 7,792. 2km2. The number of female is 203,833 while that of male is 196,681 hence giving a total of 400,514 people in the district.
This figure (400,514) includes even children in the district. 1. 2: POPULATION: Most of the people in the district are Mijikenda, Europeans, the Swahili and the highland people each comprising 75%, 5%, 15% and 10% of the population respectively. The most spoken language in the area is Swahili and Mijikenda. According to the recent census statistics, the number of youths or rather the young people is more than that of the old; 30% of the population is for the old while 70% is for the youth. 1. 3: PROBLEM OF THE STATEMENT:
The problem of the delinquency behavior is not only in Kenya but also a world disaster too. Delinquency behavior has brought many social evils in the community such as death, increased number of school dropouts and unemployment. A survey was conducted within the king’orani sub-location among some families and individuals to find out the age of the men who are at a high risk of becoming delinquent. 1. 4: PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to carry out an investigation on the causes of Juvenile Delinquency in king’orani Sub-location Mombasa District.
The study looked at causes such as family influence, poverty, peer pressure, drug and substance abuse, schools and genetic factors and the impact they have on the living standards of the people and the society at large. The major aim/purpose of the research was to find out why the youths in king’orani Sub-location within Mombasa District are involved in delinquency/criminality and how the solution will be realized. 1. 5: RESEARCH OBJECTIVES a)To find out the causes of Juvenile Delinquency in king’orani Sub-location b)To determine the effects of Juvenile Delinquency in king’orani
Sub-location c)To investigate the attitude of the community towards delinquents d)To investigate if there are measures in place to curb delinquency behavior e)To investigate the role of parents in controlling delinquents 1. 6: RESEARCH QUESTIONS: a)What causes Juvenile Delinquency? b)What role do parents have in controlling delinquency? c)What role does the Government have in controlling delinquency? d)What measures should be taken to prevent delinquency? e)What effects do delinquents have to the society? 1. 7: RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: a)Juveniles involve in delinquency behavior due to povertym b)Juveniles become delinquents due to peer pressure c)Juvenile delinquency affects the nation negatively d)Juveniles become delinquent due to genetic/biological factors e)There are no firm measures in place to curb the menace in the area. 1. 8: RESEARCH LIMITATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS LIMITATIONS: The research project was carried out at king’orani Sub-location in Mombasa District Mombasa County. The search aimed a population of forty three thousand four hundred and thirty four. This was very hard for the researcher to obtain the information.
However, the researcher struggled by visiting almost all the villages and schools in king’orani Sub-location and collected the data. The researcher targeted to interview 200 people but managed to get 95 out of the targeted ones. A TABLE OF INTERVIEWED AND UNINTERVIEWED RESPONDENTS: (TABLE 1. 1). 10 – 20 YRS21 – 30 YRS31 – 40 YRS41YRS +TOTAL INTERVIEWED2030202595 UNINTERVIEWED23342226105 TOTAL43644251200 LIMITATIONS FACED: A lot of money was used in preparations of the interview guide and questionnaires in order to accomplish the report. The researcher consumed a lot of time waiting for the questionnaires to be filled by the respondents Since it was a rainy season, majority of the population were very busy in their shambas hence forced the researcher sometimes to follow them in their farming fields. Some of the interviewees were very busy to give out the information hence denying the researcher some crucial information. There were insufficient funds to travel from one village to another seeking fact of this report. The researcher faced ignorance from some of the respondents. There was unwillingness of the respondents which limited the accuracy of the study.
The time given for the researcher to finish-up the report was insufficient hence forced him not to sleep for several days. HOW THE RESEARCHER OVERCAME THE PROBLEMS The researcher used many ways to ensure that the respondents participated in the interview group. The researcher used stakeholders in the village to enlighten the members on the importance of the study. The researcher created more time to follow up on the questionnaires to ensure it has been completed. The researcher got funds from his guardian in order to carry out this research work.
The researcher used his time to explain the importance of the research project to the respondents. ASSUMPTIONS: During the study, the following assumptions were made: The language was simply for the respondents to understand. The aimed population was important to the study. Interview guide and the questionnaires were related to the objectives. The samples were true of the whole population. The information from the respondents was believed to be true. The questions were not complicated for the respondents. 1. 9: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH:
The study brought out useful data on the causes of juvenile delinquency in king’orani Sub-location in Mombasa District. The findings were useful to the policy makers and stakeholders for appropriate guidance towards improving the living standards of the community, and also led to a more comfortable life not only in king’orani Sub-location in Mombasa District, but also in other locations in Kenya with similar trends towards delinquency. 1. 10: STUDY JUSTIFICATION: This study was important because most of the people in the district were youths. According to the census done in the year 2009, it was found that youth comprised 70%.
This indicated that the youth were more compared to the older people. There is need to protect the youths from delinquency behavior because they are the leaders of tomorrow. If this issue is not going to be strictly addressed, then we have no future direction. We have heard news around the world that many people especially the teenagers have lost their lives because of delinquency behavior. This research project will aid the government, non-governmental organizations and other related institution with facts on the problem and provide some of the possible solutions. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0. LITERATURE REVIEW:
The literature review looked into various factors that promote juvenile delinquency. All the causes and effects of juvenile delinquency were discussed, examined and analyzed. The factors that lead to poor education and poor living conditions were highlighted. The way forward to the crimination of such factors by the community policy makers and other stakeholders were suggested. According to the criminologist, juvenile delinquency is participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit. According to scholars, there are a number of factors which contribute to the delinquent behavior.
They also said that several young people develop a curiosity about delinquency behavior from both their peer and their role model. In his book; Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency, Howell, C. J. (2003) further examined the causes and effects of delinquents. He says that delinquency behavior turn youth into liars and thieves. Some juveniles learn this behavior and turn out to become adult criminals. Connecting Howell, C. J. and criminologist, here I am and I would like to go beyond in the following manner: 2. 1: CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY There are many causes of juvenile delinquency.
Among the factors are: Poverty and Social Class Peer Pressure / Association Drugs and Substance Abuse Family Background School Failure Academic Performance Poverty and Social Class: The development of delinquent subculture is a function of the social and familiar conditions children experience as they mature in deteriorating inner city environment (slums). Lower-class families are incapable of teaching their off springs proper socialization techniques for entry into dominant middle-class culture. These lower class families produce children who lack the basic skills necessary to achieve social and economic success in a demanding society.
Developmental disabilities produced by such an upbringing include lack of educational training, poor speech and communication skills and inability to delay gratification. Peer Pressure / Association: This was one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of delinquency. Relationship between peers is usually very strong. Adolescents who maintain delinquent friends are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior and drug abuse. Drugs and Substance Abuse: Many adolescents are involved in drugs and alcohol. Adolescents’ substance abuse and its association with youth crime and delinquency continue to be disturbing problems.
Most of these youths who are alcoholic tend to have antisocial behavior hence turnout to become delinquents. These juveniles then commit crimes to pay for their habits. Indeed, most of the youths who abuse alcohol are the ones most likely to engage in violence. Family Background: Children living in broken and conflict ridden families exhibit juvenile traits. The study focused on the following family factors/causes: a)Family makeup: The makeup and definition of the family are undergoing change. Divorce rates are high and children of divorce are more likely to undergo marital breakup as adults, creating a cycle of family dissolution. Single parent households have become common. More single women than ever are deciding to keep and raise their children, and there are also many teenage girls under 18yrs who give birth. b)Family Breakup: Children growing up in homes with one parent due to divorce separation may prone to antisocial behavior. A broken home is a strong determinant of a child’s law-violating behavior. The connections seem self-evident because a child is first socialized at home and from the beginning learn behavior, values, and beliefs from parents. c)Family Conflict:
Not all unhappy marriage end in divorce; some continue in an atmosphere of discord and conflict. Studies have shown that children who grow up in maladapted homes and who witness discord or violence later exhibit patterns of emotional disturbance, behavior problems and social conflict. Damaged parent-child relationship is generally associated with delinquency. It’s often assumed that the existing family problems cause delinquency. d)Family Size: Large families are more likely to produce delinquent than smaller ones, and middle children are more likely to engage in delinquent acts than first or last born children.
Middle children may suffer because they are the most likely to be at home when large number of siblings are at school and economic resources are the most stressed. This lack may make them engage in criminality. e)Discipline: Parents of delinquent youths tend to be inconsistent disciplinarians; either overly harsh or extremely lenient in their disciplinary practices. It is possible that physical punishment and overly strict parenting encourage children to become more secretive and eventually dishonest in their activities. f)Supervision: Inconsistent supervision can produced delinquency. F.
Ivan Nye found that mothers who threatened discipline but failed to carry it out were more likely to have delinquent children than those who were consistent in their discipline. Youths who believe their parents care little about their activities and companions are more likely to engage in criminal acts than those who believe their actions will be closely monitored. Supervision is not merely having parents in the home, but it reflects the lifestyle, quality and intent of parenting. Parents who closely supervise their children also have closer and more emotional ties with them, helping to reduce their delinquent behavior.
School Failure: Failing to achieve success in school can result in frustration, anger and reduced self-esteem, which may contribute to delinquent behavior. Believing they will never achieve success through conventional means, these children seek out like-minded companions and together engage in antisocial behaviors. Academic Performance: Students who are chronic underachievers in school are also among the most likely to be delinquent. School failure is a stronger predictor of delinquency than personal variables such as economic class membership, ethnic background or peer groups relations. 2. 2: EFFECTS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
The study focused on the following effects; a)School Dropout Due to delinquency, many teenagers drop out of school in order to join their friends who already are delinquent. This leads to street children especially in the city. b)Criminality Most of the delinquent turnout to become adult criminals; they get involved in criminal behavior e. g. theft, burglary and rape. c)Imprisonment According to the statistics from Kenya Prison Service, many youths and teenagers are spending their life behind bars in the BI i. e. Shikusa BI and Shimo la Tewa BI. d)Death Some youths end up losing their lives when caught by police in the criminality activities.
Your example is the most important tool for preventing your children from becoming delinquents. Studies show that many factors influence teen’s in delinquency behavior but parental attitudes and actions can influence them most. God: Unfortunately, the secularization of values has left today’s kids without stun darts are still best. Too many young people picture God as a great kill joy in the sky instead of their strongest ally who loves them unconditionally and whose deepest desire is for their best.
Some may call us naive simplistic, but in our experience, people who pursue in a personal relationship with Jesus Christ have a better chance of staying clear from delinquency than those who don’t. It’s true, that little difference exists between churched kids and un-churched when it comes to delinquency. Unconditional Love: It implies that if you act a certain way or do certain things, love will be given. There is a way, a sense that children mess up too badly, the love will go away. When children fill the uncertainty of conditional love, they’re challenged to see how bad they can be and still receive love.
It’s a way of determining their basic worth. Rather than being motivated to greatness so as not to lose their parent’s love, they’re motivated towards delinquency. Contracts: Contracts governing children behavior can be controversial. We don’t advise them for every situation. However, when it comes to delinquency, they work well. Contracting for appropriate behavior can also be good preparation for the adult world, where people frequently contract for jobs to be done and behavior levels to be met. Pressure: Pressure is a key reason kids become involved with delinquents.
The word “no” is a powerful device for resisting pressure and avoiding a life time of misery. 2:4: CONCLUSION Majority of the researchers and scholars have concluded that juvenile delinquency is a worldwide disaster and the group which is at risk is the youths. They have said much about negative effects of delinquency, but they have not explained about the permanent solution towards the problem. CHAPTER THREE 3. 0: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The research methodology outlines the plan on how research activities were carried out in the study.
It describes and explains the techniques used in collecting and obtaining data which assisted in the research work. These includes, the methods of organizing, collecting and analyzing data i. e. the way to design the population, sample size together with sampling techniques were discussed including the instrument of data collection. 3. 1: RESEARCH DESIGN This being a case study, the research was carried out in the communities of Shella Sub-location in Malindi District of the Coast Province. The area of study had a total number of forty three thousand, found hundred and thirty four people.
The targeted population was two hundred in different villages within the sub-location, this being secondary schools, teachers, inmates in Malindi Prison, prison officers and 20% of the community population. 3. 2: TARGET POPULATION The study population: This research project was carried out at Shella Sub-location in Malindi District of the Coast Province. The area of study had a total number of forty three thousand, four hundred and thirty four people. Sample of the Study: The number of people in the Shella sub-location was big for the researcher to carry out the research conveniently.
However, the researcher tried the best level and interviewed a total number of ninety five out of the two hundred targeted in different villages within the sub-location. 3. 3: SAMPLE SELECTION A sample is a small part of the population to be studied. Sampling is an act, process, technique of selecting a situation representing part of the whole population. Some of the sampling methods are random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling among others. The researcher used random sampling method. Due to this, the researcher selected ninety five people to represent the whole population. The table 1.1 shows all the information. The information from the respondents was based on the facts because the sample and the groups from the villages comprised people of different ages. 3. 4: SAMPLING TECHNIQUES When a population is very small one may study the whole population, but in this case, the population is big, so the researcher decided to choose a sample to represent the whole population. The following is the sampling technique which the researcher used. Stratified Sampling Technique: Stratified Sampling is the process of dividing a population in sub-population (strata) and random samples are taken from each stratum.
The researcher divided the population into the following: The age between 10 – 20 years The age between 21 – 30 years The age between 31 – 40 years The age 41 years and above. Importance of Sampling: The researcher could determine the adequate respondents from the total number of the targeted people. The advantages of the researcher using the stratified sampling technique are because; It saves time to study the whole population would require a lot of time which the researcher may not have. Reduces Cost – Also to study the whole population would require a lot of money. 3. 5: DATA COLLECTION
The following were the methods used during the collection of data. Interviews: This is a method of research in which the interview gets information from the subject (interviews) through interaction. The interviewer asks the interviewee different type of questions depending on the researcher problem. Advantages: 1)The interviewed enabled the researcher to get immediate feedback 2)It gave an opportunity for the researcher to reset some questions when the interviewee didn’t understand the questions well. 3)It gave the researcher an opportunity to use any language so that the interviewee can understand well.
4)The researcher gave an opportunity to administer and personally establish rapport between interviewee and interviewer. 5)The researcher had time to clarify issues for the interviewees on the same. Disadvantages: 1. It was time consuming; since each member in the group had to be given time to contribute 2. During the group discussion some respondents were shy; this made the researcher to miss some information. QUESTIONNAIRES: A questionnaire is a research tool which contains several questions on a specific issue or problem being investigated. It can be mailed to the respondents or administered by the researcher.
If administered by the researcher, the researcher will have time to explain the purpose of the study and the meaning for the questions if they are not clear to the respondents. This is where the researcher formulates the questions for the respondents to answer. The questions were close ended whereby the respondents required giving the answer in the form of YES or NO. Advantages: 1. It was cheap for the researcher, since the researcher saved money in travelling when mailing the questionnaires. 2. The information given out was easy for analysis. 3. The information from the respondents was based on facts. 4.
There was no hurry whatsoever for the respondents in terms of answering the questions. 5. It saved time for the researcher since Disadvantages: 1. It was not possible for the researcher to respond to the respondents’ reactions. 2. Some of the questionnaires were not returned on time, hence made the work to delay. 3. Some respondents didn’t understand the questions without an explanation from the researcher. 3. 6: DATA ANAYLYSIS: Data is referred to facts and figures. Analysis is the process of preparing, computing and interpreting. Therefore, data analysis is the process of collecting, recording, analyzing, presenting and interpreting data.
In this study area, it deals with data and analysis for better and easy understanding of this work. Based on data analysis the researcher used the following: Pie Chart Bar Charts Tables CHAPTER FOUR 4. 0: DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The work of this area or selection is to analyze, present and interpretation of this data which has been carried out by the researcher. The researcher decided to analyze, present and interpret this work using tables and charts for easy understanding. In collection of data, the researcher used only two methods, questionnaires and interview guide.
A case study of Shella Sub-location, Malindi District Kilifi County with the Coast Province; in the sub-location ninety five people were interviewed from different villages in the sub-location. The people who were interviewed were aged 10 – 20 yrs, those aged 21 – 30 yrs, those aged 31 – 40 yrs, and those who were 41 yrs and above. For every researcher who wishes to investigate on a certain problem, the researcher should use appropriate methods which will enable to get facts and accurate data.
In using the interview guide and questionnaires, the researcher found out reasons why youths in Shella Sub-location become delinquent. Based on the same, the researcher found that there were measures in place though they were not effective. The information from the respondents showed that peer pressure was the major cause of juvenile delinquency among the youths in Shella Sub-location. Other answers were idleness, lack of education, bad companies, poverty, family background, drug abuse among others. The respondents also proposed that juvenile delinquency had negative effects to the development of the country.
The following were the findings expressed by the researcher: A. PEER PRESSURE AS A MAJOR CAUSE OF JUVENILE DELINQUECNY AMONG THE YOUTHS IN SHELLA SUB-LOCATION. The questionnaires were seeking to find out find out if peer pressure is the major cause of juvenile delinquency among the youths in Shella Sub-location. A table showing if juvenile delinquency among the youths is caused by peer pressure (Table 4. 1) 10 – 20 yrs21 – 30 yrs31 – 40 yrs41 + yrsTotal RespondentsTotal Respondents in % Agreed162718248589. 5% Disagreed432110 10. 5% TOTAL2030202595100%
The pie chart below shows the above table as a result of the findings (Figure 4. 1) Based on the above pie chart, 89. 5% of all the respondents agreed that peer pressure was the main reason which caused juvenile delinquency while the disagreed were 10. 5% of the whole population. In regard of the same, the respondents also commented that juvenile delinquency is caused by the following reasons: 1. Parents and guardians spend little time with their children hence these children miss guidance from them. 2. Children can easily imitate behaviors from criminal parents or friends.
Parents and teachers don’t make a follow up, footsteps of their children. For example, the teacher would not ask why the student is absent likewise the parents will not bother whether their kids have gone to school or not. This facilitates truancy among children hence involved in delinquency behavior. B. EFFECTS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ON COUNTRY’S DEVELOPMENT The questions which were asked in this part were targeted to find out if juvenile delinquency among the youths has negative effects on a country’s development. The interviewed people were ninety five out of the two hundred as it was targeted by the researcher.
The findings were as follows: A table showing the effects of juvenile delinquency on the country’s development (table 4. 2) 10 – 20 yrs21 – 30 yrs31 – 40 yrs41 + yrsTotal RespondentsTotal Respondents in % Agreed202819259296. 8% Disagreed_21_33. 2% TOTAL2030202595100% The pie chart below shows the above findings (Figure 4. 2) These were the effects on the country’s development highlighted by the respondents: a)It brings about increase in crimes in the urban center b)It increases the spread of HIV/AIDS due to unprotected sexual behaviors. c)It leads to death of many young youths.d)It becomes a burden of dependency because a large number of the school dropouts depend on their parents for their survival. e)Much of the time is wasted by the delinquent in drinking and smoking instead of doing some productive activities. f)Most of juvenile delinquency do not relate well with their families hence leading to disintegration of good relationships. g)For juveniles who are students in universities, college, secondary and primary schools, they end up recording poor performance in these institutions. C. MEASURES TO CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
In this part, the questions given to the respondents aimed at finding out if there any measures whatsoever in place to control the evil of juvenile delinquency in Shella Sub-location. A total number of ninety five people out of two hundred were interviewed. A table showing responses of the respondents if there are any measures in place to control drug abuse problem (table 4. 3) Total RespondentsTotal Respondents in % Agreed6568. 4% Disagreed1313. 7% Not Aware1717. 9% TOTAL95100% Information of Table 4. 3 and its number of interviewees (Figure 4. 3) INTERPRETATION
65 out of 95 people agreed that there were measures in place to control the problem of juvenile delinquency which is the same as 68. 4% of the whole population. A total number of 95 people were interviewed. 17 out of 95 respondents claimed that they were not aware if there are measures to curb the issue of juvenile delinquency in the sub-location, which is equal to 17. 9% of the whole population. 13 out of 95 respondents disagreed that there were measures in place to control the problem because of the way the problem has spread in the area. This is equal to 13.
7% of the whole population. Due to the spread of this problem, the respondents in the area mentioned the following organizations which have taken into consideration of educating the youths on the dangers of juvenile delinquency. The groups were: The Islamic group Omar project The Kenya Red Cross (Malindi Branch) The Churches Aphia II The Assistant Chief CHAPTER FIVE 5. 0: SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS The following findings were made during the research exercise: Most of the people in the community said that juvenile delinquency among the youths was caused by peer pressure and bad companies.
Majority of the respondents said that the youths are the ones who are highly involved and affected by the problem. The interviewed said that juvenile delinquency among the youths affects the sub-location and the country in terms of development. 68. 4% of the respondents said that there were measures in place to control the problem of juvenile delinquency. 5. 1: CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions were based on the findings which were obtained from the interviewed during the exercise. Majority of the people accepted that juvenile delinquency among the youth was caused by peer pressure and bad companies.
Majority of the population agreed that youths are the ones who are mostly involved in the delinquency problem. The development stakeholders and the community members accepted that juvenile delinquency affects the country’s development. The measures to control the problem were in place, though they were not effective. 5. 2: RECOMMENDATIONS The following recommendations were based on the conclusions. The researcher came up with an idea that parents, caregivers, teachers and guardians should spend more time with their children counseling them and enquiring on the type of friends that they have at school and out of school.
More job opportunities should also be created for the jobless youths. This will eradicated idleness among the youths, and make the productive members of the community. These activities can be sports, projects and community participation among others. Due to the fact that youths are the productive members in any community, the government and non-governmental organizations should come up with ways of assisting the youths to change their undesirable behaviors.
More attention should also be put on the already existing measures of controlling drug abuse so that fruitful results can be realized. 5. 3. 0: APPENDIX (A) References Flin, R. and Soencer, RJ. (1990). “The Evidence of Children” (2nd Ed). London. Bell and Blain Ltd: Glasgow. Hollin, R. C and Howeus, C. (1996). “Clinical Approaches to Working with Young Offenders. ” England: John Willey. Howel, C. J. (2003). “Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency. ”Australia: Sage. Lipsett, P. (1968). “The Juvenile Offenders Percep