INTRODUCTION aproperties and equipments reseration portal utilizing sms notification for national university The pace of change brought about by new technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live and work worldwide. New and emerging technologies challenge the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the way education is managed. Information technology, while an important area of study in its own right, is having a major impact across all curriculum areas. Easy worldwide communication provides instant access to a vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills.
Rapid communication, plus increased access to IT at home, at work, and in educational establishments, could mean that learning becomes a truly lifelong activity—an activity in which the pace of technological change forces constant evaluation of the learning process itself. The primary importance of information technology in education is that various learning resources can be accessed instantly, by students as well as teachers, at their convenience. Learners can also adopt multimedia approach and collaborative learning.
Reservation System Essay Example
Information Technology aids plenty of resources to enhance the teaching skills and learning ability. With the help of IT now it is easy to provide audio visual education. The learning resources are being widens and widen. Now with this vivid and vast technique as part of the IT curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computers as tools to be used in all aspects of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the new multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects, and order information in their work.
Audio-Visual Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve sight, sound, or both, for educational purposes. However not all individuals have an instant access to these resources. They are required to have a reservation for them to avail their needed equipment. Like for instance, in schools and universities it takes time to borrow specific equipment with respect to the availability and number of equipment. A reservation process that is being done manually is always implemented in the premise for the community to attend their needs.
In this way, students can access educational equipment for them to maximize their learning as well as share their knowledge to each other. Inevitably, reservation process has its own advantage and disadvantages. Focusing on disadvantages, the very common of these are; availability of the equipment, number and condition of the equipment and conflict time schedules. These discrepancies slow down reservation process. Since it is usually done manually, it consumes a lot of time for the person in charge as well as the students.
Making good use of technology simplifies our work in a more conventional way. In order for us to make good use of our time, faster and secure way is being offered. Instead of doing the process manually, we suggest to do it in a more systematic way. We propose an efficient and well organize portal reservation system that enables a user to schedule borrowing and inquiry of educational equipment as well as school facilities for educational purposes using their laptop and mobile phones via SMS (Short Message Service) provided with a user account.
In this way, technology is being applied; we can do equipment and school facilities security and availability checking, real-time updating and time slot search capability online. With the application of the proposed system, various learning resources can be accessed instantly, by students as well as teachers, at their convenience. Background of the study Our university is currently using a manual reservation procedure, from the borrowing of educational equipment like LCD projector, stereo speaker and other related audio-visual tools.
Even the usage of school facilities for educational purposes like the canteen, the amphitheater, function rooms and other related educational facility are subjected to have a reservation using the current system for their requests to be granted. To describe the current procedure of their reservation system, intructors are required to fill up a request form including basic information about them, the name of equipment(s) to be borrowed, its purpose for the use of the equipment(s), the time when it will be used and the time when it will be given back.
After filling up the form, it will now proceed to the Dean of the college where they belong. The Dean’s or the appointed staff by the dean signature is mandatory because it will serve as a notice and approval to the request of the instructor. After that, the staff of the reservation system will now find the date and time slot indicated on the request form. After the request’s time and date allocation, the form will now proceed to the head of the reservation system for their signatory and approval. After the approval, the instructor will be given a copy of the transaction that will erve as a ticket for them to avail their requests. Note that a request form must be submitted 2 or 3 days ahead before the date of the intended use. However, discrepancies are inevitable since the current system is on hand operated and the time schedules of the students are both similar and conflict disregarding their subjects. There are common problem like for instance, a group of students can’t do their report on a specific subject simply because there are no available LCD projectors yet or a group of students will be having a seminar but can’t avail the amphitheater because it was reserved ahead of time.
Since the equipment are short in number, students and even instructors fail to conduct a certain activity at their comfort. This study will address the problems of the current reservation system being use by our University. First is the concern regarding the number of equipment. A common question asked is “How many equipment does the facility have? ”. We find it hard to use educational equipment and facilities if there are limited numbers being offered to us. We are subjected to follow a queuing system for us to avail equipment we need with respect to the population of the students.
Number of educational resources is also related to its availability, since it is limited in number, the ratio of students and equipment differs in a large scale that the students may fail to avail the access to the resources the time it its needed. Its availability depends on its schedule that is managed by school facility staff that is also related to the time slot discrepancy of the equipment as well as the time schedule of the student. Like for instance, students do have same time schedule of classes disregarding its subject.
There is always a time that both subjects needed educational resources for the student to deliver his/her report in as much as time slot availability and the number of resources are interconnected with each as well as the student’s time schedule Chapter 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter discusses the related works that this study has relied to in its development. Chapter 2 discusses how published studies and literatures contributed to the conceptual formulation of the study. Moreover, the foundation of this research with regards to its framework is also defined and described in this chapter.
Related Studies and Literature Information and Communication Technology. Information and communication technology, or ICT, is defined as the combination of informatics technology with other, related technologies, specifically communication technology. Despite coming of age with the Internet and other technology, many college students lack the information and communication technology (ICT) literacy skills—locating, evaluating, and communicating information—necessary to navigate and use the overabundance of information available today.
Discussions of Information Technology in Education typically emphasize the Technology rather than the Information. Widespread technology has meant that people encounter more information, in a greater variety of formats, than ever before. Technology is the portal through which we interact with information, but people’s ability to handle information—to solve problems and think critically about information—tells us more about their future success than their knowledge of specific hardware or software.
These skills—known as Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Literacy—comprise a 21st century form of literacy, in which researching and communicating information via digital environments are as important as reading and writing were in earlier centuries. According to the “Good Practice in Information and Communication Technology for Education”, the opportunities for education arising from developments in information and communication technology are very promising.
In recent years, increased computing power, improved wireless and user-friendly technology, and reduced telecommunication costs have contributed to lowering barriers to information access and exchange. The potential for using more innovative, cost-efficient, and user-friendly ICT solutions in education, and for reaching all groups of society—including the poor, those in remote areas, and other disadvantaged groups—has become increasingly feasible in ess advanced countries and in more advanced ones. ICT has the potential to “bridge the knowledge gap” in terms of improving quality of education, increasing the quantity of quality educational opportunities, making knowledge building possible through borderless and boundless accessibility to resources and people, and reaching populations in remote areas to satisfy their basic right to education.
As various ICTs become increasingly affordable, accessible, and interactive, their role at all levels of education is likely to be all the more significant in making educational outcomes relevant to the labor society, in revolutionizing educational content and delivery, and in fostering “information literacy. ” Information literacy is the sustaining force of a knowledge society.
Information literacy is recognized as “a basic human right in the digital world” as it empowers individuals “in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use, and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational, and educational goals” (UNESCO 2008a). The digital divide is much more than a “technology access” divide; without the skills to use the technologies, an even greater divide emerges––the information literacy divide.
This divide is not a “north–south, developed–developing” issue; it applies to all countries and is more a reflection of the extent to which education systems are––or are not—keeping up in the development of knowledge societies (UNESCO 2008a). It is increasingly clear that a principal factor in stimulating economic growth is improvement in cognitive competencies and skills. (Asian Development Bank, 2009).
To date, many initiatives in ICT for education in developing countries have been limited to increasing information access for educational institutions in general and specifically for teacher training, aimed at using ICT-based resources and tools in the classroom. However, ICTs enable access to and use of information that may not be commonly available in certain contexts, thus providing teachers with content they would not have had otherwise to engage their students. In addition, engaging in ICT for education parallels training in teaching methodology that supports student centered learning.
Hence, the use of ICT for education are likely to lead developing countries toward educational reforms that are necessary for fostering an information-literate citizenry, which is the key to competing in the global economy. (Asian Development Bank, 2009). The use of ICT cuts across all aspects of economic and social life. Technological developments in ICT are very rapid. Technology quickly becomes obsolete requiring new skills and knowledge to be mastered frequently. Adaptation is only possible when based on a sound understanding of the principles and concepts of ICT.
It is said in this paper the importance and effect of information and communication technology and how it is used in education. A Portal is an ICT tool that we want to give emphasis and will be given focus on the next topic. Portal. Is one of the tools that information and communication technology utilizes. At the most basic level, portals gather a variety of useful information resources into a single, “one-stop” Web page, helping the user to avoid being overwhelmed by “info glut” or feeling lost on the Web.
But since no two people have the same interests, portals allow users to customize their information sources by selecting and viewing only the information they find personally useful. Some portals also let you personalize your portal by including private information (such as your stock portfolio or checking-account balance). Web portals are one of the largest, considering that anyone who uses the internet pretty much uses web portals. Since the explosion of the internet, web portals and their uses have become more advanced and complex. Web portals are a major source of obtaining information over the internet.
It is easier and faster than looking up information in a “real” library. One of the issues with this highly accessible information source is that the content isn’t always correct and not always all that easy to use. “Fitness for use” is a highly referred to term explaining the quality of web portals. Our analysis and conclusion of obtaining and assuring quality in university web portals will show that the most important aspect in developing web portals is dependent on the intended users. University Web Portals (Kristian Karlsson, Jessica Olsson, 2008)
The roll of a web portal is to provide the user with information through different software functionalities. The functionality models for web portal are based on work done by Collins (Caro, Calero at al. 2006) where ten functionalities were identified. Here are short descriptions of the different web functionalities. • Administration: This is the service taking care of maintenance and other functions of the web portal. • Collaboration and Communication: The function of using ideas from customers and others to solve and improve the web portal. Content Management: Regulate the contents, authorization, determine if to include or exclude content of the web portal. • Data Points and Integration: The function of give access to other external information sources through the web portal. • Help Features: Give help and support to customers if needed. • Personalization: The functionality that gives the customer the possibility to personally adapt their environment at the web portal. • Presentation: This is the function that encapsulates both the visual and functionality of the web portal. Process and Action: This functionality describes the customers’ ability to participate in the web portals owners’ business process. • Search Capabilities: This feature take care of the search engine services on the web portal, both internal and external. • Security: This is the description of customers different access levels of the application services provided by through the web portal. University Web Portals (Kristian Karlsson, Jessica Olsson, 2008) Portals are also used to support learning communities, which are groups of people with interest in a particular topic or subject area.
The portal provides a way to identify people with similar interests and provides collaboration tools and content sharing to members of these communities. Portals bring together the e-learning tools, content and delivery environment and organize them into logical groupings based on the role of the individual accessing the portal. Each organization using a portal will define and organize detailed roles based on their needs. In the higher education space, schools implement these portals as an integral part of the school community and learning environment.
Portal technology and services are available from a range of vendors including specialized vendors like Campus Pipeline, course management system vendors like Blackboard, and Student Administration products such as PeopleSoft. Many students are adults in the real world and certainly elements of a community portal will be critical to building lifelong loyalty and retention. Portals should serve as an important publishing medium for the campus, sending some information to everyone but customizing other information to meet the needs of different segments of the community and allowing individuals to personalize their own portals.
Using polling technologies, portals can serve as a valuable tool for real-time institutional research and strategic planning. (The Potential Value of a Portal for Higher Education, N. D. ) One example of an educational web portal is a University portal. A university portal should provide certain services for individuals depending on the needs of that user. Moreover the content and the overall impression of the web portal can influence a potential student when choosing which university they will apply to. Every year millions of people visit university web portals looking for information.
This could be, for example, students looking for course information, change in lecture times, account access or teacher contact information. It is very important that whatever it is the user is searching for is easy to find and the content is easily understood. University Web Portals (Kristian Karlsson, Jessica Olsson, 2009) According to http://www. usask. ca/web_project/uwebd/portals_faq. html, an implemented university portal can offer a number of benefits to the university. One of these is to promote a life-long connection with the University.
A properly designed portal will follow a person from being a prospective student, all the way to alumni. From a new employee, to a retired employee. If the service provided by a University Portal is of good quality, people will continue using it, thus fostering a lifelong connection to the University. This then benefits the University in the form of donations, children or siblings of alumni becoming students, etc. Attract new students to the University. An important pool of new students consists of the children of alumni, or younger siblings of existing students.
Providing services for these people on a University portal helps to cement their relationship with the University even before they become an official part of the University. This in turn attracts them to our University. Standardization of Web Services. The portal, through use of standards for defining how information gets into channels, can help in the standardization of web-based services on a campus. Developers wouldn’t have to re-invent the user interface each time. Instead, they can concentrate on the back-end database integration, and utilize the existing portal for the user interface.
Promotion of data sharing between departments. Many Universities run into the problem of “data silos”, where data is seen as being owned by individual departments, instead of as a campus-wide resource. The portal may act as a catalyst for breaking down these silos and making the data available in a controlled way to the people who need to use it. The mechanisms used to build portal channels can provide controlled access to data for people who need it, while still leaving control of that data in the hands of the people responsible for its accuracy.
Portals look both inward and outward and can provide a powerful medium for campuses to communicate with off-campus constituencies: prospective students; parents; students who work or commute; alumni; business and government partners. (Portals in Higher Education, N. D. ) It was clearly stated the importance of portals in our education today. Portals are used in any kind of transaction over the internet. In relation to our main topic, these transactions are common in web reservation that will be given emphasis on the next topic. Web Reservation System.
In relation to the previous topics, Web Reservation System is an online base reservation system or portal that delivers quality information within the community with respect to each individual’s interests. Web reservations systems have become critical instruments in the marketing and distribution of travel and tourism products and services. New systems have recently been developed while others are in the process of establishing their own systems. A portal that is highly informative for each interest, interactive, and conveys transaction.
Through the use of this system, web users can make reservations and monitor reservation status using this portal which ensures fast, secure and cost-effective online reservations. It is commonly use in airline flight booking, hotel and restaurant reservations, and other related business under e-commerce. With an online reservation system, the user loads the website of the gateway agency handling web reservation. The user finds the event, service or product he wishes to book by name or date, or whatever criteria the management has set up. After choosing the exact date, time and other specific criteria, he confirms his reservation.
He may pay for the reservation or ticket on the spot, or use a credit card number as a guarantee to hold her place. The confirmation is usually available immediately as a printout page. Alternately, the user may receive confirmation by email. The goal of a web reservation system is to be integrated with the facility of its use and allow users to check the availability for their intended reservation, to make new reservations or to guarantee them. Have you ever wondered why some reservation systems are really successful and others are not?
This is simple: the successful reservation systems are designed and structured with a good ‘usability’. That is, they are designed to get good feedback from users. Users should never feel ‘lost’ using a website, they should be able to make a reservation in an easy, intuitive and comfortable way. But, how can a reservation system are improved in terms of usability? Some of the most common characteristics into usable reservation systems are: Simple design. Sometimes a plain design is better instead of a creative one. The most important factor is that your reservation system meets its goals so the design must help to make it happen.
Easy to find. Once on the reservation system, users should find information easily as well as be able to move around your reservation system comfortably. They should find what they need in just 3 clicks and be presented with options and availability. Speed of website. This is a determinant factor for user satisfaction. Each reservation system page shouldn’t load for more than 1 second in order to improve the user experience. We have ensure that the system and servers are optimized for quick speed. According to http://www. ehow. com/about_5449736_advantages-online-reservation-system. tml, here are some advantages using a web reservation system. Speed and Flexibility. With online reservation systems, users have the freedom of choosing the service or product among what is available and knowing precisely what they are getting. Since the reservation is made in real time, the customer receives immediate assurance that what he wants is or is not available. Also, because customers conduct their own transactions and receive confirmations, they are free to make changes during or even after the process, with a minimum of complicating factors.
Precise Head Counts By using an online reservation system, merchants can have a precise running head count of purchases and reservations. Precise head counts can circumvent the problem of under booking to avoid disappointing customers, or overbooking to make sure a sufficient number of actual transactions go through. The system can also be set up to record unique visits to the website to help the administrator collect information on how well the site is working to attract customers. Cautions Online reservation systems, like any software-based application, are liable to technical glitches.
Regular maintenance and vigilant oversight are necessary to prevent small problems from mushrooming into big ones. Software systems without sufficient security guards in place are also vulnerable to attacks by Trojans. Because transactions are involved, special care must be taken to avoid irregular activity on the website. Planning your reservation over the Internet can be convenient and easy. You can research your interests at your own pace, shop around for the best fares and hotel deals, and make reservations right from your computer. But online reservation can have its pitfalls.
It may not always be the right choice, especially if you have special needs. Here are some disadvantages about web reservations according to http://www. ehow. com/facts_4968346_disadvantages-online-booking. html: Live Help. When you reserve online, you usually can’t ask a live person questions about hotel rooms, flight routes, visa requirements or anything else you’re concerned about. Special Needs. You usually can’t confirm any special requests at the time of your online reservation, such as requesting an electric cable or adding stand your LCD projector.