Review of Literature on Training and Development
Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted. In order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be integrated with organizational life. (Phillip C. Wright, 1992): Reports on a study of current and past training literature which suggests that, to be effective and to isolate both training needs and those problems having other, non-trainable solutions, training must be preceded by a needs analysis. Proposes a needs assessment model to illustrate an optimum needs assessment process, and compares this model with the Ontario Government’s. Farhad Analoui 1995): Traditionally, the effectiveness of the senior officials within the public sector has been disproportionately associated with task instead of people-related skills. A study of 74 senior managers within Indian Railways, over three years, has revealed that managers, in order to become effective, not only require task and people skills but also self-development knowledge and skills. Moreover, the above broad categories of managerial skills form a hierarchy which suggests that the more senior positions which managers occupy, the greater the need for people and self-development.
Explores the implications of the above for senior management training and development in public sector briefly. (Joe Perdue, Jack D. Ninemeier, Robert H. Woods, 2002): Describes a study undertaken to assess how private club managers perceive the relative effectiveness of alternative training methods to attain specific types of training objectives. Data were obtained from 123 club managers who were members of the Club Managers Association of America. Participants rated the effectiveness of 16 alternate training methods for potential use in six different types of training situations.
Training methods studied included case study, video-tape, lecture, one-to-one, role play, games, computer simulations, paper and pencil, audiotapes, self-assessment, movies/films, multi-media, audio, computer and video conferencing and sensitivity training. Training objectives studied were knowledge acquisition, changing attitudes, problem solving, interpersonal skill development, participant acceptance and knowledge retention. Analysis of data indicated that one-to-one training is the preferred method to attain all objectives except interpersonal skill development. (Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry, 2002):
Discusses the importance of proving the effectiveness of training. Effectiveness is the primary motive for training. Describes ways to evaluate training’s effectiveness, behavior changes on the job being the most important. Defines an approach whereby individuals can see how they have changed and quantify the amount of change. (Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry, Kate Johnston, Peter van der Sijde, 2003): A growing body of academic research has examined the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training and support initiatives, with recent studies focusing on the provision of training and other skills development opportunities.
An important theme that has emerged from this work is the failure of many programmes and initiatives to take on board the particular needs of the entrepreneurs in developing training and support systems. (Kate Johnston, Peter van der Sijde, 2003): Successfully measuring effectiveness in management training and development can be a difficult task. Design of a valid measurement programmed should include evaluation in key areas; including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions. Behavioral change and organizational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon o evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme. Finally, research shows that maintaining a balance of the above measurements is the final key to success in measuring the effectiveness of management training and development. (Gary D. Geroy, 2004): A common approach towards enhancing managerial effectiveness is to focus attention on improving the knowledge and skill of the manager, (Ogundeji, 2004) the gap between evaluation theory and practice is a serious problem for training in industry and business. A recent literature review of the summative evaluation on training noted: (Clinton O.
Longenecker, Laurence S. Fink, 2005): Effective management training and consequences of ineffective training programs. Design/methodology/approach – Seasoned managers (278) working in rapidly changing organizations were surveyed on issues related to management training. Findings – Content analyses revealed a number of specific benefits associated with management training. Conversely, managers identified a series of problems caused by ineffective management training. (Ching-Yaw Chen, Phyra Sok, Keomony Sok, 2007): Purpose – A previous study found that the quality of education in Cambodia is poor compared to other developing countries.
However, the working performance of commercial banks in Cambodia is high. It was speculated that effective training was the main factor underlying this contradiction. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to explore the elements of training conducted by commercial banks in Cambodia and to examine their relationship with training effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach – The research focuses on six factors: training needs assessment; training program; flexibility of training; self-efficacy; social support; and transfer of knowledge. The data came in the form of questionnaires and desk research.