The Rise and Fall of Civilizations Many successful empires in ancient history came to an end at one point. For example, the Roman Empire was very successful during the rise and fall of Augustus. Also, Ancient Greece which was successful during the rise and fall of Alexander the Great. Augustus and Alexander the Great were both similar In their rise. Augustus became emperor after the assassination of Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great became king after the assassination of his father. They differ in their falls because Augustus’ Empire survived for many years even after he died while Alexander the

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Great’s Empire fell upon his death. In my opinion, the Roman Empire was more successful under the leadership of Augustus. The reign of Augustus Caesar and the reign of Alexander the Great were more different in many ways. After the death of Augustus’ great uncle, Julius Caesar, Augustus became the first emperor of the Roman Empire. He built the Empire and many of its success. It was the reconstruction era for Rome because of the many conflicts there were but were resolved during Augustus’ reign. Augustus started extending his empire and added many provinces.

He protected and secured his empire by establishing the states. Augustus refined the government, changing the tax system and legal system by creating laws for those who were not citizens. He established many things we have now in our country such as roads, the police and fire-fighters’ services. Augustus gained much power and control over his Empire, ending the chaos and disorder that was happening. under his leadership, it was a period of peace for Rome even through the civil wars and conflicts which was called the Pax Romana.

Rome had reached its golden age. “May it be my privilege to have the happiness of establishing the commonwealth on a firm and secure basis and thus enjoy the reward which I desire, but only if I may be called the author of the best possible government; and bear with me the hope when I die that the foundations which I have laid for Its futuregovernment, will stand firm and stable. ” – Augustus Caesar. Similarly to Augustus, Alexander Ill became king of Macedon after the death of Phillp II, his father.

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He successfully united Greece and was a strong warrior. Alexander was educated by Aristotle, a great philosopher, and trained for battle by thegenerals. He was a military commander and only 20 years old when he became king. Alexander started he battle against Persia and ultimately conquered the Persian Empire which was his father’s dream. After that, Alexander’s world conquest had begun. His world conquest was a series of battles that greatly expanded the Empire. Augustus also expanded his Empire but not as large as Alexander expanded his Empire.

Alexander’s Empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River. When Alexander conquered Egypt, he named a city Alexandria which became a center of trade, arts, and ideas brought in from around the ancient world. Alexandria was known as a “place of enlightenment and knowledge. Alexander spread Greek culture across the Empire which had a powerful Influence to the people. He established the largest empire In ancient history which covered about 3,000 miles. “There Is nothing Impossible to him who will try. ” – Alexander Ill.

The reign of Augustus ended when he was 75 years old. therefore he was looking for an heir to become the next emperor. The two designated heirs were Marcus Agrippa and Augustus’ nephew Marcellus. Marcellus was married to Augustus’ daughter Julia but he died so that didn’t work out. Julia was then married to Agrippa but because of Agrippa’s origin, he wasn’t qualified for the throne. Therefore their children were the designated heirs. Augustus adopted Gaius, Lucius, and Agrippa Posthumus, three of Julia and Agrippa’s sons but they were too young.

Then his wife Livia’s sons became designated heirs which were Tiberius and Nero Druses. Nero Druses ended up dying so then Tiberius and Lucius were the true heirs. Later on, Lucius and Gaius died while Agrippa was exiled. Ultimately after Augustus died, Tiberius took the throne although he was not Augustus’ preferred heir. Everything Augustus created or established remained and made a great impact to he Empire. The Roman Empire successfully survived for many years. Alexander the Great’s death did mark the end for his great Empire.

Alexander spent his whole life campaigning and exhausted himself in winning battles. He didn’t take the time to make a plan on how to manage his Empire. He failed to sustain his Empire and let it all go to waste. Alexander lived as if he was a god, this being the result of his mother, Olympias, deceiving him into believing that his actual father was Zeus. He enjoyed the thrill of adventure and had the need to be greater than everyone else. This arrogance ultimately led to his death. Similarly to Augustus, Alexander got sick and died of a fever at the age of 32.

Unlike Augustus, Alexander’s success of uniting Greece and establishing the largest Empire in history and fell upon his death and separated into smaller states; what was maintained from Alexander’s reign was the spread of Greek culture. The rise and fall of the reign of Augustus and the reign of Alexander the Great were ultimately more different than similar. They were similar because Augustus came to power after his great uncle was assassinated and Alexander the Great came to power after his father was assassinated.

They both died by natural causes and expanded their empire although Alexander’s Empire expansion was greater. The differences were that Augustus did many great things for his Empire. He had power and control over his Empire so it lasted for a long time even after he died while Alexander did nothing to control his Empire and only made it very large. He spent his time battling, he didn’t manage to sustain his Empire therefore it collapsed after he died. That is why I believe that the Roman Empire was more successful under the reign of Augustus.

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