7 July 2016

(1877-78)- Rizal finishing the first? year of a course in Philosophy and Letters. – He transferred to the? medical course. ? MOTHER’S OPPOSITION TO? HIGHER EDUCATION – Rizal had to go the University of? Santo Tomas for higher studies. – The? Bachelor of Arts course. Don Francisco and Paciano – who? wanted Jose pursue higher learning in the university ? RIZAL ENTERS THE UNIVERSITY? April 1877- Rizal who was then nearly? 16 years old, matriculated in the University of Santo Tomas, taking the course on Philosophy and Letters. Rizal enrolled in this course for 2? reasons: 1. His father liked it? 2. He was “still uncertain as to what?

career to pursue”. ? Fr. Pablo Ramon- Rector o the Ateneo ,who have been good to him during his student days in that college, asking for advice on the choice f a career. (1877-78)- Rizal studied Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theodicy, and History of Philosophy in the University of Santo Tomas during his first- year term. (1878-79)- Rizal took up the medical course. ? FINISHES? SURVEYING COURSE IN ATENEO (1878) (1877-78) – Rizal took he vocational? course leading to the title of perito agrimensor (expert surveyor). November 25, 1881- At the age of 17? Rizal passed the final examination in the surveying course.

Rizal Essay Example

? Dominicans- who loves and? inspires Rizal to ascend to greater heights of knowledge ? Leonor Valenzuela- Rizal’s met her? when he was a sophomore student at the University of Santo Tomas. – she was a charming? Manila girl who was living next door to Rizal’s boarding house. – Romances lasted one? year ? Leonor Rivera- The beautiful daughter? of his landlord Antonio Rivera. – Rizal’s? fell in love with Leonor. – Sweetheart of Rizal? – Tender romances lasted? 11 years (1879-1890) ? Juventud Filipina (To the Filipino? Youth)- Poem entitled by Rizal ? – The price winning poem 1879 – Liceo Artistic- Literario?

(Artistic- Literary Lyceum) of Manila- held the literary contest. ? VICTIMS OF SPANISH OFFICER’S? BRUTALITY Rizal was a freshman medical student at? the University of Santo Tomas when he experience Spanish brutality. General Primo de Rivera- Spanish? governor general of the Philippines March 21, 1887- a letter to Blumentritt.? ? Literary contest to commemorate the 4th? centennial of the death of Cervantes. Don Quixote- Spain’s glorified man-of-? letters and famous author El consejo de los Dioses (the council of? the God ? OTHER LITERARY WORKS? -Poems and Zarzuela (December? 8,1880) -Junto al Pasig?

-Sonnet entitled A Filipinas (1880)? – Poem entitled Abd-el-Azis y? Mahoma (1879) -Poem entitled Al M. R. P. Pablo? Ramon ? RIZAL’S VISIT TO PAKIL AND? PAGSANJAN Rizal still study in University of Santo? Tomas. Vicenta Ybardolaza- who skillfully? played the harp at the Regalado home Noli Me Tangere? ? CHAMPION OF THE FILIPINO STUDENTS Companarism ? UNHAPPY AT THE UST? 1. The Dominican professors were? hostile him 2. The Filipino students racially? 3. The Filipino students against by? experience 4. Th method of instruction.? El Fulibistirismo? ? DECISION TO STUDY ABROAD? Rizal decided to study in Spain?

? ? CHAPTER V: AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 1877 – 82 “ O Youth, illuminated by the arts and letters. Stride fourth into arena, break down the heavy Fetters that bind your genius down, for in These topic regions were untortured darkness Once held sway, the wise and kindly Spanish Hand bestows today a splendid crown Upon the native of, the Eastern land. ” -Jose Rizal ? 2 courses enrolled at UST Philsophyand Letters (1877 – 1878) Medicine Mother’s Opposition to Higher Education – Don Francisco and Paciano wanted Jose to pursue higher learning – Dona Teodora opposed this

AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 01 ? RIZAL ENTERS THE UNIVERSITY – April 1877, Rizal at 16 years old, entered University of Santo Tomas 2 reasons why he enrolled Philosophy and Letters His father liked it He was not sure what career to pursue FATHER PABLO RAMON – Rector of the Ateneo, Rizal asked for advice on the choice of career Rizal studied Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theodicy, and History of Philosophy He took up a medical course 1878-1879 because; he followed AteneoRector’s advice wanted to be able to cure his mother’s growing blindness AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 02

? FINISHES SURVEYING COURSE IN ATENEO 1878 – He took a vocational course in Ateneo during his first term in UST – The course lead to the title peritoagrimensor(expert surveyor) – He passed the final examination at the age of 17 – He was granted the title on November 25, 1881 – His loyalty to Ateneocontinued President of the Academy of Spanish Literature Secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences Secretary of the Marian Congregation AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 03 ? ROMANCES WITH OTHER GIRLS – SEGUNDA KATIGBAK 14 yr. old Batanguena and engaged to Manuel Luz

– “MISS L” A girl with seductive eyes The romance died a natural death because: The sweet memory of Segunda was still fresh in his heart His father did not like the family of “Miss L” AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 04 ? – LEONOR VALENZUELA Daughter of Capitan Juan and CapitanaSandayValenzuela, their neighbors who were from Pagsanjan, Laguna Her pet name was “Orang” Rizal sent notes to her made with invisible ink (salt solution) – LEONOR RIVERA Jose boarded in Casa Tomasina (No. 6 Calle Santo Tomas, Intramuros) Daughter of his landlord-uncle from Camiling, Antonio Rivera She was a student at La

Concordia College, also the school of Soledad, Jose’s youngest sister Born in Camiling, Tarlac on April 11, 1867 She used the name “Taimis” in her letters to Rizal AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 05 ? VICTIM OF SPANISH OFFICER’S BRUTALITY – Setting: Dark night, summer vacation 1878. Calamba – He passed by a lieutenant of the Guardia Civil but failed to recognize the latter – Insulted, the lieutenant slashed Jose’s back with his sword – Jose reported to General Primo de Rivera, Spanish governor general, but no resolution was done because of racial discrimination

AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 06 ? TO THE FILIPINO YOUTH (1879) -Literary contest by Artistico-Literario (Artisitic- Literary Lyceum) – Rizal, 18 years old, submitted his poem entitled A La Juventud Filipina(To the Filipino Youth) – The first prize, a feather shaped, gold ribbon decorated silver pen was given to Rizal – In the poem, Rizal beseeched the Filipino to rise from lethargy, to let their genius fly swifter than the wind and descend with art science to break the chains that have long bound the spirit of the people. – The poem is a classic.

Two reasons: It was the first great poem in Spanish written by a Filipino whose merit was recognized by Spanish literary authorities It expressed for the first time the nationalistic concept that the Filipinos, and not the foreigners were the “fair hope of the Fatherland. ” AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 07 ? THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS (1880) Another literary contest by the Artistic-Literary Lyceum to commemorate the fourth centennial of the death of Cervantes, Spanish and author of Don Quixote. Manuel De Cervantes – Spain’s glorified man of letter

– Rizal submitted an allegorical drama,El Consejo de los Dioses (The Council of the Gods) – The allegory was based on Greek classics – Rizal was aided by Father Rector of the Ateneo in securing the needed reference materials – The contest was participated by priest, laymen, professors of UST, newspapermen and scholars. – Rizal won the first price; he received a gold ring engraved with bust of Cervantes. – D. N. Del Puzo – a Spanish writer won the 2nd price AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 08 ? OTHER LITERARY WORKS 1879: Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma

A poem, declaimed by an Atenean, manuel Fernandez on December 8, 1879 in honor of the Ateneo’sPatroness 1880: Junto al Pasig(Beside the Pasig) A zarzuela, staged by the Ateneans on December 8, 1880 on the Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception, Patroness of the Ateneo. Rizal wrote it as President of the Academy of Spanish Literature 1880: A Filipinas A sonnet, for the album of the Society of Sculptors Rizal urged all Filipino artist to glorify the Philippines 1881: Al M. R. P. Pablo Ramon A poem, an expression of affection to Father Pablo Ramon, the Ateneorector AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 09

? RIZAL’S VISIT TO PAKIL AND PAGSANJAN May 1881 – Jose, along with his sisters Saturnina, Maria, and Trinidad and female friends went on a pilgrimate to Pakil, famous shrine of the Birhen Maria de los Dolores. – They boarded a casco(a flat-bottom sailing vessel) from Calamba to Pakil, Laguna – They stayed at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Manuel Regalado, parents of Nicolas, Rizal’s friend in Manila – The company witnessed the famous turumba, the people dancing in honor of the miraculous Birhen Maria de los Dolores – Rizal was infatuated by VicentaYbardolaza She was skillful in playing the harp at the Regalado home

– Rizal and his party then went to Pagsanjan for two reasons It was the native town of Leonor Valenzuela To see the world famed Pagsanjan Falls AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 10 ? CHAMPION OF FILIPINO STUDENTS – There were frequent student brawls between the Filipinos and the Spaniards – 1880: Rizal founded Companerismo(Comradeship), a secret society of Filipino UST students. The members were called “Companions of Jehu”. – He was the chief of the society. – His cousin, GalicanoApacible was the secretary.

– In one of the skirmishes, Rizal was wounded on the head. Hisfriends brought him to Casa Tomasinawhere Leonor Rivera took care of him. AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 11 ? UNHAPPY DAYS AT THE UST Rizal was unhappy in the Dominican institution because: The Dominican professors were hostile to him The Filipino students were racially discriminated against by the Spaniards The method of instruction was obsolete and repressive. He failed to win high scholastic honors due to the attitude of his professors. AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 12 ? DECISION TO STUDY ABROAD

Rizal decided to study in Spain after finishing the fourth year of his medical course. The people who approved this are the following: His older brother Paciano His sisters Saturnina (Neneng) and Lucia Uncle Antonio Rivera The Valenzuela family Some friends The people who did not know of his decision are the following: Rizal’s parents Leonor Rivera Spanish authorities AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS 13 ? 2. CHAPTER V1:IN SUNNY SPAIN ? 3. MAY 3, 1882 – Rizal left Manila He joined Propaganda Movement and became a Mason and worked with Filipino patriots in seeking reforms.

SECRET DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN PERSONS WHO KNOWS RIZAL’S DEPARTURE PacianoAntonio RiveraJesuit FathersClose Friends ? 4. Php 700. 00 with diamond ring – given by Paciano to RizalPhp 35. 00 – allowance per month; to be send by Pacianoand his uncle AntonioJOSE MERCADO – name appeared in his passportMANUEL T. HIDALGO – sender of telegram; he tells that the Spanish steamer SALVADORAwas scheduled to sail to SingaporeMAY 1, 1882 – he left Calamba by CARROMATA, reaching Manila after 10 hoursSANTO DOMINGO CHURCH – he attended the mass before leaving JOSE M.

CECILIO (Chengoy) – Rizal’s close friend, one of his close friends who know his departure ? 5. SINGAPORE Founded by SIR THOMAS RAFFLES The SALVADORA reached the English colony of Singapore on May 9. Rizal logged in HOTEL DE LAPAZ for 2 days. FIRST TRIP TO SUEZ CANAL DJEMNAH – a French steamer; sailed to Europe MAY 26 – he saw the coast of AFRICA – He called this as “AN INHOSPITABLE LAND BUT FAMOUS”ADEN – hotter than the Philippines; he saw camels and Arabian horsesJUNE 2 – He arrived at the city of SUEZSUEZ CANAL – a historic waterway constructed by ENGR.

FERDINAND DE LESSEPS ? 6. NAPLES AND MARSEILLES JUNE 11 – Rizal reached Naples, an Italian city Rizal was fascinated by MOUNT VESUVIUS and CASTLE OF ST. TELMO. He visited CHATEAU d’LF, where Dantes, hero of the Count of Monte Cristo was imprisoned. Rizal stayed here for 2 ? days. BARCELONA MAY 16, 1882 – he reached BARCELONA; the greatest city of CATALUNA and Spain’s 2nd largest cityLAM RAMBLAS – famous street in BarcelonaPLAZA DE CATALUNA – welcome party for Rizal was made by Rizal’s schoolmates at Ateneo ? 7.

AMOR PATRIO (Love of Country) – he wrote it in Barcelona; this is a nationalistic essay written in Spanish soil under the pseudonym of Dimas – AlangPublished in two text Spanish – Rizal Filipino – M. H. del Pilar DIARYONG TAGALOG – first Manila bilingual newspaper FRANCISCO CALVO – editor of DiaryongTagalog; member of editorial staffTWO PEN NAMES USED BY RIZAL DIMAS – ALANG – used in joining the Masonry LAONG LAAN – used in his essayTHREE ARTICLES FOR DIARYONG TAGALOG Amor Patrio (Love of Country) Los Viajes (Travels)Revistade Madrid (Review of Madrid) – it was returned to him because of financial reasons Then Rizal moves to Madrid.

? 8. SAD NEWS FROM HOME Spread of Cholera that was ravaging Manila and other provinces Leonor Rivera was getting thinner because of an absence of a loved one. LIFE IN MADRID- He enrolled at UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE MADRID (Central University of Madrid)- 2 courses enrolled (MEDICINE, PHILOSOPHY & LETTERS)- Took lessons at the Academy of San Carlos (Painting & Sculpture)- He also took private lessons in (GERMAN, FRENCH & ENGLISH) ? 9. THEY ASKED ME FOR VERSES Rizal joined the CIRCULO HISPANO – FILIPINO which is a society of Spaniards and Filipino. Rizal was requested to create a poem which was declaimed upon December 31, 1882.

RIZAL AS LOVER OF BOOKS SENOR ROCES – owner of store where Rizal purchased 2ndhand books Rizal was deeply affected by BEELCHESS STOWE’S “UNCLE TOM’S CABIN” & EUGENE SUE’S “THE WONDERIGN JEW”. Rizal also visited PARIS for the first time and he said that “PARIS IS THE COSTLIEST CAPITAL IN EUROPE”. ? 10. RIZAL BECOMES A MASON Rizal got contacts with the Liberal and Republican Masons. In 1883, he joined the MASONIC LODGE ACACIA in Madrid adopting the Masonic name DIMAS – ALANG. REASONS WHY HE JOINED MASONRY The bad friars in the Philippines, by their abuses unworthy of their priestly habit, drove Rizal to desperation and to masonry.

He needed to help the masons to fight the bad friars in the Philippines. Upon November 15, 1892 he became the master mason ofLODGE SOLIDARIDAD and on February 15, 1892 he became the master mason of LE GRAND DE ORIENT FRANCE in Paris. ? 11. TWO TITANS OF THE BRUSH JUAN LUNA – 1st price for his SPOLIARIUM, he received as gold medalFELIX HIDALGO – 2nd price for his CHRISTIAN VIRGINS EXPOSE TO THE POPULACE TWO COURSES FINISHED IN MADRID Doctor of MedicineLicentiate of Philosophy and Letters ? CHAPTER VII: PARIS TO BERLIN (1885 – 87 ? Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology.

He chose this branch because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment. IN GAY PARIS (1885-86) After studying at the Central University of Madrid, Rizal, who was then 24 yrs old, went to Paris to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology. ? MAXIMO VIOLA – a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan SENOR EUSEBIO COROMINAS – editor of La Publicidad DON MIGUEL MORAYTA – owner of La Publicidad and a statesman Rizal gave Editor Corominas (an article on the Carolines Question) NOVEMBER 1885 – Rizal was living in Paris

He worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert, a leading French ophthalmologist. JUAN LUNA – great master of the brush; Rizal helped him by posing as model in Luna’s paintings. “The Death of Cleopatra” – where Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest “The Blood Compact” – Rizal posed as Sikatuna ? RIZAL AS MUSICIAN Rizal had no natural aptitude for music, and this he admitted. He studied music only because many of his schoolmates at Ateneo were taking music lessons. He told Enrique Lete that he “learned the solfeggio, piano, and voice culture in one month and a half”.

He is also a flutist. Some of his compositions are: AlinMangLahi (Any Race) – a pariotic song which asserts that any race aspires for freedom La Deportacion (Deportation) – a sad danza, composed in Dapitan ? IN HISTORIC HEIDELBERG FEBRUARY 3, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantics surroundings. He became popular among the Germans because they found out that he was a good chess player. He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr.

Otto Becker, distinguished German ophthalmologist. ? “TO THE FLOWERS OF HEIDELBERG” APRIL 22, 1886 – Rizal wrote a fine poem entitled “A Las Flores de Heidelberg” (To the Flowers of Heidelberg) because he was fascinated by the blooming flowers along the Neckar River, which is the light blue flower called “forget- me-not”. WITH PASTOR ULLMER AT WILHELMSFELD Rizal spent a three-month summer vacation at Wilhelmsfeld where he stayed at the place of a Protestant pastor, Dr. Karl Ullmer. The pastor has a wife and two children named Etta and Fritz.

? FIRST LETTER TO BLUMENTRITT JULY 31, 1886 – Rizal wrote his first letter to Professor FERDINAND BLUMENTRITT who is the Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria. Blumentritt is an Austrian ethnologist and he has an interest in the Philippine language. – Rizal sent Aritmetica (Arithmetic) book to Blumentritt which was published in 2 languages – Spanish and Tagalog – by the University of Santo Tomas Press in 1868. The author was RufinoBaltazar Hernandez. – Blumentritt became the best friend of Rizal. ? FIFTH CENTENARY OF HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITY

The famous University of Heidelberg held its fifth centenary celebration on August 6, 1886 where Rizal had witnessed the said celebration. IN LEIPZIG AND DRESDEN AUGUST 14, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Leipzig He attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig on history and psychology. He befriended Prof. Friedrich Ratzel, a famous historian, and Dr. Hans Meyer, German anthropologist. Rizal found out that the cost of living in Leipzig was the cheapest in Europe so he stayed for 2 months and a half. On October 29, he went to Dresden, where he met Dr. Adolph B.

Meyer, the Director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum. ? RIZAL WELCOMED IN BERLIN’S SCIENTIFIC CIRCLES Rizal was enchanted by Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and the absence of race prejudice. Some scientists Rizal met are: DR. FEODOR JAGOR – German scientist-traveler and author of Travels in the Philippines DR. RUDOLF VIRCHOW – famous German anthropologist DR. W. JOEST – German geographer DR. KARL ERNEST SCHWEIGGER – famous German ophthalmologist ? RIZAL’S LIFE IN BERLIN Five reasons why Rizal stayed in Berlin: To gain further knowledge of ophthalmology

To further his studies of science and languages To observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation To associate with famous German scientists and scholars To publish his novel, Noli Me Tangere Rizal worked as an assistant in the clinic of Dr. Scweigger, and at night, he attended lectures in the University of Berlin. He also took private lessons in French under Madame Lucie Cerdole. ? RIZAL ON GERMAN WOMEN Rizal sent a letter to his sister, Trinidad, dated on March 11, 1886. In his letter, Rizal expressed his high regard and admiration for German womanhood.

Rizal said that German woman is serious, diligent, educated and friendly. GERMAN CUSTOMS Some of the German customs Rizal admired: On Yuletide season, people will select a pine tree from the bushes and adorned it with lanterns, papers, lights, dolls, candies, fruits, etc. Self-introduction to strangers in a social gathering. ? RIZAL’S DARKEST WINTER The winter of 1886 in Berlin was his darkest winter. He lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba and he was flat broke. He could not pay his landlord and he was eating only one meal a day.

His clothes were old and threadbare. His health broke down due to lack of proper nourishment. This is one of the most memorable days in the life of Rizal. Paris to Berlin (1885-87) Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology -He chose this branch because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment He also continued his travels and observations of European life and customs, government and laws in Paris, Heidelberg, Leipzig and Berlin In Berlin, Jose met and befriended several top German scientists, Dr. Feodor Jagor, Dr. Adolph B.

Meyer and Dr. Rudolf Virchow After his studies in Central University of Madrid, Rizal, who was 24 years old and already a physician, went to Paris in order to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology Maximo Viola(Barcelona) – a medical student and a member of rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan Senor Eusebio Corominas – editor of the newspaper La Publicidad Miguel Morayta – owner of La Publicidad and a statesman Carolines Question – an article Rizal’s gave to Editor Corominas; a controversial issue for publication November 1885 – he was living in Paris Dr.

Louis de Weckert(1852-1906) – leading French ophthalmologist where Rizal worked as an assistant about four months January 1, 1886 – Rizal wrote a letter for his mother to reveal that he was rapidly improved his knowledge in ophthalmology Rizal relaxed by visiting his friends, such as the family of the Pardo de Taveras(Trinidad, Felix, and Paz), Juan Luna and Felix Resureccion Hidalgo Juan Luna – the great master of brush; Rizal helped him by posing as model in several paintings: 1. “the Death of Cleopatra”, Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest 2. ‘the Blood Compact”, Rizal posed as Sikatuna

Rizal had no natural aptitude for music, and this he admitted. He studied music only because many of his schoolmates at Ateneo were taking music lessons In a letter dated November 27, 1878, he told Enrique Lete that he “learned the solfeggio, piano, and voice culture in one month and a half”. He was a flutist in various impromptu reunions of Filipinos in Paris Some of his compositions are: “Alin Mang Lahi”(Any Race) – a patriotic song which asserts that any race aspires for freedom “La Deportacion”(Deportation) – a sad danza, composed in Dapitan during his exile February 1, 1886 – left gay Paris

February 3, 1886 – arrived in Heidelberg(a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantic surroundings Rizal was a good chess player and became a member of Chess Player’s Club He became popular among German students because he joined them in their chess games and beer-drinking and watched their friendly saber duels He worked at the University of Heidelberg under the direction of Dr. Otto Becker, German ophthalmologist He was fascinated by the blooming flowers along the cool banks of the Neckar River The light blue “forget-me-not” – his favorite flower

April 22, 1886 – he wrote a fine poem “A Las Flores de Heidelberg”(To the Flowers of Heidelberg) Wilhelmsfeld – where Rizal spent a three-month summer vacation Protestant Pastor Dr. Karl Ullmer – where Rizal stay at the vicarage of their house and who become his good friend and admirer May 29, 1887 – Rizal wrote from Munich (Muchen) to Friedrich (Fritz) July 31, 1886 – Rizal wrote his first letter in German to Blumentritt August 6, 1886 – fifth centenary of Heidelberg University August 9, 1886 – Rizal left Heidelberg August 14, 1886 – when he arrived in Leipzig Leipzig – Rizal translated Schiller’s William Tell from German into Tagalog.

He also translated Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Anderson. He stayed about two and half month in Leipzig October 29, 1886 – he left Leipzig for Dresden where he met Dr. Meyer Dr. Adolph B. Meyer ± director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum Nov. 1 – he left Dresden by train, reaching Berlin in the evening Berlin – where Rizal met Dr. Teodor Jagor Dr. Feodor Jagor – author of Travels in the Philippines Dr. Hans Virchow professor of Descriptive Anatomy Dr. Rudolf Virchow – German Anthropologist Dr. W. Joest – noted German geographer Dr. Karl Ernest Schweigger – famous German ophthalmologist where Jose worked in his clinic

Rizal became a member of the Anthropological Society Ethnological Society Geographical Society of Berlin Five reasons why Rizal lived in Germany: Gain further knowledge of ophthalmology Further his studies of sciences and languages Observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation Associate with famous German scientists and scholars Publish his novel, Noli me Tangere Madame Lucie Cerdole – French professor; she became Jose’s professor in Berlin. He took private lessons in French in order to master the idiomatic intricacies of the French language

March 11, 1886 – Rizal wrote a letter addressed to his sister, Trinidad, expressing his high regard and admiration for German womanhood German woman – serious, diligent, educated and friendly Spanish woman – gossipy, frivolous and quarrelsome Christmas custom of the Germans Self-introduce to stranger in social gathering Winter of 1886 – Rizal’s darkest winter in Berlin. He lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba. Rizal starved in Berlin and shivered with wintry cold, his health down due to lack of proper nourishment View of the modernized building where Dr. Rizal had resided in Berlin ? Life and Works of Dr. Jose P.

Rizal ? CHAPTER VII: NOLI ME TANGERE ? February 21,1887- the first novel Noli Me Tangere was finished IDEA OF WRITING ON PHILIPPINES: The reading of Harriet Beecher Stowes“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”- which portrays the brutalities of American slave-owners and the pathetic conditions of the unfortunate Negro, Slaves, inspired Dr. Jose Rizal to prepare a novel on the Philippines Rizal was a student in the Central University of Madrid Rizal proposed is writing of a novel about the Philippines during the reunion of Filipinos in the house of the Paternos in Madrid on January 2,1884 ? His proposal was unanimously approved by: Pedro Maximo Antonio

They were Paternos Graciano Lopez Jaena Evaristo Aguirre Julio Llorente Valentin Ventura Eduardo De Lete ? The end of 1884-Rizal began writing the novel in madrid and he finished one half of it 1885 He went to Paris for completing his studies in the Universidad Central De Madrid He continued writing the novel, finishing the one half of the second half. GERMANY 1886 During the dark days While his spirit was at its lowest ebb, he almost threw the manuscript into the fire The novel was almost finished ? He was desperately desponded because he saw no hope of having it to published for he was utterly penniless FERNANDO CANON- friend of Rizal

MID DECEMBER- a telegram from Barcelona arrived THE TELEGRAM Sent by Dr. Maximo Viola, informing Rizal of his coming visit to Berlin ? The message revived the author’s Hope Dr. Maximo Viola A scion of a rich family of San Miguel Bulacan Would surely lend him the money for the publication of the novel The man had saved “Noli” Viola was a Godsend Viola came to Berlin to invite Rizal to join him in a tour of Europe When he learned of Rizal’s predicament, he kindly agreed to postponed the tour and instead, advanced some money so that the novel could be printed ?

1887 First edition of Noli Me Tangere was printed in Berlin P300. oo cost of printing (advance by Viola) for 2000 copies MARCH 29,1887 Rizal gave the Galley Proofs of the Noli A significant date for it was the date when the Noli Me Tangere came off the press NOLI ME TANGERE – a latin phrase which means “Touch me not”, from the bible ? MARCH 1887 Rizal writing to Felix R. Hidalgo in french “Noli Me Tangere” words taken from the gospel of St. Luke Rizal made a mistake. It should be the gospel of St. John, on the first Easter Sunday St.

John(chapter 20:13-17) ST. MARY MAGDALENE – visited the Holy Sepulchre, and to her our Lord Jesus, just arisen from the dead ? The author’s dedication. Rizal dedicated the Noli Me Tangere to the Philippines “to my country” his dedication runs as follows: Recorded in the history of human sufferings is a cancer so malignant a character that the least touch irritates it and awakens in it the sharpest pains. Thus, how many times, when in the midst of modern civilization i have wished to call thee before me, now to accompany me in memories ?

Now to compare thee with other countries, hath thy dear image presented itself showing a social cancer like a to that other! Desiring thy welfare which our own, an seeking the best treatments, i will do with thee what the ancient did with their seek exposing them on the steps of the temple so that everyone who came to invoke the divinity might ofer them a remedy. ? And to this end, Iwill strive to reproduce thy condition faithfully, without discrimination, Iwill raise a part of the veil that covers the evil, sacrificing to truth everything, even vanity itself.

Since, as thy son i am conscious that Ialso suffer from thy defects and weaknesses. ? NOLI ME TANGERE Contains 63 chapters and an epilogue It begins the reception given by Captain Tiago (Santiago De Los Santos) at his house in CalleAnloague ( Now Juan Luna Street) on the last day of October CRISOSTOMO IBARRA A young and rich Filipino who had just turn after 7 years of study in Europe ? The reception or dinner was given in honor of Crisostomo Was only son of Don Rafael Ibarra DON RAFAEL IBARRA Friend of CapitanTiago and fiance of beautiful Maria Clara supposed daugther of Capitan Tiago GUEST DURING RECEPTION

Padre Damaso- a Franciscan Friar who had been priest of San Diego( Calamba), Ibarra’s native town for 20 years ? 2. Padre Sibyla-a young dominican parish priest of Binondo 3. Senor Guevara – an elderly and kind lieutenant of the GuardiaCivil DON TIBURCIO de ESPADANA – a bogus Spanish Physician , lame, and henpeckeadhusband of Dona Victorina and several ladies. PADRE DAMASO – was in a bad mood because he got a bony neck and hard wing of the chicken Tinola. – he tried to discredit Ibarra’s remarks. ? =AFTER DINNER= Ibarra Left captain Tiago’s house to return to his hotel.

On the way, the kind lieutenant Guevarratold him the sad story of his father’s death in San Diego. Don Rafael – his father, was a rich and brave man. He defended a helpless boy from the brutality of a illiterate Spanish tax collector, pushing the latter and accidentally killing him. He was thrown in prison, where he died unhappily. ? He was buried in consecrated ground but his enemies, accusing him of being a heretic, had his body removed from the cemetery. On hearing his father’s sad story, Ibarra thanked the kind Spanish lieutenant and vowed to find out the truth about his father’s death.

? =THE FOLLOWING MORNING= Ibarra, visited Maria Clara, his childhood sweetheart Maria Clara teasingly said that he had forgotten her because the girls in Germany were beautiful, then Ibarra replied that he had never forgotten her. After the romantic reunion with Maria Clara, Ibarra went to San Diego to visit his father’s grave. It was All Saint’s Day.. at the cemetery, the grave –digger told Ibarra that the corpse of Don Rafael was removed by order of the parish priest to be buried in the Chinese cemetery.

? But the corpse was heavy and it was a dark rainy night so that he simply threw the corpse into the lake. Ibarra was angered by the grave-diggers story. He left the cemetery. On the way, he met Padre Salvi Franciscan parish priest of San Diego. In a flash, Ibarra pounced on the priest , demanding redness for desecrating his father’s mortal remains. PADRE SALVI- told him that he had nothing to do with it, for he was not the parish priest at the time of Don Rafael’s death. ? It was Padre Damaso, his predecessor, who was responsible for it. Convinced of Padre Salvi’sinnosence, Ibarra went away.

In his town, Ibarra met several interesting people, such as the wise old man Tasio the Sage, whose ideas were too advanced for his times so that the people, who could not understand him, called him “Tasio the Lunatic”. The progressive school teacher, who complied to Ibarra that the children were losing interest in thier studies because of lack f a proper schoolhouse and discouraging attitude of the parish priest toward teaching of Spanish and the use of modern method of PEDAGOGY. ? The spineless gobernadorcillo, who catered to wishes of the Spanish priest: Don FilipoLino – the ten

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