Role of Nurse in Prevention of Communicable Disease
Protozoa – are single-cell organism with a well-defined nucleus eg malaria falciparum c. Fungi – fungi are nonmotile, filamentous organism eg candidiasis d. Bacteria – are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus e. g. mycobacterium tuberculosis e. Rickettsia – genus of bacteria usually in the cells of lice, ticks, fleas and mites f. Viruses – consisting of an RNA or DNA core and outer coat of protein. Reproduce and grow in living cells like HIV, measles, mumps g.
Prions – infectious agent that do not have any genes but consist of protein with an aberrant structure replicates in animal or human tissue 2. Reservoirs * Is the usual habitat in which the agent lives and multiplies. Depending upon the agent, the reservoir may be: i. Human – acute clinical cases / carriers ii. Animal iii. Environmental – plant, soil and water 3. Portal of exit * Is the route by which the disease agent may escape from the human or animal reservoir. Respiratory – airborne * Genitourinary – sexually transmitted disease, leptospirosis * Alimentary – by bites (mouth) * Skin – percutaneous penetration (mosquito bites, needles) * Transplacental – mother to fetus
The use of personal protective equipment such as fluid resistant cover gowns, disposable gloves, masks and eye protection provides safety for the nurse providing care. * Prompt and proper removal of PPE followed by performance of hand hygiene is the best practive to avoid transmission of infection to other patients and staff. * Healthcare organization is responsible for providing and making this protection available to all healthcare workers at no charge. * Patient assessment and additional precautions * Notify physician immediately of unexpected signs and symptoms thereby reducing infection transmission and expediting patient treatment. Have infection control and prevention plans , policies, procedures and protocols for addressing the care and placement of patients suspected of having a communicatble disease. Familiarize with these strategies to access them. * Patient education * Provide most of the education to patients and their families about illness or disease process, the rationale for strategies and treatments.
* Reinforce teaching and empowers patients and their families to expect and remind healthcare to perform hand hygiene at the appropriate times. * Use of safety devices * It is important to protect oneself from potential harm by using safety devices when performaing task or procedures requiring the use of sharps. * Removal of bundle strategies for infection prevention Removal certain devices such as urinary catheters, central lines and peripheral i. v. lines when the patient no longer needs them is important to returning patients to their optimum level of health and avoiding hospital acquired infection. Evaluate the patients need for such devices.
* Fit for duty * Look after own health to avoid compromising patient safety. * Meet basic physical requirements for safely performing essential functions of the job without compromising patients safety means that staff members are free of active symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throats and gastrointestinal illness When to perform hand hygiene Hand decontamination with an alcohol based product After contact with body fluids, excretions, mucous membranes, nonintact skin or wound dressings as long as hands are not visibly soiled
* After contact with a patient’s intact sking (such as after taking a patient’s pulse or BP or lifting patient) * In patient care when moving from a contaminated body site to a clean body site * After contact with inanimate objects in the patient’s immediate vicinity * Before caring for patients with severe neutropenia or other forms of severe immune suppression * Before donning sterile gloves when inserting central catheters * Before inserting urinary catheters or other devices that do not require a surgical procedure * After removing gloves. Hand washing * When hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with biologic material from patient care * When healthcare workers do not tolerate waterless alcohol products