Salmonella Salmonella is a rod shaped, gram-negative bacteria, which infects humans and other mammals. It is the most common cause of food poisoning and the leading cause of Salmonellosis. Salmonella infects more than 40,000 people a year in the US and causes 400 deaths a year. It is caused by consuming raw or undercooked food, having contact with a person or animal that is infected by salmonella, and poor kitchen hygiene. Symptoms of salmonellosis include diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps. Researchers have yet to come up with a vaccine to help prevent salmonella oisoning.
Citations: 1. “Salmonella. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/salmonella 2. T. S. Desin, W. K¶ster, and A. A Potter “Salmonella vaccines in poultry: past, present and future” Expert Review of Vaccines, January 2013, Vol. 12, No. l, Pages 87-96 3. Kelland, Kate. “Scientists Use Salmonella Bug to Kill Cancer Cells. ” Reuters. Thomson Reuters . 4. Gast, R. “Research to Understand and Control Salmonella Eggs. ” Research to Understand and Control Salmonella Enteritidis in Chickens and Eggs.. 5. Locchead, Carolyn. Warnings as Salmonella Strains Resist Antibiotics. *Gate.. Methods: Motile, Gram-negative bacteria Lactose negative; acid and gas from glucose, mannitol, maltose, and sorbitol; no Acid from adonitol, sucrose, salicin, lactose ONPG test negative (lactose negative) Indole test negative Methyl red test positive Voges-Proskauer test negative Citrate positive (growth on Simmon’s citrate agar) Lysine decarboxylase positive Urease negative Ornithine decarboxylase positive H2S produced from thiosulfate Do not grow with KCN Phenylalanine and tryptophan deaminase negative Gelatin hydrolysis negative
Once the bacteria enter the body, if it is able to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, it causes a massive inflammatory response, which has a negative impact on the existing normal tlora. The nontypnoidal species ot Salmonella tocuses i ts disease process in the gut and causes the diarrheal symptoms. But if the bacteria passes through the stomach lining and enters into organs or the central nervous system, it becomes Typhoid Fever. Our bodies do have defenses against Salmonella. The extreme acidity of our stomach many times kills the bacteria before it can reach the intestine.
If it passes through the stomach then the motility of the GI will push it through the system as quickly as possible. Mucus protect the lining of our intestines and the intestinal flora may try to crowd out the bacteria while the flushing or motility is occurring, so the bacteria does not get a chance to irritate the lining and cause harm . A recent outbreak of the Salmonella Saintpaul strain (a fairly uncommon serotype) occurred throughout much of the United States during the summer months of 2008. Ultimately 1442 people were infected with the bacteria, and the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) narrowed down the contaminate to Jalapeno and serrano peppers, grown and packed in Mexico and possibly tomatoes from Mexico earlier in the summer. People in 43 states were affected with Texas and New Mexico having the most number of cases . Reported cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella have been stable in the US for the past several years at about 13. 4 cases for every 100K people. Adding to that number all the people who do not report much milder cases of Salmonellosis, it is estimated that there are 520 cases for every 100K people nnually in the US.
In 2007 the reported cases were a little higher; at 14. 9 cases per 100K. “However, worldwide estimates of nontyphoidal Salmonella range from 200 million to 1. 3 billion, with an estimated death toll of 3 million each year . ” There is a vaccine that is effective against Typhoid fever but none for nontyphoidal salmonella . To prevent the diarrheal illness it is important to not cross contaminate foods; that is, to keep uncooked food from touching raw or other previously foods, and keep cooking surfaces and utensils clean.